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Supported online self-management versus care as usual for symptoms of fatigue, pain and urgency/incontinence in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-BOOST): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Aug 3;22(1):516. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Psychology Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Background: Despite being in clinical remission, many people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) live with fatigue, chronic abdominal pain and bowel urgency or incontinence that limit their quality of life. We aim to test the effectiveness of an online self-management programme (BOOST), developed using cognitive behavioural principles and a theoretically informed logic model, and delivered with facilitator support.

Primary Research Question: In people with IBD who report symptoms of fatigue, pain or urgency and express a desire for intervention, does a facilitator-supported tailored (to patient needs) online self-management programme for fatigue, pain and faecal urgency/incontinence improve IBD-related quality of life (measured using the UK-IBDQ) and global rating of symptom relief (0-10 scale) compared with care as usual?

Methods: A pragmatic two-arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial (RCT), of a 12-session facilitator-supported online cognitive behavioural self-management programme versus care as usual to manage symptoms of fatigue, pain and faecal urgency/incontinence in IBD. Read More

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Australian bus drivers' modifiable and contextual risk factors for chronic disease: A workplace study.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255225. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Public Health and Social Work, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Introduction: Little is known about workplace health promotion for bus drivers. Bus drivers are at-risk of chronic disease because they are exposed to the risk factor combination of poor nutrition, low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary time and are often overweight or obese. The purpose of this paper is to situate the quantitative baseline data collected from bus drivers within qualitative findings about the socio-cultural context of the workplace. Read More

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Patient and public involvement in numerical aspects of trials (PoINT): exploring patient and public partners experiences and identifying stakeholder priorities.

Trials 2021 Jul 28;22(1):499. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Background And Aims: Patient and public involvement is increasingly common in trials, but its quality remains variable in a lot of settings. Many key decisions in trials involve numbers, but patients are rarely involved in those discussions. We aimed to understand patient and public partners' experiences and opinions regarding their involvement in numerical aspects of research and discuss and identify priorities, according to multiple stakeholders, around the most important numerical aspects in trials to involve patients and the public in. Read More

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Process, content, and experiences of delivering the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool Intervention (CSNAT-I) in the Danish specialised palliative care setting.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Palliative Care Research Unit, Department of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine GP, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospitals, University of Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, 2400, Copenhagen, NV, Denmark.

Purpose: The Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool Intervention (CSNAT-I) has shown positive effects in the Danish specialised palliative care (SPC) setting. Here, we explore the process, content, and experiences of delivering the CSNAT-I.

Methods: Data were collected during a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial investigating the impact of the CSNAT-I in the Danish SPC setting in 2018-2019. Read More

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A cross-sectional survey assessing the influence of theoretically informed behavioural factors on hand hygiene across seven countries during the COVID-19 pandemic.

BMC Public Health 2021 07 21;21(1):1432. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Psychology Department, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

Background: Human hygiene behaviours influence the transmission of infectious diseases. Changing maladaptive hygiene habits has the potential to improve public health. Parents and teachers can play an important role in disinfecting surface areas and in helping children develop healthful handwashing habits. Read More

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Local adaptation of recommendation-based materials for shared decision-making and management of comorbidity in rheumatoid arthritis.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Rheumatology Department, University Hospital Araba, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.

Objectives: To describe local adaptations of materials derived from evidence-based recommendations in a training programme in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: The eRA (evolving the management of rheumatoid arthritis) programme generated shared decision-making practises and a checklist for managing comorbidity in RA, among others, at the international level. Unmet needs in RA management were first identified and prioritised. Read More

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Integrating solutions to adapt cities for climate change.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 07;5(7):e479-e486

National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Record climate extremes are reducing urban liveability, compounding inequality, and threatening infrastructure. Adaptation measures that integrate technological, nature-based, and social solutions can provide multiple co-benefits to address complex socioecological issues in cities while increasing resilience to potential impacts. However, there remain many challenges to developing and implementing integrated solutions. Read More

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A reasoned approach towards administering COVID-19 vaccines to pregnant women.

Prenat Diagn 2021 07 30;41(8):1018-1035. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National University Hospital Singapore, Singapore.

There are over 50 SARS-CoV-2 candidate vaccines undergoing Phase II and III clinical trials. Several vaccines have been approved by regulatory authorities and rolled out for use in different countries. Due to concerns of potential teratogenicity or adverse effect on maternal physiology, pregnancy has been a specific exclusion criterion for most vaccine trials with only two trials not excluding pregnant women. Read More

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Community involvement facilitating the discussion of alcohol use in primary care: A nominal group study.

Eur J Gen Pract 2021 Dec;27(1):130-139

Department for Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Hazardous alcohol use significantly affects health and wellbeing in society. General practitioners (GPs) are uniquely positioned to address this problem by integrating early identification and brief intervention (EIBI) in daily practice. Unfortunately, EIBI implementation remains low. Read More

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December 2021

Equine Management in UK Livery Yards during the COVID-19 Pandemic-"As Long As the Horses Are Happy, We Can Work Out the Rest Later".

Animals (Basel) 2021 May 14;11(5). Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Cheshire CH64 7TE, UK.

Approximately 60% of the UK's leisure horses are kept at livery yards under the management and oversight of a livery yard owner or manager (LYO/M), yet their role has received little research attention. This study used the COVID-19 pandemic as a lens through which to view LYO/Ms' decisions around equine care and management at a time when changes to usual practice were necessary. Qualitative research methods were used. Read More

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Medical educators' views and experiences of trigger warnings in teaching sensitive content.

Med Educ 2021 Jun 1. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Background: Trigger warnings-prior notification of topics so recipients may prepare for ensuing distress-are encountered widely in contemporary culture. Students at some universities have expressed expectations for trigger warnings. Medical education routinely exposes students to numerous potentially distressing topics. Read More

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Behavioural interventions delivered through interactive social media for health behaviour change, health outcomes, and health equity in the adult population.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 05 31;5:CD012932. Epub 2021 May 31.

Methods Centre, Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Social networking platforms offer a wide reach for public health interventions allowing communication with broad audiences using tools that are generally free and straightforward to use and may be combined with other components, such as public health policies. We define interactive social media as activities, practices, or behaviours among communities of people who have gathered online to interactively share information, knowledge, and opinions.

Objectives: We aimed to assess the effectiveness of interactive social media interventions, in which adults are able to communicate directly with each other, on changing health behaviours, body functions, psychological health, well-being, and adverse effects. Read More

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Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19: a living systematic review.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 05 24;5:CD015043. Epub 2021 May 24.

Cochrane Haematology, Department I of Internal Medicine, Center for Integrated Oncology Aachen Bonn Cologne Duesseldorf, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: The role of vitamin D supplementation as a treatment for COVID-19 has been a subject of considerable discussion. A thorough understanding of the current evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of vitamin D supplementation for COVID-19 based on randomised controlled trials is required.

Objectives: To assess whether vitamin D supplementation is effective and safe for the treatment of COVID-19 in comparison to an active comparator, placebo, or standard of care alone, and to maintain the currency of the evidence, using a living systematic review approach. Read More

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The effect of preoperative stoma site marking on risk of stoma-related complications in patients with intestinal ostomy-protocol of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Syst Rev 2021 05 12;10(1):146. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute for Research in Operative Medicine, Witten/Herdecke University, Ostmerheimer Str. 200, 51109, Cologne, Germany.

Background: An intestinal ostomy is an artificial bowel opening created on the skin. Procedure-related mortality is extremely rare. However, the presence of an ostomy may be associated with significant morbidity. Read More

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Factors affecting primary care practitioners' alcohol-related discussions with older adults: a qualitative study.

Br J Gen Pract 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Newcastle University Population Health Sciences Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne.

Background: Risk of harm from drinking is heightened in later life, owing to age-related sensitivities to alcohol. Primary care services have a key role in supporting older people (aged ≥50 years) to make healthier decisions about alcohol.

Aim: To examine primary care practitioners' perceptions of factors that promote and challenge their work to support older people in alcohol risk-reduction. Read More

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Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) use in post-stroke patient care and clinical practice: a realist synthesis protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 04 28;10(1):128. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Centre for Trials Research, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Background: There is growing interest in the use of routine patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to influence the care of individual patients with stroke. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding as to how PROMs influence post-stroke patient care and clinical practice. This is due to factors including the number of purported uses for PROMs and that PROMs are complex interventions, which attempt to stimulate varied actions or behaviours. Read More

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People with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers: what matters most?

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Neurophysiopathology, Perugia Hospital, Perugia, Italy.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to collect the perspectives and values of people affected by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and their carers to offer clinicians, researchers and policymakers aspects which are precious in prioritising future research questions and reshaping care service organisations in a participatory approach.

Design And Setting: Cohort study using ALS Umbria, the electronic database in Italy.

Participants: Eleven patients and 33 carers who agreed to participate in the study were divided into six focus groups by 'status' (patient or carer) and by four severity levels of 'burden of disease'. Read More

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The future for Mediterranean wetlands: 50 key issues and 50 important conservation research questions.

Reg Environ Change 2021 21;21(2):33. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Mediterranean Small Islands Initiative (PIM), Lycée des Calanques, 89 Traverse Parangon, 13008 Marseille, France.

Wetlands are critically important for biodiversity and human wellbeing, but face a range of challenges. This is especially true in the Mediterranean region, where wetlands support endemic and threatened species and remain integral to human societies, but have been severely degraded in recent decades. Here, in order to raise awareness of future challenges and opportunities for Mediterranean wetlands, and to inform proactive research and management, we identified (a) 50 key issues that might affect Mediterranean wetlands between 2020 and 2050, and (b) 50 important research questions that, if answered, would have the greatest impact on the conservation of Mediterranean wetlands between 2020 and 2050. Read More

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Multi-Round compared to Real-Time Delphi for consensus in core outcome set (COS) development: a randomised trial.

Trials 2021 Feb 15;22(1):142. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Health Research Board - Trials Methodology Research Network (HRB-TMRN), Galway, Ireland.

Background: The Delphi method is used in a wide variety of settings as a method of building consensus on important issues. Traditionally, the Delphi method uses multiple rounds of a survey to allow for feedback of other participants' survey responses in between rounds. By informing participants about how others answer a question or prioritise specific topics, it allows for diverse opinions to inform the consensus process. Read More

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February 2021

Prevalence of multiple risk factors for poor outcomes associated with COVID-19 among an elderly Australian population.

Aust J Gen Pract 2021 Jan-Feb;50(1-2):84-89

PhD, Professor, Quality Use of Medicines and Pharmacy Research Centre, Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, SA.

Background And Objectives: Increasing age, male sex and various chronic conditions have been identified as important risk factors for poor outcomes from COVID-19. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of risk factors for poor outcomes due to COVID-19 infection in an older population.

Method: The proportion of the population with one or more risk factors and the prevalence of individual risk factors and multiple risk factors were calculated among Department of Veterans' Affairs (DVA) clients aged ≥70 years. Read More

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February 2021

Understanding local government responses to alcohol-related harm.

Drug Alcohol Rev 2021 Jul 1;40(5):761-770. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

Introduction: Local governments (LG) have a key role in reducing alcohol-related harm, yet, Australian research investigating this is limited. This study aimed to explore Australian LGs' role in alcohol policy by investigating how LGs respond to alcohol-related harm and what influences their responses.

Methods: A collective case study approach guided two-stage purposive sampling. Read More

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Addressing the quality of paediatric primary care: health worker and caregiver perspectives from a process evaluation of PACK child, a health systems intervention in South Africa.

BMC Pediatr 2021 01 28;21(1):58. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Knowledge Translation Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, George Street, Observatory, Cape Town, Western Cape, 7925, South Africa.

Background: The WHO's Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) has resulted in progress in addressing infant and child mortality. However, unmet needs of children continue to present a burden upon primary healthcare services. The capacity of services and quality of care offered require greater support to address these needs by extending and integrating curative and preventive care for the child with a long-term health condition and the child older than 5, not prioritised in IMCI. Read More

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January 2021

Study protocol: analysis of regional lung health policies and stakeholders in Africa.

Health Res Policy Syst 2020 Dec 9;18(1):135. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

African Institute for Development Policy (AFIDEP), Petroda Glasshouse, Area 14 - plot number 14/191, P.O. Box 31024, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Background: Lung health is a critical area for research in sub-Saharan Africa. The International Multidisciplinary Programme to Address Lung Health and TB in Africa (IMPALA) is a collaborative programme that seeks to fill evidence gaps to address high-burden lung health issues in Africa. In order to generate demand for and facilitate use of IMPALA research by policy-makers and other decision-makers at the regional level, an analysis of regional lung health policies and stakeholders will be undertaken to inform a programmatic strategy for policy engagement. Read More

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December 2020

Feedback from health professionals in postgraduate medical education: Influence of interprofessional relationship, identity and power.

Med Educ 2021 04 19;55(4):518-529. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Capitalising on direct workplace observations of residents by interprofessional team members might be an effective strategy to promote formative feedback in postgraduate medical education. To better understand how interprofessional feedback is conceived, delivered, received and used, we explored both feedback provider and receiver perceptions of workplace feedback.

Methods: We conducted 17 individual interviews with residents and eight focus groups with health professionals (HPs) (two nurses, two rehabilitation therapists, two pharmacists and two social workers), for a total of 61 participants. Read More

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UK Research Priorities for Electronic Cigarettes: A James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 17;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Division of Primary Care, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.

This study aimed to bring together people who smoke or vape, people who do not smoke and healthcare professionals to identify and agree priorities for electronic cigarette research in the UK. We carried out a priority setting partnership, guided by the methodology developed by the James Lind Alliance involving five key stages: initiation, consultation, collation, prioritisation and dissemination. A total of 765 people submitted 1887 questions that they wanted answered by research. Read More

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November 2020

Environmental and Psychosocial Interventions in Age-Friendly Communities and Active Ageing: A Systematic Review.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 10;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Research Group on Ageing (GIE-CSIC), Institute of Economics, Geography and Demography (IEGD), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), 28037 Madrid, Spain.

The academic literature contains little information regarding the interventions that create age-friendly cities and communities in order to promote active ageing. A systematic review was carried out to determine the available empirical evidence in relation to the characteristics, content and effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving environmental and psychosocial risk factors for older people, from the perspective of age-friendly communities and the promotion of active ageing. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the studies retained in this review were identified through a systematic search of the academic literature in selected electronic databases including Web of Science and Scopus. Read More

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November 2020

Decade of variable progress: trends in fatal injury in workers in New Zealand from a national observational study.

Occup Environ Med 2020 Oct 26. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

School of Public Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Introduction: Analyses of secular trends in work-related fatal injury in New Zealand have previously only considered the total working population, potentially hiding trends for important subgroups of workers. This paper examines trends in work-related fatalities in worker subgroups between 2005 and 2014 to indicate where workplace safety action should be prioritised.

Methods: A dataset of fatally injured workers was created; all persons aged 15-84 years, fatally injured in the period 2005-2014, were identified from mortality records, linked to coronial records which were then reviewed for work relatedness. Read More

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October 2020

An open-source molecular diagnostic platform approach for outbreak and epidemic preparedness.

Afr J Lab Med 2020 28;9(2):1017. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Foundation for Innovative and New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Diagnostic development for outbreak pathogens has typically followed a disease-specific reactive rather than proactive response. Given the diversity of outbreak pathogens, particularly those prioritised by the World Health Organization Research and Development Blueprint, a more flexible and proactive approach to epidemic preparedness is needed to expand access to critical molecular diagnostic tests in peripheral and resource-constrained deployment settings.

Objective: New and more sustainable directives are needed to spur the development of high-quality products, particularly for epidemics more often found in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

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September 2020

The impact of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) on Victorian guardianship practice.

Disabil Rehabil 2020 Oct 23:1-9. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia.

Purpose: Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) emphasises full and equal legal capacity of all citizens to participate in decisions. This paper examines whether the principles of Article 12, also reflected in other reform documents, were evident within 12 guardianship hearings conducted in Victoria, Australia from 2001 to 2016 involving adults with cognitive disability. The issues this study raises resonate loudly across the globe as multiple signatory nations to the CRPD grapple with the complexities of implementing Article 12. Read More

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October 2020