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The associations between individual plasma SFAs, serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 gene rs680379 polymorphism, and type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Several individual studies have shown that circulating levels of odd-chain SFAs and very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) may have beneficial effects, but the results are mixed. While the dietary and metabolic factors that may influence VLSFAs are not well-known, a previous study observed associations of VLSFA concentrations with variants in serine palmitoyl-transferase long-chain base subunit 3 (SPTLC3) gene.

Objectives: We investigated the associations of individual plasma SFAs and SPTLC3 gene rs680379 polymorphism with metabolic risk factors and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Read More

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Daily apple consumption reduces plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell-secreted inflammatory biomarkers in adults with overweight and obesity: a 6-week randomized, controlled, parallel-arm trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Human Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Obesity-associated low-grade inflammation contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Apples are rich in anti-inflammatory bioactives including polyphenols and fiber.

Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of regular apple consumption on fasting plasma biomarkers of inflammation (primary outcome), endotoxemia, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol; secondary outcomes), and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-secreted cytokines (secondary outcome) in individuals with overweight and obesity. Read More

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Metabolic risk factors, genetic predisposition, and risk of severe liver disease in Chinese: a prospective study of 0.5 million people.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Background: Metabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with severe liver disease (SLD) in Chinese populations. However, there is limited evidence on the combined impact of these factors, or the genetic variants associated with SLD.

Objectives: We examined the associations of combined metabolic risk factors with risks of SLD, both overall and by genetic predisposition to SLD. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 Mar(312):42-46

Bogomolets National Medical University, Institute of Postgraduate Education, Department of Dentistry, Kyiv, Ukraine.

In recent years, according to the WHO, more than 1,9 billion people over the age of 18 are overweight, of whom more than 650 million are obese, with an annual trend. Studies in recent decades have shown that obese young people with generalized periodontitis have abnormalities in protein, fat and carbohydrate metabolism, which contributes to the early destruction of the periodontal tissue complex and rapid tooth loss. The aim of our study was to examine changes in serum leptin and adiponectin in patients with generalized periodontitis on the background of obesity. Read More

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Automated detection of hippocampal sclerosis: Comparison of a composite MRI-based index with conventional MRI measures.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Apr 9;174:106638. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Radiology, Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aims to compare the performance of an MRI-based composite index (HSI) with conventional MRI-based measures in hippocampal sclerosis (HS) detection and postoperative outcome estimation.

Methods: Seventy-two temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with pathologically confirmed HS and fifteen TLE patients without HS were included retrospectively. The T1-weighted and FLAIR images of these patients were processed with AccuBrain to quantify the hippocampal volume (HV) and the hippocampal FLAIR signal. Read More

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Plasma NfL, clinical subtypes and motor progression in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Apr 27;87:41-47. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Introduction: neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels have been proposed as reliable biomarkers of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) but the relationship between plasma NfL, clinical subtypes of PD and motor progression is still debated.

Methods: plasma NfL concentration was measured in 45 healthy controls and consecutive 92 PD patients who underwent an extensive motor and non-motor assessment at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. PD malignant phenotype was defined as the combination of at least two out of cognitive impairment, orthostatic hypotension and REM sleep behavior disorder. Read More

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The association between treatment and systemic inflammation in acromegaly.

Growth Horm IGF Res 2021 Apr 30;57-58:101391. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Objective: Acromegaly is characterized by an excess of growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth-factor 1 (IGF1), and it is strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Both acute and long-lasting pro-inflammatory effects have been attributed to IGF1. Previous results suggest the presence of systemic inflammation in treated patients. Read More

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Development of an analytical method for the determination of pimavanserin and its impurities applying analytical quality by design principles as a risk-based strategy.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Apr 24;201:114091. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, University of Zagreb, Trg Marka Marulića 19, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia. Electronic address:

Pimavanserin is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis. As it is a relatively new drug on the market, limited number of pharmacokinetic information and analytical methods are available. This paper presents an ultra-high performance chromatography for the simultaneous determination of pimavanserin and its four process impurities. Read More

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Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in an eight year old male child: A case report and review of the literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;82:105943. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Faculty of Medicine, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania; Department of Urology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania.

Introduction And Importance: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an extremely rare but known form of chronic pyelonephritis resulting from prolonged suppuration of the kidney. Pre-operatively, it may mimic renal tuberculosis or neoplastic lesions including renal cell carcinoma due to its vague clinical presentation, equivocal laboratory and radiological investigations. Due to its rarity and academic interest, herein we report such a rare case we recently encountered in our clinical practice. Read More

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Vestibular disorders in children: A retrospective analysis of vestibular function test findings.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 29;146:110751. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Acibadem Maslak Hospital ENT Department, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: This study was designed to describe the most common vestibular disorders in children and their associated findings on vestibular function testing.

Method: Data from 203 children with a mean age of 11.16 ± 3. Read More

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Aspirin and omega-3 fatty acid status interact in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases in Framingham Heart Study.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 Apr 24;169:102283. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dordt University, Sioux Center, Iowa, United States.

Background: The roles of omega-3 (n3) fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of ischemic cardiovascular disease (CVD) are controversial. Since omega-3 (n3) fatty acids and aspirin affect cyclooxygenase activity in platelets, there could be a clinically-relevant effect of aspirin combined with a particular n3 fatty acid level present in each individual.

Methods: RBC EPA+DHA, arachidonic acid (AA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were measured in 2500 participants without known CVD in the Framingham Heart Study. Read More

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Out of balance: the role of evolutionary mismatches in the sex disparity in autoimmune disease.

Med Hypotheses 2021 Mar 29;151:110558. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Anthropology, University College London, UK.

Over the past century autoimmune disease incidence has increased rapidly in (post-) industrialised, affluent societies, suggesting that changes in ecology and lifestyle are driving this development. Epidemiological studies show that (i) 80% of autoimmune disease patients are female, (ii) autoimmune diseases co-occur more often in women, and (iii) the incidence of some autoimmune diseases is increasing faster in women than in men. The female preponderance in autoimmunity is most pronounced between puberty and menopause, suggesting that diverging sex hormone levels during the reproductive years are implicated in autoimmune disease development. Read More

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Molecular Epidemiology and Characterization of Theileria in Goats.

Protist 2021 Mar 26;172(2):125804. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, Chattogram Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Khulsi, 4225, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

The study was carried out to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of theileriosis in goats of Chattogram district, Bangladesh. Molecular characterization of circulating Theileria in this area was also undertaken. A total of 400 samples were collected from goats of different breeds, ages and sex with relevant information of rearing and management. Read More

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Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA level post induction chemotherapy contributes to prognostication in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 5;151:63-71. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Diagnosis and Therapy, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, No. 651 Dongfeng Eastern Road, Guangzhou, 510060, China. Electronic address:

Background: To investigate the value of post-induction chemotherapy (IC) cell-free Epstein-Barr virus DNA (cfEBV DNA) for prognostication in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC).

Methods: A total of 910 histologically proven LA-NPC undergoing radical IC + concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) or targeted radiotherapy (CTRT) or both (CTCRT) were involved. The concentration of cfEBV DNA was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pre-IC (cfEBV DNA) and at IC completion. Read More

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Multiple metal exposure and obesity: A prospective cohort study of adults living along the Yangtze River, China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 30;285:117150. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishan Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China; Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, 230032, China. Electronic address:

Association between long-term exposure to multiple metals and obesity remains inconclusive, and prospective evidence on the region along the Yangtze River was limited. Thus, our study aimed to examine the association of multiple metal exposure and obesity. We measured baseline urine levels of 22 metals of 982 adults living along the Yangtze River, incidence of obesity was calculated from body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) measured at follow-up survey. Read More

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Cross-sectional association of meal skipping with lipid profiles and blood glucose in Chinese adults.

Nutrition 2021 Mar 17;90:111245. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Cardiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: There is an increasing trend of skipping meals, especially breakfast and dinner, in China. Previous studies on the association of meal skipping with lipid profiles and blood glucose have yielded inconsistent results.

Methods: A national representative survey of 47 841 adults (age ≥ 45 y) was conducted in China. Read More

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Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment outcome of CNS aspergillosis: A systematic review of 235 cases.

Infect Dis Now 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Aspergillus is a ubiquitous ascomycete that can cause a variety of clinical presentations depending on immune status. Central nervous system aspergillosis is a fatal disease with non-specific clinical features. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in CNS aspergillosis patients. Read More

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Arrhythmia incidence and associated factors during volatile induction of general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a retrospective analysis of 950 adult patients.

Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med 2021 May 5:100878. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Sevoflurane has been used to induce anaesthesia in adults due to its suitability for airway management and haemodynamic stability. Few studies have reported arrhythmia during volatile induction with sevoflurane in adults. Here, we investigated the incidence of arrhythmia and risk factors associated with its occurrence during sevoflurane induction of anaesthesia in adults. Read More

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Genetic association scan of 32 osteoarthritis susceptibility genes identified TP63 associated with endemic osteoarthritis Kashin-Beck disease.

Bone 2021 May 5:115997. Epub 2021 May 5.

Key Laboratory of Trace Elements and Endemic Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center of Endemic Disease and Health Promotion for Silk Road Region, School of Public Health, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710061, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic chronic osteochondropathy. The clinical manifestations and radiographic features of KBD were similar to that of osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: We first performed a genetic association scan of 32 OA susceptibility genes with KBD in 898 Han Chinese subjects. Read More

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Immunotherapy as Single Treatment for Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Patients with Brain Metastases: a systematic review and meta-analysis - the META-L-BRAIN study.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

AC Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Brain metastases (BM) occur in 40% of lung cancer patients. The activity of immunotherapy in these patients, however, remains controversial, as the cornerstone treatment is radiotherapy (RT). Since RT is associated with adverse events that may impair quality of life, the possibility of substituting it by a single systemic approach is attractive. Read More

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GALNT2/14 overexpression correlate with prognosis and methylation:a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma.

Gene 2021 May 5:145689. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Fujian Medical University Cancer Hospital & Fujian Cancer Hospital, Fuzhou, Fujian, China *. Electronic address:

Objective: GALNT2/14 are members of the glycosyltransferase protein family, which initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation of peptides in the Golgi apparatus. However, the correlation between GALNT2/14 and disease prognosis and methylation in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) remains unclear. Thus, we sought to identify its potential value in LUAD. Read More

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Dysregulation of the ESRP2-NF2-YAP/TAZ axis promotes hepatobiliary carcinogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

J Hepatol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medicine, Duke University, Duke University Health System, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), the hepatic correlate of the metabolic syndrome, is a major risk factor for hepatobiliary cancer (HBC). Although chronic inflammation is thought to be the root cause of all these diseases, the mechanism whereby it promotes HBC in NAFLD remains poorly understood. Here we aim to evaluate the hypothesis that inflammation-related dysregulation of the ESRP2-NF2-YAP/TAZ axis promotes HB carcinogenesis. Read More

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Prognostic value of testosterone castration levels following androgen deprivation and high-dose radiotherapy in localized prostate cancer: results from a phase iii trial.

Radiother Oncol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.

Background/objective: The optimal prognostic value of testosterone following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is controversial. We studied the effect of serum testosterone levels on clinical outcome in localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated with ADT and high-dose radiotherapy (HRT).

Patients And Methods: The DART01/05 trial randomized 355 men with intermediate and high-risk PCa to 4 months of ADT plus HRT (STADT, N=178) or the same treatment followed by 24 months of ADT (LTADT, N=177). Read More

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Plasma adrenomedullin level and year-by-year variability of body mass index in the general population.

Peptides 2021 May 5:170567. Epub 2021 May 5.

Frontier Science Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Kiyotake, Miyazaki, 889-1692, Japan.

Plasma levels of the hypotensive peptides of adrenomedullin and atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides (AM, ANP, BNP) are possible biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Increased variability of body mass index (BMI) over a certain period of time has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. The aim of this study is to examine clinical significance of those hypotensive peptides as biomarkers by analyzing the relationship between plasma levels of the peptides and year-by-year variability of BMI in the general population without overt cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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Sar1b mutant mice recapitulate gastrointestinal abnormalities associated with chylomicron retention disease.

J Lipid Res 2021 May 5:100085. Epub 2021 May 5.

Research Center, CHU Ste-Justine; Departments of Pharmacology & Physiology,; Nutrition. Electronic address:

Chylomicron retention disease (CRD) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with biallelic Sar1b mutations leading to defects in intracellular chylomicron (CM) trafficking and secretion. To date, a direct cause-effect relationship between CRD and Sar1b mutation has not been established, but genetically modified animal models provide an opportunity to elucidate unrecognized aspects of these mutations. To examine the physiological role and molecular mechanisms of Sar1b function, we generated mice expressing either a targeted deletion or mutation of human Sar1b using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Read More

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Identification of distinct clinical subphenotypes in critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Chest 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA; Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Division, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Subphenotypes have been identified in patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and are associated with different outcomes and response to therapies.

Research Question: Can unique subphenotypes be identified among critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Study Design: & Methods: Using data from a multicenter cohort study that enrolled critically ill patients with COVID-19 from 67 hospitals across the United States, we randomly divided centers into Discovery and Replication cohorts. We utilized latent class analysis independently in each cohort to identify subphenotypes based on clinical and laboratory variables. Read More

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3-month, 6-month, 9-month, and 12-month respiratory outcomes in patients following COVID-19-related hospitalisation: a prospective study.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Biological Sciences, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The consequences of COVID-19 in those who recover from acute infection requiring hospitalisation have yet to be clearly defined. We aimed to describe the temporal trends in respiratory outcomes over 12 months in patients hospitalised for severe COVID-19 and to investigate the associated risk factors.

Methods: In this prospective, longitudinal, cohort study, patients admitted to hospital for severe COVID-19 who did not require mechanical ventilation were prospectively followed up at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, and 12 months after discharge from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Read More

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Identifying urban hotspots of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika transmission in Mexico to support risk stratification efforts: a spatial analysis.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 May;5(5):e277-e285

Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Effective Aedes aegypti control is limited, in part, by the difficulty in achieving sufficient intervention coverage. To maximise the effect of vector control, areas with persistently high numbers of Aedes-borne disease cases could be identified and prioritised for preventive interventions. We aimed to identify persistent Aedes-borne disease hotspots in cities across southern Mexico. Read More

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Factors Associated With Potentially Inappropriate Transfer to the Emergency Department Among Nursing Home Residents.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Gérontopôle, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France; INSERM, UMR 1027, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: To determine the factors associated with the potentially inappropriate transfer of nursing home (NH) residents to emergency departments (EDs) and to compare hospitalization costs before and after transfer of individuals addressed inappropriately vs those addressed appropriately.

Design: Multicenter, observational, case-control study.

Setting And Participants: 17 hospitals in France, 1037 NH residents. Read More

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Outcomes of rotational atherectomy for severely calcified coronary lesions: A single center 5-year experience.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of accumulated experience on rotational atherectomy (RA) operation regarding to in-hospital outcomes in the drug-eluting stent (DES) era.

Methods: Between 2015 and 2019, 540 de novo lesions with calcified coronary lesions treated by RA and DES implantation at our center were retrospectively assessed. In-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as all cause death, cardiac death, target vessel revascularization, and stroke. Read More

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