89,651 results match your criteria discuss cells


Metabolic engineering of microbes for monoterpenoid production.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Sep 20:107837. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

State Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety, Key Laboratory of Industrial Fermentation Microbiology of the Ministry of Education, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Industrial Microbiology, College of Biotechnology, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, No. 29 the 13th Street TEDA, Tianjin 300457, PR China. Electronic address:

Monoterpenoids are an important class of natural products that are derived from the condensation of two five‑carbon isoprene subunits. They are widely used for flavouring, fragrances, colourants, cosmetics, fuels, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals in various industries. They can also serve as precursors for the production of many industrially important products. Read More

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September 2021

Regenerative potential of Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in spinal cord injury (SCI).

Curr Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Centre for Stem Cell Research, a unit of inStem Bengaluru, CMC Rehab Campus Bagayam, Christian Medical College Vellore, Tamil Nadu 632002, India.

Spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that is critically challenging and progressive, needing immediate medical attention due to its complex pathophysiology and affecting the social status and economic burden. Stem cell therapy has been the emerging therapeutic trend to treat various diseases for decades. Mesenchymal stem cells pose more advantages over other stem cells in immune-modulation, immune evasiveness, self-renewal, multipotency, etc. Read More

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September 2021

From antibodies to living drugs: Quo vadis cancer immunotherapy?

Biol Futur 2021 Mar 1;72(1):85-99. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Egyetem tér 1., 4032, Debrecen, Hungary.

In the last few decades, monoclonal antibodies targeting various receptors and ligands have shown significant advance in cancer therapy. However, still a great percentage of patients experiences tumor relapse despite persistent antigen expression. Immune cell therapy with adoptively transferred modified T cells that express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) is an engaging option to improve disease outcome. Read More

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Integrative Chemical Biology Approaches to Deciphering the Histone Code: A Problem-Driven Journey.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong SAR, 999077 China.

ConspectusThe hereditary blueprint of a eukaryotic cell is encoded in its genomic DNA that is tightly compacted into chromatin together with histone proteins. The basic repeating units of chromatin fibers are nucleosomes, in which approximately 1.7 turns of DNA wrap around a proteinaceous octamer consisting of two copies of histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Read More

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September 2021

Isatuximab, carfilzomib and dexamethasone (Isa-Kd) for the management of relapsed multiple myeloma.

Future Oncol 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.

The treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma remains challenging. Based on interim data from the randomized Phase III IKEMA study demonstrating a progression-free survival benefit with a combination of isatuximab (Isa, a CD38-targeted monoclonal antibody) and carfilzomib/dexamethasone (Kd) versus Kd alone, Isa-Kd recently received regulatory approval in the USA and Europe for patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior line of therapy (in the USA, up to three prior lines). In this review we discuss the rationale and clinical trial experience to date with Isa-Kd. Read More

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September 2021

Applications of the versatile CRISPR-Cas13 RNA targeting system.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2021 Sep 22:e1694. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of RNA Metabolism, Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

CRISPR-Cas are adaptable natural prokaryotic defense systems that act against invading viruses and plasmids. Among the six currently known major CRISPR-Cas types, the type VI CRISPR-Cas13 is the only one known to exclusively bind and cleave foreign RNA. Within the last couple of years, this system has been adapted to serve numerous, and sometimes not obvious, applications, including some that might be developed as effective molecular therapies. Read More

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September 2021

Pushing the methodological envelope in understanding the photo/electrosynthetic materials-microorganism interface.

iScience 2021 Sep 28;24(9):103049. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Chemistry, Université de Montréal, 1375 Avenue Thérèse-Lavoie-Roux, Montréal, QC H2V 0B3 Canada.

Biohybrid photo/electrosynthetic systems synergize microbial metabolic pathways and inorganic materials to generate the fuels and chemicals to power our society. They aim to combine the strengths of product selectivity from biological cells and efficient charge generation and light absorption of inorganic materials. However crucial mechanistic questions still remain. Read More

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September 2021

Prognostic and therapeutic TILs of cervical cancer-Current advances and future perspectives.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2021 Sep 21;22:410-430. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Gillion ITM Research Institute, Guangzhou Hongkeyuan, Guangzhou, China.

Cervical cancer is a top lethal cancer for women worldwide. Although screening and vaccination programs are available in many countries, resulting in the decline of new cases, this is not true for developing countries where there are many new cases and related deaths. Cancer immunotherapy through adaptive cell therapy (ACT) has been applied in clinics, but now much attention is focused on autogenic tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-based therapy, which has shown more specificity and better ability to inhibit tumor growth. Read More

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September 2021

Development and Application of 3D Bioprinted Scaffolds Supporting Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Biomed Res Int 2021 13;2021:4910816. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopaedic Implants, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.

Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is a revolutionary technology that replicates 3D functional living tissue scaffolds in vitro by controlling the layer-by-layer deposition of biomaterials and enables highly precise positioning of cells. With the development of this technology, more advanced research on the mechanisms of tissue morphogenesis, clinical drug screening, and organ regeneration may be pursued. Because of their self-renewal characteristics and multidirectional differentiation potential, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have outstanding advantages in stem cell research and applications. Read More

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September 2021

Glucose Metabolism and Glucose Transporters in Breast Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:728759. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Pathology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide and is associated with high mortality rates despite the continuously advancing treatment strategies. Glucose is essential for cancer cell metabolism owing to the Warburg effect. During the process of glucose metabolism, various glycolytic metabolites, such as serine and glycine metabolites, are produced and other metabolic pathways, such as the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), are associated with the process. Read More

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September 2021

Visualizing the Invisible: Advanced Optical Microscopy as a Tool to Measure Biomechanical Forces.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 6;9:706126. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Advanced Imaging Center, Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, United States.

The importance of mechanical force in biology is evident across diverse length scales, ranging from tissue morphogenesis during embryo development to mechanotransduction across single adhesion proteins at the cell surface. Consequently, many force measurement techniques rely on optical microscopy to measure forces being applied by cells on their environment, to visualize specimen deformations due to external forces, or even to directly apply a physical perturbation to the sample via photoablation or optogenetic tools. Recent developments in advanced microscopy offer improved approaches to enhance spatiotemporal resolution, imaging depth, and sample viability. Read More

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September 2021

Role of Extracellular Vesicles on Cancer Lymphangiogenesis and Lymph Node Metastasis.

Front Oncol 2021 7;11:721785. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, National Clinical Research Centre for Oral Diseases, Department of Head and Neck Oncology, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Lymph node metastasis (LNM) of tumors is an established indicator of poor prognosis in patients. Tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis is a key step in LNM and has gained much attention. However, currently, there is no anti-tumor lymphangiogenesis drug used in clinical practice. Read More

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September 2021

Infrared light therapy relieves TLR-4 dependent hyper-inflammation of the type induced by COVID-19.

Commun Integr Biol 2021 15;14(1):200-211. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Cnrs, Ibps, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

The leading cause of mortality from COVID-19 infection is respiratory distress due to an exaggerated host immune response, resulting in hyper-inflammation and ensuing cytokine storms in the lungs. Current drug-based therapies are of limited efficacy, costly, and have potential negative side effects. By contrast, photobiomodulation therapy, which involves periodic brief exposure to red or infrared light, is a noninvasive, safe, and affordable method that is currently being used to treat a wide range of diseases with underlying inflammatory conditions. Read More

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September 2021

Diverse Roles of Cellular Senescence in Skeletal Muscle Inflammation, Regeneration, and Therapeutics.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:739510. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Anatomy, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan.

Skeletal muscle undergoes vigorous tissue remodeling after injury. However, aging, chronic inflammatory diseases, sarcopenia, and neuromuscular disorders cause muscle loss and degeneration, resulting in muscular dysfunction. Cellular senescence, a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest, acts during normal embryonic development and remodeling after tissue damage; when these processes are complete, the senescent cells are eliminated. Read More

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September 2021

Food resources affect territoriality of invasive wild pig sounders with implications for control.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 22;11(1):18821. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC, 29802, USA.

Interest in control methods for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) has increased due to their range expansion, population growth, and an improved understanding of their destructive ecological and economic effects. Recent technological advances in traps for control of pig populations facilitate capture of entire social groups (sounders), but the efficacy of "whole-sounder" trapping strategies is heavily dependent on the degree of territoriality among sounders, a topic little research has explored. We assessed territoriality in wild pig sounders on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, and examined whether availability of food resources provided by a municipal-waste landfill affected among-sounder territoriality. Read More

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September 2021

A review of bioeffects induced by focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles on the neurovascular unit.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Sep 22:271678X211046129. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Focused ultrasound combined with circulating microbubbles (FUS+MB) can transiently enhance blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability at targeted brain locations. Its great promise in improving drug delivery to the brain is reflected by a rapidly growing number of clinical trials using FUS+MB to treat various brain diseases. As the clinical applications of FUS+MB continue to expand, it is critical to have a better understanding of the molecular and cellular effects induced by FUS+MB to enhance the efficacy of current treatment and enable the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Read More

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September 2021

Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm without Cutaneous Manifestation: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Sep 22;22:e932887. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Medicine, Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

BACKGROUND As an uncommon malignancy with the highest prevalence in the elderly population, blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm or BPDCN is a hematologic disorder with unknown pathogenesis and devastating outcomes. This neoplasm usually manifests in the skin but can also involve the bone marrow, and less frequently the central nervous system (CNS). However, it does not exclude other organs and can even be associated with other malignancies. Read More

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September 2021

Rational design of artificial redox-mediating systems toward upgrading photobioelectrocatalysis.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA.

Photobioelectrocatalysis has recently attracted particular research interest owing to the possibility to achieve sunlight-driven biosynthesis, biosensing, power generation, and other niche applications. However, physiological incompatibilities between biohybrid components lead to poor electrical contact at the biotic-biotic and biotic-abiotic interfaces. Establishing an electrochemical communication between these different interfaces, particularly the biocatalyst-electrode interface, is critical for the performance of the photobioelectrocatalytic system. Read More

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September 2021

Interactions between islets and regulatory immune cells in health and type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Type 1 diabetes results from defects in immune self-tolerance that lead to inflammatory infiltrate in pancreatic islets, beta cell dysfunction and T cell-mediated killing of beta cells. Although therapies that broadly inhibit immunity show promise to mitigate autoinflammatory damage caused by effector T cells, these are unlikely to permanently reset tolerance or promote regeneration of the already diminished pool of beta cells. An emerging concept is that certain populations of immune cells may have the capacity to both promote tolerance and support the restoration of beta cells by supporting proliferation, differentiation and/or regeneration. Read More

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September 2021

Coming of Age for the Photoreceptor Synapse.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Sep;62(12):24

Institute of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey, United States.

Purpose: To discuss the potential contribution of rod and cone synapses to the loss of visual function in retinal injury and disease.

Methods: The published literature and the authors' own work were reviewed.

Results: Retinal detachment is used as a case study of rod spherule and cone pedicle plasticity after injury. Read More

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September 2021

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of transcriptional bursting.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, TX 77005-1892, USA.

In recent years, it has been experimentally established that transcription, a fundamental biological process that involves the synthesis of messenger RNA molecules from DNA templates, does not proceed continuously as was expected. Rather, it exhibits a distinct dynamic behavior of alternating between productive phases when RNA molecules are actively synthesized and inactive phases when there is no RNA production at all. The bimodal transcriptional dynamics is now confirmed to be present in most living systems. Read More

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September 2021

Regulated lytic cell death in breast cancer.

Cell Biol Int 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

: Breast cancer (BC) is a very common cancer among women and one of the primary causes of death in women worldwide. Because BC has different molecular subtypes, the challenges associated with targeted therapy have increased significantly, and the identification of new therapeutic targets has become increasingly urgent. Blocking apoptosis and inhibiting cell death are important characteristics of malignant tumours, including BC. Read More

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September 2021

Exosomes and the Extracellular Matrix: a dynamic interplay in cancer progression.

Int J Dev Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Biochemistry, Biochemical Analysis and Matrix Pathobiology Research Group, Laboratory ofBiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, Greece.

Exosomes are a subtype of extracellular vesicle (EVs) composed of a lipid bilayer which carry various cargoes such as nucleic acids, proteins, and bioactive lipids. Cancer cells release exosomes to promote cell communication and interaction with the extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM regulates the secretion and uptake of exosomes. Read More

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September 2021

Emerging insights into the immunological aspects of keloids.

J Dermatol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Medical Epigenomics, Department of Dermatology, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

A special kind of scar, keloid, sometimes grows huge, disturbing patients in different ways. We discussed the pathogenesis of keloids and found researches about fibroblasts and collagen disorders, with little emphasis on immunity. Coupled with few effective treatments in keloid at present, we have focused on the immunological mechanisms of keloids with an aim to unravel some new therapeutic approaches in the future. Read More

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September 2021

Regulation of airway immunity by epithelial miRNAs.

Immunol Rev 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Sandler Asthma Basic Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.

The airway epithelium is essential to protect the host from inhaled pathogens and particles. It maintains immune homeostasis and mediates tissue repair after injury. Inflammatory diseases of the airways are associated with failure of epithelial functions, including loss of barrier integrity that results in increased tissue permeability and immune activation; excessive mucus secretion and impaired mucociliary clearance that leads to airflow obstruction and microbial overgrowth; and dysregulation of cellular signals that promotes inflammation and alters tissue structure and airway reactivity. Read More

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September 2021

Cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic roles of miRNAs in regulating T cell immunity.

Immunol Rev 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, La Jolla, California, USA.

T cells are crucial to generate an effective response against numerous invading microbial pathogens and play a pivotal role in tumor surveillance and elimination. However, unwanted T cell activation can also lead to deleterious immune-mediated inflammation and tissue damage. To ensure that an optimal T cell response can be established, each step, beginning from T cell development in the thymus to their activation and function in the periphery, is tightly regulated by many transcription factors and epigenetic regulators including microRNAs (miRNAs). Read More

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September 2021

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in adults: A key issue in the COVID-19 era.

Clin Infect Pract 2021 Sep 17:100100. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Professor at Universidade Federal Fluminense, Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Hematologist at Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome characterized by persistent activation of the mononuclear phagocytic system, systemic inflammation, and hypercytokinaemia, which can lead to liver failure, "sepsis-like syndrome" and ultimately, to multiple organ failure and death. These disorders can be divided into primary and secondary (or reactive), the first, also known as familial HLH, is a genetic condition of childhood, which affects the function of TCD8 and NK cells, and usually presents in the first year of life. The secondary HLH affects mainly adults and adolescents and, it's more related to dysregulation of the immune system. Read More

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September 2021

Innate immune detection of lipid oxidation as a threat assessment strategy.

Nat Rev Immunol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Gastroenterology, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Oxidized phospholipids that result from tissue injury operate as immunomodulatory signals that, depending on the context, lead to proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory responses. In this Perspective, we posit that cells of the innate immune system use the presence of oxidized lipids as a generic indicator of threat to the host. Similarly to how pathogen-associated molecular patterns represent general indicators of microbial encounters, oxidized lipids may be the most common molecular feature of an injured tissue. Read More

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September 2021

Pharmacologic Treatments for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

Crit Care Clin 2021 Oct;37(4):877-893

David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Room 43-229 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a heterogenous syndrome with many etiologies for which there are no definitive pharmacologic treatments, despite decades of research. We explore some adjunctive pharmacologic therapies, including neuromuscular blockade, corticosteroids, and inhaled pulmonary vasodilators. Additionally, we explore some investigative therapies, including Vitamin C, beta-agonists, statins, mesenchymal stromal cells, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Read More

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October 2021

Regulation of mRNA decay in .

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Sep 21:1-25. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Departments of Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Detailed studies of the Gram-negative model bacterium, , have demonstrated that post-transcriptional events exert important and possibly greater control over gene regulation than transcription initiation or effective translation. Thus, over the past 30 years, considerable effort has been invested in understanding the pathways of mRNA turnover in . Although it is assumed that most of the ribonucleases and accessory proteins involved in mRNA decay have been identified, our understanding of the regulation of mRNA decay is still incomplete. Read More

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September 2021