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Novel Longitudinal Methods for Assessing Retention in Care: a Synthetic Review.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 4523 Clayton Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri, 63110, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Retention in care is both dynamic and longitudinal in nature, but current approaches to retention often reduce these complex histories into cross-sectional metrics that obscure the nuanced experiences of patients receiving HIV care. In this review, we discuss contemporary approaches to assessing retention in care that captures its dynamic nature and the methodological and data considerations to do so.

Recent Findings: Enhancing retention measurements either through patient tracing or "big data" approaches (including probabilistic matching) to link databases from different sources can be used to assess longitudinal retention from the perspective of the patient when they transition in and out of care and access care at different facilities. Read More

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Elaborating on the longitudinal measurement invariance and construct validity of the triarchic psychopathy scales from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire.

Psychol Assess 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research.

Because the construct of psychopathy is of chief interest across different disciplines, spanning developmental, clinical, and forensic psychology, its assessment bears far-reaching implications. One prominent contemporary conceptualization of psychopathy, the Triarchic Model, posits that a psychopathic personality encompasses three phenotypic constructs: boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Recently, triarchic scales have been derived based on items from the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and the psychometric characteristics of this approach (MPQ-triarchic [MPQ-Tri]) are promising. Read More

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Peculiarities of meroterpenoids and their bioproduction.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Griffith Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, QLD, Brisbane, 4111, Australia.

Meroterpenoids are a class of terpenoid-containing hybrid natural products with impressive structural architectures and remarkable pharmacological activities. Remarkable advances in enzymology and synthetic biology have greatly contributed to the elucidation of the molecular basis for their biosynthesis. Here, we review structurally unique meroterpenoids catalyzed by novel enzymes and unusual enzymatic reactions over the period of last 5 years. Read More

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Prognostication after intracerebral hemorrhage: a review.

Neurol Res Pract 2021 May 3;3(1):22. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Approximately half of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) die within 1 year. Prognostication in this context is of great importance, to guide goals of care discussions, clinical decision-making, and risk stratification. However, available prognostic scores are hardly used in clinical practice. Read More

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Protein glycosylation in extracellular vesicles: Structural characterization and biological functions.

Mol Immunol 2021 Apr 29;135:226-246. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Parasitology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer-enclosed particles involved in intercellular communication, delivery of biomolecules from donor to recipient cells, cellular disposal and homeostasis, potential biomarkers and drug carriers. The content of EVs includes DNA, lipids, metabolites, proteins, and microRNA, which have been studied in various diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, pregnancy, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular disorders. EVs are enriched in glycoconjugates and exhibit specific glycosignatures. Read More

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Essential considerations during vaccine design against COVID-19 and review of pioneering vaccine candidate platforms.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 15;97:107679. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Student Research Committee, Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The calamity of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2), COVID-19, is still a global human tragedy. To date, no specific antiviral drug or therapy has been able to break the widespread of SARS-CoV2. It has been generally believed that stimulating protective immunity via universal vaccination is the individual strategy to manage this pandemic. Read More

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How we treat locoregional melanoma.

ESMO Open 2021 Apr 27;6(3):100136. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Melanoma, Cancer Immunotherapy and Innovative Therapy Unit, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori IRCCS Fondazione Pascale, Napoli, Italy. Electronic address:

Cutaneous melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and its incidence has been increasing in the past 30 years. Although this is completely resectable in most cases, thicker melanoma and those with regional lymph-node involvement are at a high risk of relapse. In recent years, the management of locoregional disease has drastically changed. Read More

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Investigation and control of an outbreak due to a contaminated hospital water system, identified following a rare case of Cupriavidus pauculus bacteraemia.

J Hosp Infect 2021 May;111:53-64

Makin and Makin Consultancy, Tarporley, UK.

Background: Cupriavidus pauculus is rare cause of clinical infection. We describe an outbreak of C. pauculus and other Gram-negative bacteraemias in a paediatric haemato-oncology unit secondary to a contaminated water supply and drainage system. Read More

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Tubulin Inhibitors: A Chemoinformatic Analysis Using Cell-Based Data.

Molecules 2021 Apr 24;26(9). Epub 2021 Apr 24.

DIFACQUIM Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, School of Chemistry, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City 04510, Mexico.

Inhibiting the tubulin-microtubules (Tub-Mts) system is a classic and rational approach for treating different types of cancers. A large amount of data on inhibitors in the clinic supports Tub-Mts as a validated target. However, most of the inhibitors reported thus far have been developed around common chemical scaffolds covering a narrow region of the chemical space with limited innovation. Read More

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Expected Scopes of Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health EDRM): Report on the Expert Workshop at the Annual Conference for the Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine 2020.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 22;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Japan Disaster Medical Assistant Team Secretariat, National Hospital Organization Headquarter, 3256 Midoricho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-0014, Japan.

The World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners established the WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Research Network (HEALTH EDRM RN) in 2016 to respond to the increasing burden of recent health emergencies and disasters. The mission of the HEALTH EDRM RN, whose secretariat is located at the WHO Kobe Centre (WKC), is to promote global research collaboration and strengthen research activities to inform policies and programs by generating new evidence to manage health risks associated with all types of emergencies and disasters. With the strong support and involvement of all WHO regional offices, the HEALTH EDRM RN now works with more than 200 global experts and partners to pursue its mission. Read More

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Targeting the Reconsolidation of Licit Drug Memories to Prevent Relapse: Focus on Alcohol and Nicotine.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 15;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Zuckerman Mind Brain Behavior Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Alcohol and nicotine are widely abused legal substances worldwide. Relapse to alcohol or tobacco seeking and consumption after abstinence is a major clinical challenge, and is often evoked by cue-induced craving. Therefore, disruption of the memory for the cue-drug association is expected to suppress relapse. Read More

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A quantitative description of macaque ganglion cell responses to natural scenes: the interplay of time and space.

J Physiol 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Graduate Center for Vision Research, Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY College of Optometry, 33 West 42nd St., NY, NY, 10036, USA.

Key Points:  Responses to natural scenes are the business of the retina. We find primate ganglion cell responses to such scenes consistent with those to simpler stimuli. A biophysical model confirmed this and predicted ganglion cell responses with close-to-retinal reliability. Read More

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[The pathological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hematopoietic cell tumors of ambiguous lineage].

Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Mar;42(3):238-242

Department of Pathology, Third Hospital, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China Beijing Boren Hospital, Beijing 100070, China.

To explore the key points of the pathological and differential diagnoses of extra-medullary masses of hematopoietic cell tumors of ambiguous lineage, and to discuss the possible solutions. Five hematopoietic cell tumors of ambiguous lineage cases were collected, including myeloid sarcoma, mixed phenotype acute leukemia, B/myeloid, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma combined with acute myeloid leukemia, acute undifferentiated leukemia with cutaneous MPDCP and early T-precursor cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The data including morphology, immunostaining, and flow cytometry analysis were collected, and we explored the problems and differential diagnosis in the diagnosis of hematopoietic cell tumors of ambiguous lineage. Read More

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Conscientious objection and LGBTQ discrimination in the United States.

J Public Health Policy 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute for Bioethics & Health Humanities, Preventive Medicine and Population Health, University of Texas, Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd., Galveston, TX, 77555, USA.

Given recent legal developments in the United States, now is a critical time to draw attention to how 'conscientious objection' is sometimes used by health care providers to discriminate against the LGBTQ community. We review legal developments from 2019 and present several cases where health care providers used conscientious objection in ways that discriminate against the LGBTQ community, resulting in damaged trust by this underserved population. We then discuss two important conceptual points in this debate. Read More

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Prospect of Direct Benefit in Pediatric Trials: Practical Challenges and Potential Solutions.

Pediatrics 2021 May;147(5)

Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.

Clinical research in pediatric patients is necessary to develop safe and effective medicines for children. US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) human subject protection regulations (21 Code of Federal Regulations 50, subpart D) require that, with limited exceptions, research in children that exceeds a defined level of risk must offer a prospect of direct benefit to the individual child that is sufficient to justify those risks. Growing attention to the merits of initiating pediatric clinical trials earlier in the drug and biological product development process has led the FDA to look more closely at the meaning of the regulatory term prospect of direct benefit. Read More

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Using Intent-to-Attend to Predict Attendance in Community-Based Relationship Education.

Fam Process 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Private Practice, Austin, TX, USA.

Government-supported relationship education has provided resources for inclusion of economically vulnerable and ethnically diverse participants; however, many grantees and programs struggled to retain couples in longitudinal studies, which has likely influenced study effects and threatened internal validity. In the present study, we assessed 1,056 couples' baseline relationship satisfaction and intent-to-attend their next scheduled visit while participating in a randomized controlled trial of relationship education and evaluated the predictive ability of their responses to remain in the six-month study. We conducted actor-partner interdependence models for couples, using a probit cross-lagged regression with a structural equation modeling framework, to test the dyadic influence of intent-to-attend on future couple attendance. Read More

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Large-Scale 802.11 Wireless Networks Data Analysis Based on Graph Clustering.

Wirel Pers Commun 2021 Apr 21:1-29. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Plan Ceibal, Avda. Italia 6201, Edificio Los Ceibos, 11500 Montevideo, Uruguay.

This paper analyzes a large-scale dataset of real-world Wi-Fi operating networks, collected from more than 9,000 access points (APs) for 1 year. The APs are distributed among more than 1,200 educational centers in the context of a nation-wide one-to-one computing program, being most of them primary and secondary schools. The data corresponds to RSSI measurements between APs used to build the conflict graphs for each school Wi-Fi network. Read More

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Muscle Glycogen Metabolism and High-Intensity Exercise Performance: A Narrative Review.

Sports Med 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Muscle glycogen is the main substrate during high-intensity exercise and large reductions can occur after relatively short durations. Moreover, muscle glycogen is stored heterogeneously and similarly displays a heterogeneous and fiber-type specific depletion pattern with utilization in both fast- and slow-twitch fibers during high-intensity exercise, with a higher degradation rate in the former. Thus, depletion of individual fast- and slow-twitch fibers has been demonstrated despite muscle glycogen at the whole-muscle level only being moderately lowered. Read More

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Photoprotective compounds and radioresistance in pigmented and non-pigmented yeasts.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Molecular Ecology and Extremophiles, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

Ultraviolet radiation, continuously reaching our planet's surface, is a type of electromagnetic energy within the wavelength range of 10 to 400 nm. Despite essential for all life on Earth, ultraviolet radiation may have severe adverse cellular effects, including DNA dimerization and production of reactive oxygen species. Radioresistant microorganisms can survive under high doses of ultraviolet radiation, enduring the direct and indirect effects on nucleic acids and other biomolecules. Read More

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Blockchain smart contracts: Applications, challenges, and future trends.

Peer Peer Netw Appl 2021 Apr 18:1-25. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Zayed University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

In recent years, the rapid development of blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies has influenced the financial industry by creating a new crypto-economy. Then, next-generation decentralized applications without involving a trusted third-party have emerged thanks to the appearance of smart contracts, which are computer protocols designed to facilitate, verify, and enforce automatically the negotiation and agreement among multiple untrustworthy parties. Despite the bright side of smart contracts, several concerns continue to undermine their adoption, such as security threats, vulnerabilities, and legal issues. Read More

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Modulatory Effects of Probiotics During Pathogenic Infections With Emphasis on Immune Regulation.

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:616713. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Animal Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

In order to inhibit pathogenic complications and to enhance animal and poultry growth, antibiotics have been extensively used for many years. Antibiotics applications not only affect target pathogens but also intestinal beneficially microbes, inducing long-lasting changes in intestinal microbiota associated with diseases. The application of antibiotics also has many other side effects like, intestinal barrier dysfunction, antibiotics residues in foodstuffs, nephropathy, allergy, bone marrow toxicity, mutagenicity, reproductive disorders, hepatotoxicity carcinogenicity, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which greatly compromise the efficacy of antibiotics. Read More

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Prolonged Response to HER2-Directed Therapy in Three Patients with HER2-Amplified Metastatic Carcinoma of the Biliary System: Case Study and Review of the Literature.

Oncologist 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, and New York Presbyterian Hospital, Herbert Irving Pavilion, 161 Fort Washington Avenue, New York, NY, USA.

HER2 amplification, which results in overexpression of the receptor tyrosine kinase HER2, has been described in a wide variety of malignancies. HER2-targeting agents have been incorporated into the treatment paradigms for HER2-overexpressing breast and gastric cancer. More recently, these agents have shown promise in other gastrointestinal malignancies, such as colon cancer and biliary tract tumors. Read More

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The Content and Accessibility of Spine Surgery Fellowship Websites and the North American Spine Surgery (NASS) Fellowship Directory.

Spine J 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.

Background Context: The NASS spine fellowship directory is an established resource that provides applicants with access to important information about different fellowship programs. Additionally, some programs have created websites to provide information about their fellowship program. There has been limited research on the amount and breadth of information provided by these different resources. Read More

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Translating Complexity and Heterogeneity of Pancreatic tumor: 3D In Vitro to In Vivo Models.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Biomaterials Science and Technology, Section Targeted Therapeutics, Technical Medical Centre, University of Twente, 7500AE Enschede, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an extremely aggressive type of cancer with an overall survival rate of less than 7-8%, emphasizing the need for novel effective therapeutics against PDAC. However only a fraction of therapeutics which seemed promising in the laboratory environment will eventually reach the clinic. One of the main reasons behind this low success rate is the complex tumor microenvironment (TME) of PDAC, a highly fibrotic and dense stroma surrounding tumor cells, which supports tumor progression as well as increases the resistance against the treatment. Read More

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Epithelial ovarian cancer and the use of circulating tumor DNA: A systematic review.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, 5000 Odense C, Denmark; Research Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense University Hospital, Kløvervænget 10, 10(th) floor, 5000 Odense C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: One way to improve the survival rate of epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) is by identifying effective biomarkers useful at different stages and time points of the disease. A potential biomarker is circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in plasma or serum. In this systematic review, we provide an overview of applications of ctDNA in EOC to discuss the direction of future research in this field. Read More

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On the orientation of the chains in the mercerized cellulose.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8765. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

N.N. Semenov Federal Research Center for Chemical Physics RAS, Moscow, Russia.

The cold alkaline treatment or mercerization of cellulose is widely used in industry to enrich the cellulose raw with high-molecular-weight [Formula: see text]-cellulose. Washing out of hemicelluloses by alkalies is accompanied by the rearrangement of the cellulose chains' packing, well known as a transition between cellulose I and cellulose II. Cellulose II can also be produced by the precipitation of the cellulose solutions (regeneration). Read More

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Old School Techniques with Modern Capabilities: Kinetics Determination of Dynamical Information Such as Barriers, Multiple Entrance Channel Complexes, Product States, Spin Crossings, and Size Effects in Metallic Ion-Molecule Reactions.

J Phys Chem A 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87117, United States.

We show how the powerful combination of temperature-dependent kinetics coupled with detailed statistical modeling can be used to derive dynamical information about transition state barrier heights, the importance of multiple entrance channel complexes, crossings between spin surfaces, energetics, product states, and other information for metal-ion reactions. The methods are not new, but with improved computers, ion sources, ion transport, and better detection techniques, the ability to derive such parameters from the combination of methods has improved greatly. Temperature-dependent kinetics is very sensitive to the above list of parameters because the energy is varied in a controlled way that can be easily modeled. Read More

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Two-dimensional Weyl points and nodal lines in pentagonal materials and their optical response.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar 22;13(12):6117-6128. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile.

Two-dimensional pentagonal structures based on the Cairo tiling are the basis of a family of layered materials with appealing physical properties. In this work we present a theoretical study of the symmetry-based electronic and optical properties of these pentagonal materials. We provide a complete classification of the space groups that support pentagonal structures for binary and ternary systems. Read More

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[Application of the Benchmark Dose Method to the Incidence Data for Various Pathological Findings and Its Validation Analysis].

Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi 2021 ;62(2):56-64

Division of Risk Assessment, National Institute of Health Sciences.

Benchmark dose (BMD) method have been used in the toxicological assessment of chemical substances so that the point of departure can be derived, as an alternative to the use of no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL), and the method is often applied to the incidence data of histopathological findings in the toxicity studies. In the present study, the BMD method was applied to various patterns of incidence data derived from some toxicity studies as case studies, and the validity of each application was discussed. Five independent applications including toxicity studies of madder color or semicarbazide hydrochloride were prepared and model averaging over the three models with the lowest three AIC (Akaike information criteria) values (MA-3), a recently proposed model averaging method, was employed. Read More

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Using Multi-modal Assessments to Capture Personalized Contexts of College Student Well-being in 2020: A Case Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

UCI THRIVE Lab, Department of Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine, 4201 Social and Behavioral Sciences GatewayUniversity of California, Irvine, Irvine, US.

Background: 2020 has been a challenging year for many, particularly for young adults who have been adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging adulthood is a developmental phase with significant changes in the patterns of daily living; it is a risky phase for the onset of major mental illness. College students during the pandemic face significant risk, potentially losing several protective factors (e. Read More

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