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Long-term Kidney Function and Survival in Recipients of Allografts from Living Kidney Donors with Hypertension: A National Cohort Study.

Transpl Int 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore.

Allografts from living kidney donors with hypertension may carry subclinical kidney disease from the donor to recipient and thus lead to adverse recipient outcomes. We examined eGFR trajectories and all-cause allograft failure in recipients from donors with vs. without hypertension, using mixed-linear and Cox regression models stratified by donor age. Read More

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Thiazolidinediones and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists and the Risk of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Cohort Study.

Hepatology 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

CARIM School for Cardiovascular Disease, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are potential pharmacological treatment options for patients at risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, we examined the association between the risk of NAFLD and the use of thiazolidinediones and GLP-1 receptor agonists compared with the use of sulfonylureas (SUs) and insulins. Additionally, we calculated the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in users of TZDs and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Read More

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Outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease and Cirrhosis: a N3C Study.

medRxiv 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Background And Aims: In patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD) with or without cirrhosis, existing data on the risk of adverse outcomes with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been mixed or have limited generalizability. We used the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Data Enclave, a harmonized electronic health record (EHR) dataset of 5.9 million nationally-representative, diverse, and gender-balanced patients, to describe outcomes in patients with CLD and cirrhosis with SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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Anti-asthmatic effects of tannic acid from Chinese natural gall nuts in a mouse model of allergic asthma.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 11;98:107847. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biochemistry, ICMR-National Institute for Research in Environmental Health, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Electronic address:

Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory cells, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and airway remodeling. This study aimed to explore the role and mechanism of tannic acid (TA), a naturally occurring plant-derived polyphenol, in murine asthma model. BALB/c mice were given ovalbumin (OVA) to establish an allergic asthma model. Read More

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After the initial fracture in postmenopausal women, where do subsequent fractures occur?

EClinicalMedicine 2021 May 5;35:100826. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Background: The locations of subsequent fractures after initial fracture in postmenopausal women are poorly characterized.

Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of subsequent fractures after initial fracture in Women's Health Initiative (1993-2018) participants who provided follow-up (mean 15.4 years, SD 6. Read More

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Impact of Bacterial Metabolites on Gut Barrier Function and Host Immunity: A Focus on Bacterial Metabolism and Its Relevance for Intestinal Inflammation.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:658354. Epub 2021 May 26.

Laboratory of Innate Immunity, Program of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The diverse and dynamic microbial community of the human gastrointestinal tract plays a vital role in health, with gut microbiota supporting the development and function of the gut immune barrier. Crosstalk between microbiota-gut epithelium and the gut immune system determine the individual health status, and any crosstalk disturbance may lead to chronic intestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and celiac disease. Microbiota-derived metabolites are crucial mediators of host-microbial interactions. Read More

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HDAC4 induces the development of asthma by increasing Slug-upregulated CXCL12 expression through KLF5 deacetylation.

J Transl Med 2021 Jun 12;19(1):258. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

School of Health, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan, 250355, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Asthma is a frequently occurring respiratory disease with an increasing incidence around the world. Airway inflammation and remodeling are important contributors to the occurrence of asthma. We conducted this study aiming at exploring the effect of Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4)-mediated Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5)/Slug/CXC chemokine ligand-12 (CXCL12) axis on the development of asthma in regulation of airway inflammation and remodeling. Read More

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Statin therapy for patients with aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a report from a Japanese multicentre registry.

BMJ Open 2021 06 11;11(6):e044319. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Cardiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Japan.

Objective: Data on statin for patients with aortic stenosis (AS) who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of statin on midterm mortality of TAVI patients.

Design: Observational study. Read More

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Surgery and the Subtype of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Impact the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism After Hospital Discharge.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

CHEO Inflammatory Bowel Disease Centre, Division of Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Surgery for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during hospitalization. It is unclear whether this association persists after hospital discharge.

Aims: We assessed the association between surgery and VTE following hospital discharge in IBD. Read More

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Combination of (interferon beta-1b, lopinavir/ritonavir and ribavirin) versus favipiravir in hospitalized patients with non-critical COVID-19: A cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252984. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Infectious Diseases Section, Department of Medical Specialties, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: Our study aims at comparing the efficacy and safety of IFN-based therapy (lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, and interferon β-1b) vs. favipiravir (FPV) in a cohort of hospitalized patients with non-critical COVID-19.

Methods: Single center observational study comparing IFN-based therapy (interferon β-1b, ribavirin, and lopinavir/ritonavir) vs. Read More

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Increased risk of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis infection in patients with polycystic kidney disease: a nationwide population-based study with propensity score-matching analysis.

J Transl Med 2021 Jun 9;19(1):253. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, No. 2, Yuh-Der Road, Taichung, 404, Taiwan.

Background: Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a common renal disorder affecting approximately 1 in 1000 live births. Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease worldwide. This study investigated the risk of TB infection in patients with PKD. Read More

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Treatment outcomes in HIV infected patients older than 50 years attending an HIV clinic in Harare, Zimbabwe: A cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0253000. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Newlands Clinic, Newlands, Harare, Zimbabwe.

There is a growing number of older people living with HIV (OPLHIV). While a significant proportion of this population are adults growing into old age with HIV, there are also new infections among OPLHIV. There is a lack of data describing the outcomes of OPLHIV who commenced antiretroviral therapy (ART) after the age of 50 years in sub-Saharan Africa. Read More

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Tryptophan in the diet ameliorates motor deficits in a rotenone-induced rat Parkinson's disease model via activating the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor pathway.

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital, University of South China, Hengyang, PR China.

Background And Purpose: Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder with motor and nonmotor symptoms, does not have effective treatments. Dietary tryptophan (Trp) supplementation has potential benefits for the treatment of multiple disorders. However, whether additional Trp in the diet could be beneficial for PD remains to beinvestigated. Read More

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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor at the forefront of host-microbe interactions in the skin: a perspective on current knowledge gaps and directions for future research and therapeutic applications.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Center for Molecular Toxicology and Carcinogenesis, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802, USA.

The skin is home to a community of skin microbiota including bacteria, viruses and fungi, which are widely accepted to be of importance for skin homeostasis but also associated to skin diseases. Detailed knowledge on the skin microbiota composition and its changes in a number of skin diseases is available. Yet, specific interactions between microbes and the host skin cells or how they communicate with each other are less well understood. Read More

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Osteoarthritis is associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease: A population-based, longitudinal follow-up study.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Departments of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Objectives: To investigate whether patients with osteoarthritis (OA) are at a higher risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005. We enrolled 33,360 patients who were 50-64 years old and had OA in 2002-2005 to form the OA group. Read More

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Anemia, sarcopenia, physical activity, and the risk of tuberculosis in the older population: a nationwide cohort study.

Ther Adv Chronic Dis 2021 31;12:20406223211015959. Epub 2021 May 31.

Shin Department of Family Medicine/Supportive Care Center, Samsung Medical Center, Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University, 81 Irwon-Ro, Seoul, Gangnam-gu 06351, Republic of Korea.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity, sarcopenia, and anemia are associated an with increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) among the older population.

Methods: We included 1,245,640 66-year-old subjects who participated in the National Screening Program for Transitional Ages for Koreans from 2009 to 2014. At baseline, we assessed common health problems in the older population, including anemia and sarcopenia. Read More

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Urate-lowering Therapy and Chronic Kidney Disease Development in Patients with Gout.

Int J Med Sci 2021 29;18(12):2599-2606. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as a global health concern. Many studies have identified an association between hyperuricemia and CKD, and some studies have revealed that urate-lowering therapy (ULT) can attenuate CKD progression. However, only a few studies have explored the role of ULT in the prevention of new onset CKD. Read More

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Acute Care Utilization and Costs Up to 4 Years After Index Sleeve Gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: A National Claims-Based Study.

Ann Surg 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Health Policy & Insurance Research, Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Pilgrim Healthcare Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle WA Department of Surgery, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem NC Department of Epidemiology & Prevention, Department of Implementation Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem NC.

Objective: To compare acute care utilization and costs following sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYBG).

Summary Background Data: Comparing post-bariatric emergency department (ED) and inpatient care use patterns could assist with procedure choice and provide insights about complication risk.

Methods: We used a national insurance claims database to identify adults undergoing SG and RYBG between 2008 and 2016. Read More

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Impact of HCV infection and ethnicity on incident type 2 diabetes: findings from a large population-based cohort in British Columbia.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 06;9(1)

School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Introduction: Increasing evidence indicates that chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with higher risk of diabetes. Previous studies showed ethnic disparities in the disease burden of diabetes, with increased risk in Asian population. We described the incidence of type 2 diabetes related to HCV infection and assessed the concurrent impact of HCV infection and ethnicity on the risk of diabetes. Read More

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Impact of direct-acting antivirals for HCV on mortality in a large population-based cohort study.

J Hepatol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: We evaluated the effect of sustained virologic response(SVR) from direct acting antiviral(DAA) treatments on all-cause, liver- and drug-related mortality in a population-based cohort in British Columbia(BC), Canada.

Methods: We used data from the BC Hepatitis Testers Cohort, which includes people tested for hepatitis C virus(HCV) since 1990, linked with data on medical visits, hospitalizations, prescription drugs and mortality. We followed people who received DAAs and people who did not receive any HCV treatment to death or December 31, 2019. Read More

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Depressive Symptoms Predict Clinical Recurrence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Neurology, Department of Biomedical Research, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at high risk for depression, and depression has been shown to affect disease course. We examined interrelations between depression, genetic risk factors for depression, and IBD flares.

Method: In 1973 patients (1137 Crohn's disease, 836 ulcerative colitis) of the Swiss IBD Cohort Study (SIBDCS), depressive status (hospital anxiety and depression subscale for depression, HADS-D ≥11) was assessed on a yearly basis. Read More

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Delayed Rise of Oral Fluid Antibodies, Elevated BMI, and Absence of Early Fever Correlate With Longer Time to SARS-CoV-2 RNA Clearance in a Longitudinally Sampled Cohort of COVID-19 Outpatients.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16;8(6):ofab195. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Sustained molecular detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in the upper respiratory tract (URT) in mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common. We sought to identify host and immune determinants of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection.

Methods: Ninety-five symptomatic outpatients self-collected midturbinate nasal, oropharyngeal (OP), and gingival crevicular fluid (oral fluid) samples at home and in a research clinic a median of 6 times over 1-3 months. Read More

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Activation of AhR-NQO1 Signaling Pathway Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury by Improving Redox Balance.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Center for Translational Biomedical Research, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, North Carolina; Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, North Carolina Research Campus, Kannapolis, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a liver-enriched xenobiotic receptor that plays important role in detoxification response in liver. This study aimed to investigate how AhR signaling may impact the pathogenesis of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD).

Methods: Chronic alcohol feeding animal studies were conducted with mouse models of hepatocyte-specific AhR knockout (AhR) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) overexpression, and dietary supplementation of the AhR ligand indole-3-carbinol. Read More

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The aryl hydrocarbon receptor in liver inflammation.

Semin Immunopathol 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Medicine I, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, D-20246, Hamburg, Germany.

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ubiquitously expressed ligand-activated transcription factor with multifaceted physiological functions. In the immune system, AHR has been unequivocally identified as a key regulatory factor that can integrate environmental, dietary, or microbial signals into innate and adaptive immune responses. Correspondingly, AHR activity seems to be most important at barrier organs, such as the gut, skin, and lung. Read More

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Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with hepatitis B-caused cirrhosis.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Center of Integrative Medicine, Beijing Ditan Hospital, Capital Medical University Department of Hepatology, Tianjin Second People's Hospital Department of Infection Disease, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Aim: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported as a prognostic marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the relationship between NLR and risk of HCC occurrence has yet to be systematically elucidated. We aimed to investigate the association between NLR and HCC risk in patients with hepatitis B-caused cirrhosis (HBC) undergoing antiviral therapy.

Methods: A total of 1599 patients with HBC receiving entecavir or tenofovir at three tertiary hospitals between June 2014 and November 2017 were included. Read More

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State-Level Health Disparity Is Associated with Sarcoidosis Mortality.

J Clin Med 2021 May 27;10(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33146, USA.

Background: Sarcoidosis is associated with significant morbidity and rising health care utilization, which contribute to the health care burden and disease outcome. In the United States (US), evaluation of sarcoidosis mortality by individual states has not been investigated.

Methods: We examined sarcoidosis mortality data for 1999-2018 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Read More

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Incidence Rate and Risk Factors for Tuberculosis among People Living with HIV: A 2015-2017 Cohort from Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 27;18(11). Epub 2021 May 27.

World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, UN City, Marmorvej 51, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) have a higher risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) disease, and TB remains a major cause of death in PLHIV. Uzbekistan is facing a substantial TB epidemic, which increases the risk of PLHIV developing active TB. Our retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the incidence rate and assess the risk factors for developing active TB among PLHIV. Read More

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Comparison of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with COVID-19 and Other Respiratory Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Clin Med 2021 May 25;10(11). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Previous studies have indicated an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and acute kidney injury (AKI) but lacked a control group. The prospective observational COronaVIrus-surviVAl (COVIVA) study performed at the University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland consecutively enrolled patients with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. We compared patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 with patients who tested negative but with an adjudicated diagnosis of a respiratory tract infection, including pneumonia. Read More

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Prior use of anticoagulation is associated with a better survival in COVID-19.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a high incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic events. The role of anticoagulation (AC) prior to hospital admission and how different types of oral AC influences the outcome of COVID-19 is currently unknown. This observational study compares the outcome in COVID-19 patients with prior use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) or vitamin K antagonists (VKA), and without prior use of AC. Read More

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Prophylactic heparin and risk of orotracheal intubation or death in patients with mild or moderate COVID-19 pneumonia.

Sci Rep 2021 05 31;11(1):11334. Epub 2021 May 31.

Centre for Clinical Research, Epidemiology, Modelling and Evaluation (CREME), Institute for Global Health, UCL, London, UK.

Prophylactic low molecular weight heparin (pLMWH) is currently recommended in COVID-19 to reduce the risk of coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the antinflammatory effects of pLMWH could translate in lower rate of clinical progression in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients admitted to a COVID-hospital in Rome with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mild/moderate pneumonia were retrospectively evaluated. Read More

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