10,188 results match your criteria discrimination experiment

Context-dependent use of visual cues in the shell selection behaviour of the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus.

Behav Processes 2021 May 1:104414. Epub 2021 May 1.

Centre for Biological Diversity, Sir Harold Mitchell Building, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, KY16 9TH, UK.

Animals avoid predator attack in different ways; some carry defensive structures to reduce predation, with the classic example being hermit crabs and their use of a mollusc shell as a portable refugium. During shell selection, various shell characteristics are investigated by the crab to determine their suitability. Here we consider the role of visual cues. Read More

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The Extrastriate Body Area and identity processing: An fMRI guided TMS study.

Physiol Rep 2021 Apr;9(8):e14711

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, ISM, Marseille, France.

The extrastriate body area (EBA) is a body-selective focal region located in the lateral occipito-temporal cortex that responds strongly to images of human bodies and body parts in comparison with other classes of stimuli. Whether EBA contributes also to the body recognition of self versus others remains in debate. We investigated whether EBA contributes to self-other distinction and whether there might be a hemispheric-side specificity to that contribution using double-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in right-handed participants. Read More

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DNA Barcoding Identifies Unknown Females and Larvae of R.-D. (Diptera: Fanniidae) from Carrion Succession Experiment and Case Report.

Insects 2021 Apr 23;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Ecology and Biogeography, Faculty of Biological and Veterinary Sciences, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 87-100 Toruń, Poland.

Application of available keys to European Fanniidae did not facilitate unequivocal species identification for third instar larvae and females of Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 collected during a study of arthropod succession on pig carrion. To link these samples to known species, we took the advantage of molecular identification methods and compared newly obtained cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) barcode sequences against sequences deposited in reference databases. As an outcome of the results obtained, we describe for the first time a third instar larva of Malloch, 1910 and (Rondani, 1866) and a female of d'Assis-Fonseca, 1966. Read More

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Location and temporal memory of objects declines in aged marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 28;11(1):9138. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Centre de Recherche Cerveau et Cognition (CerCo), Toulouse, France.

Episodic memory decline is an early marker of cognitive aging in human. Although controversial in animals and called "episodic-like memory", several models have been successfully developed, however they rarely focused on ageing. While marmoset is an emerging primate model in aging science, episodic-like memory has never been tested in this species and importantly in aged marmosets. Read More

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Sensitivity and threshold dynamics of Pinus strobus and Quercus spp. in response to experimental and naturally-occurring severe droughts.

Tree Physiol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, 56 College Rd, Durham, NH 03824 USA.

Increased drought frequency and severity are a pervasive global threat, yet the capacity of mesic temperate forests to maintain resilience in response to drought remains poorly understood. We deployed a throughfall removal experiment to simulate a once in a century drought in New Hampshire, USA, which coupled with the region-wide 2016 drought, intensified moisture stress beyond that experienced in the lifetimes of our study trees. To assess the sensitivity and threshold dynamics of two dominant northeastern tree genera (Quercus and Pinus), we monitored sap flux density (Js), leaf water potential and gas exchange, growth, and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) for one pretreatment year (2015) and two treatment years (2016-17). Read More

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Customer and Worker Discrimination against Gay and Lesbian Business Owners: A Web-Based Experiment among Students in Sweden.

J Homosex 2021 Apr 22:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Economics and Statistics, Linnæus University, Växjö, Sweden.

We examined customer and worker discrimination against gay and lesbian business owners using a web-based experiment conducted at a Swedish university campus. Participants ( = 1,406) were presented with a prospective restaurant establishment on the campus. They then stated whether they would be positive to such an establishment, whether they would be interested in working at the restaurant, and what their reservation wage would be if they were interested in the job. Read More

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Learning of across- and within-task contingencies modulates partial-repetition costs in dual-tasking.

Psychol Res 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Cologne, Richard-Strauss-Str. 2, 50931, Cologne, Germany.

Dual-task costs might result from confusions on the task-set level as both tasks are not represented as distinct task-sets, but rather being integrated into a single task-set. This suggests that events in the two tasks are stored and retrieved together as an integrated memory episode. In a series of three experiments, we tested for such integrated task processing and whether it can be modulated by regularities between the stimuli of the two tasks (across-task contingencies) or by sequential regularities within one of the tasks (within-task contingencies). Read More

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Gendered Discrimination Against Immigrants: Experimental Evidence.

Front Sociol 2020 3;5:59. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Sociology, New York University, New York, NY, United States.

Recent migration from Muslim-majority countries has sparked discussions across Europe about the supposed threat posed by new immigrants. Young men make up the largest share of newly arrived immigrants and this demographic is often perceived to be particularly threatening. In this article, we compare pro-sociality and trust toward immigrants from Muslim-majority countries, focusing on gender differences in treatment. Read More

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September 2020

An experiment on measuring awareness of stuttering in individuals with Down syndrome.

J Fluency Disord 2021 Apr 8;68:105849. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Otorinolaryngology, KU Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Awareness of stuttering is likely to depend upon the development of the metalinguistic skill to discriminate between fluent speech and stuttering and the ability to identify one's own speech as fluent or stuttered. Presently, little is known about these abilities in individuals with Down syndrome (DS).

Purpose: This study investigates whether individuals with DS and typically developing (TD) children who stutter and who do not stutter differ in their ability to discriminate between fluent speech and stuttering. Read More

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The processing of intimately familiar and unfamiliar voices: Specific neural responses of speaker recognition and identification.

PLoS One 2021 16;16(4):e0250214. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratoire de Recherche en Neurosciences et Électrophysiologie Cognitive, Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Research has repeatedly shown that familiar and unfamiliar voices elicit different neural responses. But it has also been suggested that different neural correlates associate with the feeling of having heard a voice and knowing who the voice represents. The terminology used to designate these varying responses remains vague, creating a degree of confusion in the literature. Read More

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Machine learning applied to a Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit and to a Coronary Care Unit for mortality prediction.

J Clin Monit Comput 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Pontevedra, Mourente s/n, 36071, Pontevedra, Spain.

Most established severity-of-illness systems used for prediction of intensive care unit (ICU) mortality were developed targeted at the general ICU population, based on logistic regression (LR). To date, no dynamic predictive tool for ICU mortality has been developed targeted at the Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU) and Coronary Care Unit (CCU) using machine learning (ML). CSRU and CCU adult patients from the MIMIC-III critical care database were studied. Read More

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Comparative dynamics of potassium and radiocesium in soybean with different potassium application levels.

J Environ Radioact 2021 Apr 12;233:106609. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Agricultural Radiation Research Center, Tohoku Agricultural Research Center, NARO, 50 Harajuku-minami, Arai, Fukushima, Fukushima, 960-2156, Japan; Research Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Kita 9, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8589, Japan. Electronic address:

We conducted a field experiment in soybean with different levels of K application to elucidate the comparative dynamics of Cs and K. The inventory of K in the shoots increased substantially from the fifth trifoliate stage to the full seed stage, and as the absorption of K increased, so too did the absorption of Cs. Overall, the effect of K application was much greater in terms of Cs dynamics than K dynamics or biomass production. Read More

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Resistance to extinction versus extinction as discrimination.

J Exp Anal Behav 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of California, Davis.

The hypothesis that response strength might be measured by persistence of responding in the face of extinction was discredited in the 1960s because experiments showed that responding persists longer following intermittent reinforcers than following continuous reinforcers. Instead, researchers proposed that the longer persistence following intermittent reinforcers arises because intermittent reinforcement more closely resembles extinction-a discrimination theory. Attention to resistance to extinction revived because one observation seemed to support the persistence hypothesis: Following training on a multiple schedule with unequal components, responding usually persisted longer in the formerly richer component than in the formerly lean component. Read More

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Competition between perceptual grouping cues in an indirect objective task.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Apr 22:17470218211010486. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Departamento de Psicología Básica I, Facultad de Psicología, UNED, Madrid, Spain.

The integration between Gestalt grouping cues has been a relatively unexplored issue in vision science. The present work introduces an objective indirect method based on the to determine the rules that govern the dominance dynamics of the competition between both intrinsic (Experiment 1: proximity vs luminance similarity) and extrinsic grouping cues (Experiment 2: common region vs connectedness) by means of objective measures of grouping (reaction times and accuracy). Prior to the main task, a novel objective equating task was introduced with the aim of equating the grouping strength of the cues for the visuomotor system. Read More

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An open source platform for presenting dynamic visual stimuli.

eNeuro 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Neuroscience, American University, Washington, DC, USA

Operant behavior procedures often rely on visual stimuli to cue the initiation or secession of a response, and to provide a means for discriminating between two or more simultaneously available responses. While primate and human studies typically use LCD or OLED monitors and touch screens, rodent studies use a variety of methods to present visual cues ranging from traditional incandescent light bulbs, single LEDs, and, more recently, touch screen monitors. Commercially available systems for visual stimulus presentation are costly, challenging to customize, and are typically closed source. Read More

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Cantilever Beam with a Single Fiber Bragg Grating to Measure Temperature and Transversal Force Simultaneously.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Center of Advanced Electrical and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environmental, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor 43600, Malaysia.

This work investigates a new interrogation method of a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor based on longer and shorter wavelengths to distinguish between transversal forces and temperature variations. Calibration experiments were carried out to examine the sensor's repeatability in response to the transversal forces and temperature changes. An automated calibration system was developed for the sensor's characterization, calibration, and repeatability testing. Read More

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Mechanistic Study of the Kinetic Phenomena Influencing the Bacteriostatic Action of Silver Ions in Agar Bioassays.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Mar 31;10(4). Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Institut Européen des Membranes, IEM-UMR 5635, University Montpellier, ENSCM, CNRS, 34090 Montpellier, France.

Bacteriostatic action of a biocidal agent results from the cumulative impact of different kinetics, including those of bacterial growth, mass transfer of the agent and its antibacterial action against the targeted bacteria. Current studies on bacteriostatic effects always directly consider the combination of these kinetics at given times, without discrimination between each other. This work introduces a novel approach, consisting of first studying independently, by the experiment and the model, the different kinetics involved, and then in coupling these kinetics to obtain a model that will be confronted with experimental data. Read More

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Mortality Prediction of Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Using Medical Claims Data Under Artificial Intelligence Architectures: Validation Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Apr 1;9(4):e25000. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Australia.

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the greatest health problem in Australia, which kills more people than any other disease and incurs enormous costs for the health care system. In this study, we present a benchmark comparison of various artificial intelligence (AI) architectures for predicting the mortality rate of patients with CVD using structured medical claims data. Compared with other research in the clinical literature, our models are more efficient because we use a smaller number of features, and this study could help health professionals accurately choose AI models to predict mortality among patients with CVD using only claims data before a clinic visit. Read More

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The effects of birth weight and estimated breeding value for protein deposition on nitrogen efficiency in growing pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Wageningen Livestock Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The effects of birth weight (BiW) (low BiW (LBW) vs high BiW (HBW)) and estimated breeding value for protein deposition (EBV) (low EBV (LBV) vs high EBV (HBV)) on N retention, N efficiency and concentrations of metabolites in plasma and urine related to N efficiency in growing pigs were studied. At an age of 14 weeks, 10 LBW-LBV (BiW: 1.07 + 0. Read More

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Examination of alternative-response discrimination training and resurgence in rats.

Learn Behav 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Utah State University, 2810 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84321-2810, USA.

Resurgence is an increase in a previously reinforced behavior following a worsening of conditions for a more recently reinforced behavior. Discrimination training is incorporated into treatment for problem behavior to prevent treatment adherence failures that may result in resurgence. There is evidence that resurgence may be reduced when a stimulus that signals alternative-response extinction is present compared with absent; however, the generality of this effect is unknown given the limited testing conditions. Read More

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Perceptual timing precision with vibrotactile, auditory, and multisensory stimuli.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Volen Center for Complex Systems and Department of Psychology, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA.

The growing use of vibrotactile signaling devices makes it important to understand the perceptual limits on vibrotactile information processing. To promote that understanding, we carried out a pair of experiments on vibrotactile, auditory, and bimodal (synchronous vibrotactile and auditory) temporal acuity. On each trial, subjects experienced a set of isochronous, standard intervals (400 ms each), followed by one interval of variable duration (400 ± 1-80 ms). Read More

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Selective memory disrupted in intra-modal dual-task encoding conditions.

Mem Cognit 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Psychology, University of California, 502 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Given natural memory limitations, people can generally attend to and remember high-value over low-value information even when cognitive resources are depleted in older age and under divided attention during encoding, representing an important form of cognitive control. In the current study, we examined whether tasks requiring overlapping processing resources may impair the ability to selectively encode information in dual-task conditions. Participants in the divided-attention conditions of Experiment 1 completed auditory tone-distractor tasks that required them to discriminate between tones of different pitches (audio-nonspatial) or auditory channels (audio-spatial), while studying items in different locations in a grid (visual-spatial) differing in reward value. Read More

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Discrimination of goat, buffalo, and yak milk from different livestock, regions, and lactation using microelement contents.

J Food Sci 2021 Apr 24;86(4):1283-1295. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Institute of Animal Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, P. R. China.

This study aims at investigating whether the livestock, lactation stage, or geographical origin of specialty milk in China could be classified by the elemental contents. Samples of goat, buffalo, and yak milk were collected from main production provinces in China and the contents of nine elements in milk from different livestock, regions, and lactation stages were determined. Statistical analysis indicated that the contents of Mn, Cu, As, Se, Cs, and Mo in mature milk were significantly different between the three livestock (p < 0. Read More

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An audit experiment to investigate the "war on cops": a research note.

J Exp Criminol 2021 Mar 18:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Sociology & Nuffield College, University of Oxford, 1 New Road, Oxford, OX1 1NF UK.

Objectives: This study examines whether former police officers are stigmatized in the labor market, particularly following social unrest from lethal police violence.

Methods: We conduct an experimental audit study, both before and after heightened unrest from police violence. For service-related job openings, we compare the likelihood of getting an affirmative response from a prospective employer to a job application from a fictitious former police officer (the treatment condition) to the response to one of two control conditions: a former firefighter or a former code enforcement officer. Read More

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Stomatal conductance limited the CO response of grassland in the last century.

BMC Biol 2021 Mar 24;19(1):50. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Technical University of Munich, Lehrstuhl für Grünlandlehre, Alte Akademie 12, 85354, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany.

Background: The anthropogenic increase of atmospheric CO concentration (c) is impacting carbon (C), water, and nitrogen (N) cycles in grassland and other terrestrial biomes. Plant canopy stomatal conductance is a key player in these coupled cycles: it is a physiological control of vegetation water use efficiency (the ratio of C gain by photosynthesis to water loss by transpiration), and it responds to photosynthetic activity, which is influenced by vegetation N status. It is unknown if the c-increase and climate change over the last century have already affected canopy stomatal conductance and its links with C and N processes in grassland. Read More

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Neuroplasticity in the phonological system: The PMN and the N400 as markers for the perception of non-native phonemic contrasts by late second language learners.

Neuropsychologia 2021 Jun 19;156:107831. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory Models, Dynamics, Corpus, CNRS/University Paris Nanterre, Paris Lumières, France.

Second language (L2) learners frequently encounter persistent difficulty in perceiving certain non-native sound contrasts, i.e., a phenomenon called "phonological deafness". Read More

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Mediators of Discrimination in Primary Care Appointment Access.

Econ Lett 2021 Mar 21;200. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207.

We examine how differences in questions asked and information provided by physicians' offices contribute to differences in new-patient appointment offers. Data is from a 2013-16 field experiment involving calls to a random sample of US primary care physicians on behalf of simulated new patients differentiated by race/ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White), sex, and insurance. We find that the rates and stated reasons for denial of appointment offers differ substantially across patient groups. Read More

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Enhanced synaptic properties of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus after learning a spatial working memory task in adult male mice.

J Neurosci Res 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Biology, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

Working memory (WM) is the ability to hold on-line and manipulate information. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a key brain region involved in WM, while the hippocampus is also involved, particularly, in spatial WM. Although several studies have investigated the neuronal substrates of WM in trained animals, the effects and the mechanisms underlying learning WM tasks have not been explored. Read More

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Pigeons acquire the 1-back task: Implications for implicit versus explicit learning?

Learn Behav 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Psychology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 40506-0044, USA.

In humans, a distinction can be made between implicit or procedural learning (involving stimulus-response associations) and explicit or declarative learning (involving verbalizable rules) that is relatively easy to make in verbal humans. According to several investigators, it is also possible to make such a distinction in nonverbal animals. One way is by training them on a conditional discrimination task (e. Read More

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Cognitively demanding stimuli can acquire positive valence.

Psychol Res 2021 Mar 14. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, The George Washington University, 2125 G St. NW, Bldg. GG, Washington, DC, 20052, USA.

Generally, people tend to avoid stimuli that require mental effort; effort can generate negative emotions. However, employing mental effort can also promote positive emotions, given a successful outcome. We investigated whether the level of cognitive effort associated with stimuli will elicit positive or negative emotions. Read More

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