4,704 results match your criteria discrimination series


Foundations of Machine Learning-Based Clinical Prediction Modeling: Part I-Introduction and General Principles.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2022 ;134:7-13

Machine Intelligence in Clinical Neuroscience (MICN) Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neuroscience Center, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

We provide explanations on the general principles of machine learning, as well as analytical steps required for successful machine learning-based predictive modeling, which is the focus of this series. In particular, we define the terms machine learning, artificial intelligence, as well as supervised and unsupervised learning, continuing by introducing optimization, thus, the minimization of an objective error function as the central dogma of machine learning. In addition, we discuss why it is important to separate predictive and explanatory modeling, and most importantly state that a prediction model should not be used to make inferences. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Evaluation of the FCGR2B polymorphism in children with immune thrombocytopenia.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Dec 3. Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Department of Public Health and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Turin, Turin, Italy -

Background: Childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an immune-mediated disease characterized by an isolated low platelet count. Pathogenesis of ITP is complex but many patients have platelet specific autoantibodies leading to accelerated clearance of opsonized platelets by Fc-gamma receptor (FcγR) bearing phagocytes, particularly in the spleen. In humans, there are three main types of Fcγ receptors: high-affinity FcγRI and low-affinity FcγRII and FcγRIII. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Analysis of Risk Factors and Establishment of a Prediction Model for Endoscopic Primary Bile Reflux: A Single-Center Retrospective Study.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 10;8:758771. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, School of Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Endoscopic primary bile reflux is one of the main diagnostic criteria for bile reflux gastritis (BRG). Presently, the risk factors and prediction models of endoscopic primary bile reflux (EPBR) in gastropathy patients who cannot or will not undergo endoscopy due to contraindications are not clear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of EPBR and to establish and verify a prediction model. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

A peroxidase-like activity-based colorimetric sensor array of noble metal nanozymes to discriminate heavy metal ions.

Analyst 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Fujian Key Laboratory of Drug Target Discovery and Structural and Functional Research, School of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350004, China.

Heavy metal ions (HMIs), including Cu, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Pb from the environment pose a threat to human beings and can cause a series of life-threatening diseases. Therefore, colorimetric sensors with convenience and flexibility for HMI discrimination are still required. To provide a solution, a peroxidase-like activity-based colorimetric sensor array of citrate-capped noble metal nanozymes (osmium, platinum, and gold) has been fabricated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Oral Cancer Discrimination and Novel Oral Epithelial Dysplasia Stratification Using FTIR Imaging and Machine Learning.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Nov 17;11(11). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

School of Dentistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA.

The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging technique was used in a transmission model for the evaluation of twelve oral hyperkeratosis (HK), eleven oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and eleven oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) biopsy samples in the fingerprint region of 1800-950 cm. A series of 100 µm × 100 µm FTIR imaging areas were defined in each sample section in reference to the hematoxylin and eosin staining image of an adjacent section of the same sample. After outlier removal, signal preprocessing, and cluster analysis, a representative spectrum was generated for only the epithelial tissue in each area. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Resolving the identification of weak-flying insects during flight: a coupling between rigorous data processing and biology.

Agric For Entomol 2021 Nov 2;23(4):489-505. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Rothamsted Insect Survey Rothamsted Research West Common, Harpenden AL5 2JQ U.K.

Bioacoustic methods play an increasingly important role for the detection of insects in a range of surveillance and monitoring programmes.Weak-flying insects evade detection because they do not yield sufficient audio information to capture wingbeat and harmonic frequencies. These inaudible insects often pose a significant threat to food security as pests of key agricultural crops worldwide. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Enantioselective recognition of chiral acids by supramolecular interactions with chiral AIEgens.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Nov 23. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Shenzhen Institute of Aggregate Science and Technology, School of Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518172, China.

Novel chiral AIEgens bearing optically pure amino groups were synthesized and showed excellent discrimination for a series of chiral acidic compounds and amino acids. Interestingly, after supramolecular assembly with 4-sulfocalix[4]arene, the obtained complexes showed enhanced enantioselectivity for chiral acids. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Experience and Discussion: Safeguards for People With Disabilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic in China.

Front Public Health 2021 4;9:744706. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Law School, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

The special vulnerability of people with disability (PWD) in the COIVD-19 pandemic has been confirmed by many studies, but data shows that the infection rate of PWD in China is lower than for non-disabled people. We believe that this difference can be attributed to the Chinese government's targeted safeguards for the disabled community during the pandemic, including support for disability empowerment, the establishment of a remote interactive decision-making system, fair vaccine distribution and economic protection for PWD. The professionalism of decision-makers and the maintenance of channels of interaction with PWD are also important. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Enhancing the dark side: Asymmetric gain of cone photoreceptors underpins their discrimination of visual scenes based on their skewness.

J Physiol 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Retinal Signal Processing Lab, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Key Points: Humans can discriminate visual scenes based on skewness - the relative prevalence of bright and dark patches within a scene. Here we show negatively skewed time-series stimuli induce larger responses in goldfish cone photoreceptors than comparable positively skewed stimuli. This response asymmetry originates from within the phototransduction cascade, where gain is higher for strong negative contrasts (dark patches) than for strong positive (bright patches) contrasts. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Long-term visual pathway alterations after elemental mercury poisoning: report of a series of 29 cases.

J Occup Med Toxicol 2021 Nov 12;16(1):49. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Institute of Applied Ophthalmobiology (IOBA), Eye Institute, University of Valladolid, Campus Miguel Delibes, P° de Belén n° 17, 47011, Valladolid, Spain.

Background: There are few clinical data on retinal involvement after acute exposure to high concentrations mercury and the available reports are based on a small number of patients suffering chronic exposure. The purpose of this paper is to report findings in workers acutely exposed to very high concentrations of mercury vapor with the aim of providing data on a possible direct retinal involvement.

Methods: Twenty-nine patients and 16 controls were evaluated in a comparative case series. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Lyme neuroborreliosis with encephalitis; a systematic literature review and a Scandinavian cohort study.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Clinical Center for Emerging and Vector-borne Infections, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Research Unit of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) presenting with encephalitis is rare and scarcely described.

Objectives: To describe the available literature on LNB encephalitis, and to characterize this patient-group through a Scandinavian retrospective cohort study.

Data-sources: Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane library. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Development of a random forest model for hypotension prediction after anesthesia induction for cardiac surgery.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Oct;9(29):8729-8739

Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou 570311, Hainan Province, China.

Background: Hypotension after the induction of anesthesia is known to be associated with various adverse events. The involvement of a series of factors makes the prediction of hypotension during anesthesia quite challenging.

Aim: To explore the ability and effectiveness of a random forest (RF) model in the prediction of post-induction hypotension (PIH) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Advancement of prognostic models in breast cancer: a narrative review.

Gland Surg 2021 Sep;10(9):2815-2831

Department of General Surgery, Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To provide a reference for clinical work and guide the decision-making of healthcare providers and end-users, we systematically reviewed the development, validation and classification of classical prognostic models for breast cancer.

Background: Patients suffering from breast cancer have different prognosis for its high heterogeneity. Accurate prognosis prediction and risk stratification for breast cancer are crucial for individualized treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2021

Association of HER1 and HER2 Gene Variants in the Predisposition of Colorectal Cancer.

J Oncol 2021 21;2021:6180337. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Genome Research Chair, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern worldwide. A series of sequential accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes are responsible for the initiation and progression of diseases via the normal > adenoma > carcinoma sequence. Genetic variants in crucial cancer-causing genes are known to mediate the risk of cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Cis-acting super-enhancer lncRNAs as biomarkers to early-stage breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 Oct 30;23(1):101. Epub 2021 Oct 30.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cancer Research Center, University at Albany, 1 Discovery Drive, Suite 317, Rensselaer, NY, 12144, USA.

Background: Increased breast cancer screening over the past four decades has led to a substantial rise in the diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Although DCIS lesions precede invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), they do not always transform into cancer. The current standard-of-care for DCIS is an aggressive course of therapy to prevent invasive and metastatic disease resulting in over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Sabotage Detection Using DL Models on EEG Data From a Cognitive-Motor Integration Task.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 8;15:662875. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective clinical tools, including cognitive-motor integration (CMI) tasks, have the potential to improve concussion rehabilitation by helping to determine whether or not a concussion has occurred. In order to be useful, however, an individual must put forth their best effort. In this study, we have proposed a novel method to detect the difference in cortical activity between best effort (no-sabotage) and willful under-performance (sabotage) using a deep learning (DL) approach on the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

A remote sensing framework to map potential toxic elements in agricultural soils in the humid tropics.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jan 21;292(Pt B):118397. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Soil Science, "Luiz de Queiroz" College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, Portal Box 9, Piracicaba, São Paulo, 13418-140, Brazil.

Soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) is one of the greatest threats to environmental degradation. Knowing where PTEs accumulated in soil can mitigate their adverse effects on plants, animals, and human health. We evaluated the potential of using long-term remote sensing images that reveal the bare soils, to detect and map PTEs in agricultural fields. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2022

Color painting predicts clinical symptoms in chronic schizophrenia patients via deep learning.

BMC Psychiatry 2021 10 22;21(1):522. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Individuals with psychiatric disorders perceive the world differently. Previous studies indicated impaired color vision and weakened color discrimination ability in psychotic patients. Examining the paintings from psychotic patients can measure the visual-motor function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Development of a tissue discrimination electrode embedded surgical needle using vibro-tactile feedback derived from electric impedance spectroscopy.

Med Biol Eng Comput 2021 Oct 22. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Ontario Tech University, Oshawa, Ontario, Canada.

Some tumours may not be detected by ultrasound during biopsy, but recent evidence has shown that different tissues can be discerned by electric impedance. This paper explores the application of vibrotactile feedback in an electrode embedded needle to help classify tissue during fine-needle aspiration biopsy from bioimpedance measurements. The process uses electric impedance spectroscopy from 10 Hz to 349 kHz to fit the double-dispersion Cole model through the Newton-Raphson algorithm. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Unraveling the innate immune responses of Bombyx mori hemolymph, fat body, and midgut to Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus oral infection by metabolomic analysis.

Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 2021 Dec 22;108(4):e21848. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Sericulture, College of Forestry, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, China.

Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection causes a series of physiological and pathological changes in Bombyx mori (B. mori). Here, a metabolomic study of the innate immunity organs including hemolymph, fat body, and midgut of the silkworm strain Dazao following BmNPV challenge was conducted to reveal the metabolic variations in B. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

The Caregiver Contribution to Heart Failure Self-care Instrument: Further Psychometric Testing in a European Sample.

J Cardiovasc Nurs 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Muhammad Usman Ali, MD, MSc Epidemiologist, Faculty of Health Sciences, Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Karen Harkness, PhD, RN, CCN(C), CHFN-K Assistant Clinical Professor, School of Nursing, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario; and Scientist-Clinical, CorHealth Ontario, Canada. Ercole Vellone, PhD, RN, FESC, FAAN Associate Professor, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Valentina Zeffiro, PhD, RN Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Rosaria Alvaro, MSN, RN, FAAN, FESC Professor, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Harleah G. Buck, PhD, RN, FPCN, FAHA, FAAN Associate Professor and Coordinator of Chronic Illness Initiatives, University of South Florida, Tampa; and Sally Mathis Hartwig Professor in Gerontological Nursing and Co-director of the Csomay Center for Gerontological Excellence, University of Iowa College of Nursing, Iowa City.

The 20-item Caregiver Contribution to Heart Failure Self-care (CACHS) was developed and tested in a series of preliminary studies providing evidence for the validity of this instrument in Canada. The purpose of this study was to assess the initial psychometric testing of a translated version of the 20-item CACHS in a European sample using classical test theory and item response theory (IRT) methods. This study is a preplanned subanalysis of data from a multisite, descriptive study of caregivers (n = 277; mean age, 52. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Psychological burden of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder traits on medical workers under the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire survey.

BMJ Open 2021 10 20;11(10):e053737. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Sleep-Wake Disorders, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.

Objectives: There are numerous reports on the psychological burden of medical workers after the COVID-19 outbreak; however, no study has examined the influence of developmental characteristics on the mental health of medical workers. The objective of this study was to examine whether the developmental characteristics of medical workers are associated with anxiety and depression after the COVID-19 outbreak.

Design: We conducted an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey in October 2020. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Seeming confines: Electrophysiological evidence of peripersonal space remapping following tool-use in humans.

Cortex 2021 Nov 24;144:133-150. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

MANIBUS Research Group, Department of Psychology, University of Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

The peripersonal space (PPS) is a special portion of space immediately surrounding the body, where the integration between tactile stimuli delivered on the body and auditory or visual events emanating from the environment occurs. Interestingly, PPS can widen if a tool is employed to interact with objects in the far space. However, electrophysiological evidence of such tool-use dependent plasticity in the human brain is scarce. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Effects of COVID-19-related life changes on mental health in Syrian refugees in Turkey.

BJPsych Open 2021 Nov 1;7(6):e182. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Politics, University of Liverpool, UK.

Background: Mental disorders are currently the greatest global health burden. The coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having an adverse impact on people's mental health, particularly in vulnerable populations, such as refugees.

Aims: The present study was designed to examine the association between COVID-19 and changes in mental health in Syrian refugees in Turkey. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

Algorithm for real-time defect detection of micro pipe inner surface.

Authors:
Xinyu Zhao Bin Wu

Appl Opt 2021 Oct;60(29):9167-9179

Quantitative analysis and identification of unknown shaped defects have always been difficult and challenging in the quality control of micro pipes. A series of algorithms for defect detection and feature recognition is presented in this study. A lightweight convolution neural network (LCNN) is introduced to realize defect discrimination. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Digital signatures for early traumatic brain injury outcome prediction in the intensive care unit.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 7;11(1):19989. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading neurological cause of death and disability across the world. Early characterization of TBI severity could provide a window for therapeutic intervention and contribute to improved outcome. We hypothesized that granular electronic health record data available in the first 24 h following admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) can be used to differentiate outcomes at discharge. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Music-reading expertise associates with face but not Chinese character processing ability.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Nov 1:17470218211053144. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Dr. Eric Jackman Institute of Child Study, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

A growing number of behavioural and neuroimaging studies have investigated the cognitive mechanisms and neural substrates underlying various forms of visual expertise, such as face and word processing. However, it remains poorly understood whether and to what extent the acquisition of one form of expertise would be associated with that of another. The current study examined the relationship between music-reading expertise and face and Chinese character processing abilities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
November 2021

A risk score predicting unplanned renal replacement therapy after coronary catheterization.

Clin Nephrol 2021 Oct 4. Epub 2021 Oct 4.

Background: Iodinated contrast medium exposure is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with severe contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI) may need renal replacement therapy (RRT). Prediction models exist for CI-AKI, but few need RRT. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

StaphAIR: A Label-Free Antigen Microarray Approach to Detecting Anti- Antibody Responses in Orthopedic Infections.

Anal Chem 2021 10 1;93(40):13580-13588. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Dermatology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, United States.

Arrayed imaging reflectometry (AIR) is an optical biosensor platform for simple, multiplex measurement of antigen-specific antibody responses in patient blood samples. Here, we report the development of StaphAIR, an 8-plex antigen array on the AIR platform for profiling antigen-specific anti- humoral immune responses. Initial validation experiments with mouse and humanized monoclonal antibodies against the autolysin glucosaminidase (Gmd) domain, and subsequent testing with dilution series of pooled positive human serum confirmed analytically robust behavior of the array, with all antigens displaying Langmuir-type dose-response curves. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021

Clinical Prediction Models in Sports Medicine: A Guide for Clinicians and Researchers.

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2021 Oct;51(10):517-525

Synopsis: Participating in sport carries inherent risk of injury. Clinicians execute high-level clinical reasoning and decision making to support athletes to achieve the best outcomes. Accurately diagnosing a problem, estimating prognosis, or selecting the most suitable intervention for each athlete is challenging. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2021