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COVID-19 Point-of-Care Diagnostics: Present and Future.

ACS Nano 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 United States.

Point-of-care (POC) detection technologies that enable decentralized, rapid, sensitive, low-cost diagnostics of COVID-19 infection are urgently needed around the world. With many technologies approved for commercialization in the past 10 months, the field of COVID-19 POC diagnostics is rapidly evolving. In this Perspective, we analyze the current state of POC technologies for the diagnosis and monitoring of COVID-19 infection and discuss future challenges in COVID-19 diagnostics. Read More

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Analysis of Cyberincivility in Posts by Health Professions Students: Descriptive Twitter Data Mining Study.

JMIR Med Educ 2021 May 13;7(2):e28805. Epub 2021 May 13.

College of Nursing, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Health professions students use social media to communicate with other students and health professionals, discuss career plans or coursework, and share the results of research projects or new information. These platforms allow students to share thoughts and perceptions that are not disclosed in formal education settings. Twitter provides an excellent window through which health professions educators can observe students' sociocultural and learning needs. Read More

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Antimeningococcal Vaccination Coverage Among Healthcare Workers in an Italian University Hospital.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:651100. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

School of Specialization in Occupational Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Following an outbreak of meningococcal epidemic in 2015 and 2016 in Tuscany, we registered a higher demand for antimeningococcal vaccination (anti-Men ACWY) by Healthcare Workers of the University Hospital of Pisa [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Pisana (AOUP)]. The purpose of this work is to analyze and discuss data on vaccination coverage resulting from this vaccination campaign. We conducted a monocentric study about anti-Men vaccination in the healthcare workers of the AOUP following the outbreak of meningococcal meningitis that occurred mainly in the population of the Tuscan provinces of Pisa, Pistoia, Prato, and Florence. Read More

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Influence of rapid maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis in children.

Angle Orthod 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Objectives: To evaluate the influence of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children to discuss whether RME can be indicated as an alternative treatment for NE in those patients.

Materials And Methods: An electronic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar and LILACS. The literature review was blindly performed by two reviewers. Read More

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Interpreting the role of the striatum during multiple phases of motor learning.

FEBS J 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Departments of Psychiatry, Neurology, Pharmacology, Biology, Columbia University: Division of Molecular Therapeutics, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA, 10032.

The synaptic pathways in the striatum are central to basal ganglia functions including motor control, learning, and organization, action selection, the acquisition of motor skills, cognitive function, and emotion. Here we review the role of the striatum and its connections in motor learning and performance. The development of new techniques to record neuronal activity and animal models of motor disorders using neurotoxin, pharmacological, and genetic manipulations are revealing pathways that underlie motor performance and motor learning, as well as how they are altered by pathophysiological mechanisms. Read More

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[Promoting teaching quality by portfolio assessment in Cell Engineering classroom].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2021 Apr;37(4):1443-1449

College of Chemistry & Bio-Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Engineering, Yongzhou 425199, Hunan, China.

We introduce the portfolio assessment into the classroom teaching reform in the curriculum of Cell Engineering, a specialty course in bioengineering & biotechnology. We established a complete classroom evaluation system that was divided the classroom assessment system of portfolio into four stages including the preparation stage, training stage, implementation stage and exhibition stage. We also discuss the feasibility and necessity of implementing the portfolio evaluation method in the course of cell engineering, the construction of evaluation system, and the key points and matters needing attention in the implementation process. Read More

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Community Detection in Large-Scale Bipartite Biological Networks.

Front Genet 2021 21;12:649440. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Centre for Molecular Medicine Norway, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Networks are useful tools to represent and analyze interactions on a large, or genome-wide scale and have therefore been widely used in biology. Many biological networks-such as those that represent regulatory interactions, drug-gene, or gene-disease associations-are of a bipartite nature, meaning they consist of two different types of nodes, with connections only forming between the different node sets. Analysis of such networks requires methodologies that are specifically designed to handle their bipartite nature. Read More

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The Hidden Brain: Uncovering Previously Overlooked Brain Regions by Employing Novel Preclinical Unbiased Network Approaches.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 21;15:595507. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States.

A large focus of modern neuroscience has revolved around preselected brain regions of interest based on prior studies. While there are reasons to focus on brain regions implicated in prior work, the result has been a biased assessment of brain function. Thus, many brain regions that may prove crucial in a wide range of neurobiological problems, including neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders, have been neglected. Read More

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Social media and vision therapy: perspectives of providers and patients on Instagram.

J AAPOS 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. Electronic address:

Purpose: To formally assess the content, intent, and authorship of the most popular Instagram hashtags related to pediatric ophthalmology.

Methods: Public Instagram posts with over 20 likes, using one or more of 6 vision therapy (VT) hashtags and containing English content were identified. A categorical classification system was used to analyze each post for the target audience: post owner, primary intent of post, diagnosis addressed, whether advice was provided, and whether references to studies were provided. Read More

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Electrostatic electron mirror in SEM for simultaneous imaging of top and bottom surfaces of a sample.

Ultramicroscopy 2021 May 3;226:113304. Epub 2021 May 3.

Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

The use of electron mirrors in aberration correction and surface-sensitive microscopy techniques such as low-energy electron microscopy has been established. However, in this work, by implementing an easy to construct, fully electrostatic electron mirror system under a sample in a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM), we present a new imaging scheme which allows us to form scanned images of the top and bottom surfaces of the sample simultaneously. We believe that this imaging scheme could be of great value to the field of in-situ SEM which has been limited to observation of dynamic changes such as crack propagation and other surface phenomena on one side of samples at a time. Read More

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Examining potential risk factors for early age of nicotine vaping initiation in a sample of Florida youth.

Addict Behav 2021 Apr 26;120:106962. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, United States.

Previous research has examined risk factors for nicotine vaping in young adults and older adolescents. Even so, significantly less research has examined risk factors for initiating nicotine vaping in early adolescence. This paper addresses this gap in the literature by examining risk factors for initiating nicotine vaping in a sample of middle- and high-school students. Read More

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The extent of infectious SARS-CoV-2 shedding in an Argentinean cohort.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Instituto de Virología Dr. J. M. Vanella, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, 5000, Argentina.

Background: To analyze the infectious extent of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) in different settings where prevention strategies are critical to limit infection spread, we evaluated SARS-COV-2 viability to guide public health policies regarding isolation criteria and infection control.

Methods: We attempted viral isolation in 82 nasopharyngeal swabs from 72 patients with confirmed SARS-COV-2 infection. Study population was divided into four groups: (i) Patients during the first week of symptoms; (ii) Patients with prolonged positive PCR; (iii) Healthcare workers from a hospital participating of an outbreak investigation, with SARS-COV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and (iv) Recipients of convalescent immune plasma (CIP). Read More

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Nursing assistant's perceptions of the good work environment in municipal elderly care in Sweden -a focus group study.

J Health Organ Manag 2021 Apr;35(9):163-177

University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate aspects related to difficulty to retain nursing assistants at nursing homes in Sweden related to perceived work environment characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach: To reveal aspects related to difficulty to retain nursing assistants, the paper uses the BIKVA model, sense of coherence and New Public Management (NPM). In total, three focus groups with nursing assistants at three nursing homes are interviewed with corresponding individual interviews with their senior managers and users. Read More

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A crossroad between placental and tumor biology: What have we learnt?

Placenta 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Westernat Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A5C1, Canada. Electronic address:

Placenta in certain species including the human has evolved as a highly invasive tumor-like organ invading the uterus aned its vasculature to derive oxygen and nutrients for the fetus and exchange waste products. While several excellent reviews have been written comparing hemochorial placentation with tumors, no comprehensive review is available dealing with mechanistic insights into what makes them different, and what tumor biologists can learn from placental biologists, and vice versa. In this review, we analyze the structure-function relationship of the human placenta, emphasizing the functional need of the spatio-temporally orchestrated trophoblast invasiveness for fetal development and growth, and pathological consequences of aberrant invasiveness for fetal and maternal health. Read More

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Expressed Symptoms and Attitudes Toward Using Twitter for Health Care Engagement Among Patients With Lupus on Social Media: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 6;10(5):e15716. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY, United States.

Background: Lupus is a complex autoimmune disease that is difficult to diagnose and treat. It is estimated that at least 5 million Americans have lupus, with more than 16,000 new cases of lupus being reported annually in the United States. Social media provides a platform for patients to find rheumatologists and peers and build awareness of the condition. Read More

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Rediscovering potential molecular targets for glioma therapy through the analysis of the cell of origin, microenvironment, and metabolism.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Tomas Lindahl Nobel Laureate Laboratory, The Seventh Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University (SYSU), No.628, Zhenyuan Rd, Guangming Dist., Shenzhen 518107. China.

Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors. Despite significant medical advances, gliomas remain incurable and are associated with high mortality. Although numerous biomarkers of diagnostic value have been identified and significant progress in the prognosis of the outcome has been made, the treatment has not been parallelly improved during the last three decades. Read More

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Unsupervised Learning Methods for Molecular Simulation Data.

Chem Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA) 34014 Trieste, Italy.

Unsupervised learning is becoming an essential tool to analyze the increasingly large amounts of data produced by atomistic and molecular simulations, in material science, solid state physics, biophysics, and biochemistry. In this Review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the methods of unsupervised learning that have been most commonly used to investigate simulation data and indicate likely directions for further developments in the field. In particular, we discuss of molecular systems and present state-of-the-art algorithms of , , and , and . Read More

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Moiré superlattices and related moiré excitons in twisted van der Waals heterostructures.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Two-Dimensional Materials, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha, China.

Recent advances in moiré superlattices and moiré excitons, such as quantum emission arrays, low-energy flat bands, and Mott insulators, have rapidly attracted attention in the fields of optoelectronics, materials, and energy research. The interlayer twist turns into a degree of freedom that alters the properties of the systems of materials, and the realization of moiré excitons also offers the feasibility of making artificial exciton crystals. Moreover, moiré excitons exhibit many exciting properties under the regulation of various external conditions, including spatial polarisation, alternating dipolar to alternating dipolar moments and gate-dependence to gate voltage dependence; all are pertinent to their applications in nano-photonics and quantum information. Read More

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The use of β-blockers in patients with heart failure and comorbidities: Doubts, certainties and unsolved issues.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University of Naples, Italy; Mediterranea Cardiocentro, Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

β-blockers represent a mainstay in the pharmacological approach to patients affected by heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). However, underuse of this class of drugs is still reported, especially in the presence of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities, even if they are not contraindications for prescription of a β-blocker. The prognostic benefit of β-blockers is relevant in the presence of comorbidities, and achievement of the maximum tolerated dose is an important goal to increase their favorable prognostic role. Read More

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Environmental Aspects of Oxide Nanoparticles: Probing Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Processes Under Different Environmental Conditions.

Annu Rev Anal Chem (Palo Alto Calif) 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA; email:

Surface chemistry affects the physiochemical properties of nanoparticles in a variety of ways. Therefore, there is great interest in understanding how nanoparticle surfaces evolve under different environmental conditions of pH and temperature. Here, we discuss the use of vibrational spectroscopy as a tool that allows for in situ observations of oxide nanoparticle surfaces and their evolution due to different surface processes. Read More

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Occupational health nurses' personal attitudes toward smoking: A cross-sectional study.

J Occup Health 2021 Jan;63(1):e12221

COMWEL Incheon Hospital, Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: This study aims to investigate if experience in smoking intervention training influences attitudes toward smoking, discuss the role of health management programs of small- and medium-sized enterprises, and analyze the current attitude of occupational health nurses regarding the hazards of smoking and responsibility to smokers to effectively facilitate smoking cessation support programs.

Methods: We conducted an anonymous self-administered cross-sectional survey of 108 nurses employed in occupational health services outsourcing specialized agency in Korea. We assessed the difference in attitude about smoking according to training experience in smoking interventions and perceived competence in counseling smokers using chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Read More

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January 2021

What Do Patients Care About? Mining Fine-grained Patient Concerns from Online Physician Reviews Through Computer-Assisted Multi-level Qualitative Analysis.

AMIA Annu Symp Proc 2020 25;2020:544-553. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Online physician review (OPR) websites have been increasingly used by healthcare consumers to make informed decisions in selecting healthcare providers. However, consumer-generated online reviews are often unstructured and contain plural topics with varying degrees of granularity, making it challenging to analyze using conventional topic modeling techniques. In this paper, we designed a novel natural language processing pipeline incorporating qualitative coding and supervised and unsupervised machine learning. Read More

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January 2021

Resolving Conflicts Between People and Over Time in the Transformation Toward Sustainability: A Framework of Interdependent Conflicts.

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:623757. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Social, Organizational, and Political Psychology, Faculty of Education, Institute of Psychology, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany.

Transformative and mutually beneficial solutions require decision-makers to reconcile present- and future interests (i.e., intrapersonal conflicts over time) and to align them with those of other decision-makers (i. Read More

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Adaptive Esports for People With Spinal Cord Injury: New Frontiers for Inclusion in Mainstream Sports Performance.

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:612350. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Rehabilitation and Human Performance, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States.

People with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are at risk of feeling socially disconnected. Competitive esports present an opportunity for people with SCI to remotely engage in a community. The aim of this study is to discuss barriers to esports participation for people with SCI, present adaptive solutions to these problems, and analyze self-reported changes in social connection. Read More

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The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Inf Syst Front 2021 Apr 26:1-31. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Mathematics and Applications "R. Caccioppoli", University of Naples Federico II, Naples, 80126 Italy.

The first few months of 2020 have profoundly changed the way we live our lives and carry out our daily activities. Although the widespread use of futuristic robotaxis and self-driving commercial vehicles has not yet become a reality, the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically accelerated the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in different fields. We have witnessed the equivalent of two years of digital transformation compressed into just a few months. Read More

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Single cell analyses to understand the immune continuum in atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Research Center, USA; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, USA; Precision Immunology Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Research Center at NYU Langone NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall that trigger a complex and poorly understood network of inflammatory processes. At the same time, recent clinical findings reveal that targeting specific immune alterations in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a promising approach to preventing recurrent cardiovascular events. In order to achieve these tailored therapies, it is critical to resolve the heterogenous environment of the atherosclerotic lesion and decipher the complex structural and functional changes which immune cells undergo throughout disease progression. Read More

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Rules of formation of H-C-N-O compounds at high pressure and the fates of planetary ices.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(19)

Centre for Science at Extreme Conditions, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FD, United Kingdom;

The solar system's outer planets, and many of their moons, are dominated by matter from the H-C-N-O chemical space, based on solar system abundances of hydrogen and the planetary ices [Formula: see text]O, [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] In the planetary interiors, these ices will experience extreme pressure conditions, around 5 Mbar at the Neptune mantle-core boundary, and it is expected that they undergo phase transitions, decompose, and form entirely new compounds. While temperature will dictate the formation of compounds, ground-state density functional theory allows us to probe the chemical effects resulting from pressure alone. These structural developments in turn determine the planets' interior structures, thermal evolution, and magnetic field generation, among others. Read More

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A scoping review of the literature featuring research ethics and research integrity cases.

BMC Med Ethics 2021 Apr 30;22(1):50. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Center for Ethics and Law in Biomedicine, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.

Background: The areas of Research Ethics (RE) and Research Integrity (RI) are rapidly evolving. Cases of research misconduct, other transgressions related to RE and RI, and forms of ethically questionable behaviors have been frequently published. The objective of this scoping review was to collect RE and RI cases, analyze their main characteristics, and discuss how these cases are represented in the scientific literature. Read More

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State-of-the-Art Methods and Emerging Fluid Biomarkers in the Diagnostics of Dementia-A Short Review and Diagnostic Algorithm.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Neurology Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, 25121 Brescia, Italy.

The most common neurodegenerative dementias include Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The correct etiology-based diagnosis is pivotal for clinical management of these diseases as well as for the suitable timing and choosing the accurate disease-modifying therapies when these become available. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based methods, detecting altered levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Tau, phosphorylated Tau, and Aβ-42 in AD, allowed the wide use of this set of biomarkers in clinical practice. Read More

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Combining Mass Spectrometry-Based Phosphoproteomics with a Network-Based Approach to Reveal FLT3-Dependent Mechanisms of Chemoresistance.

Proteomes 2021 Apr 27;9(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via delle Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

FLT3 mutations are the most frequently identified genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor clinical outcome, relapse and chemotherapeutic resistance. Elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying FLT3-dependent pathogenesis and drug resistance is a crucial goal of biomedical research. Given the complexity and intricacy of protein signaling networks, deciphering the molecular basis of FLT3-driven drug resistance requires a systems approach. Read More

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