2,470 results match your criteria disadvantaged neighborhoods

Effect of Social Determinants of Health on Cognition and Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Related Dementias.

Clin Ther 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

Social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, work, live, and age and the wider set of forces and systems that shape the conditions of daily life. They affect every area of life, particularly health and health care. There is increasing focus on modifiable factors that affect cognition and risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRDs). Read More

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Residential Environment and Health: A Review of Methodological and Conceptual Issues.

Rev Environ Health 2021 Feb 20;19(3-4):381-401. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Centre for Public Health Status and Forecasts (VTV), National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (R/VM), 3 720 BA,Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Geographic patterns of poor health and mortality risk are found in most countries. Important health effects at the neighborhood level are mortality, general health, illness and disabilities, mental health, and healthcare utilization. Awareness of the influence of social class on health has been growing during the last decades. Read More

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February 2021

Trajectories of Marital Satisfaction in Diverse Newlywed Couples.

Soc Psychol Personal Sci 2020 Jul 29;11(5):597-604. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

University of Georgia.

Couples' marital satisfaction is thought to decline over the newlywed years, but recent research indicates that the majority of spouses have high, stable trajectories during this period and significant declines occur only among initially dissatisfied spouses. These findings are drawn from predominantly White, middle-class samples, however, which may over-estimate marital stability compared to samples with higher levels of sociodemographic risk. Accordingly, the current study tested the generalizability of newlyweds' marital stability by examining satisfaction trajectories among 431 ethnically diverse newlywed couples living in low-income neighborhoods. Read More

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Is a 'culture of plus-size women' the independent effect of neighborhood disadvantage on female BMI? A cross-sectional study in two Chilean Municipalities.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 10;280:114019. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Health, Ethics and Society, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

Research has shown that neighborhood disadvantage has an effect on BMI that is independent of individual disadvantage, much more pronounced in women than in men. The mechanisms that explain this gender-specific effect are not yet clear. Since women's body size dissatisfaction is closely linked to gender differences in BMI inequalities, the independent effect of neighborhood disadvantage on female BMI may relate to a local culture of acceptance of female large bodies, that could influence women's parameters for body size dissatisfaction. Read More

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Modifications to residential neighbourhood characteristics and risk of 79 common health conditions: a prospective cohort study.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Jun;6(6):e396-e407

Department of Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Centre for Population Health Research, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: Observational studies have identified a link between unfavourable neighbourhood characteristics and increased risk of morbidity, but it is unclear whether changes in neighbourhoods affect future disease risk. We used a data-driven approach to assess the impact of neighbourhood modification on 79 health outcomes.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we used pooled, individual-level data from two Finnish cohort studies: the Health and Social Support study and the Finnish Public Sector study. Read More

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Under Whose Roof? Understanding the Living Arrangements of Children in Doubled-Up Households.

Demography 2021 Jun;58(3):821-846

Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

A growing literature in family demography examines children's residence in doubled-up (shared) households with extended family members and nonkin. This research has largely overlooked the role of doubling up as a housing strategy, with "hosts" (householders) providing housing support for "guests" living in their home. Yet, understanding children's experiences in doubled-up households requires attention to host/guest status. Read More

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Racial/Ethnic, Social, and Geographic Trends in Overdose-Associated Cardiac Arrests Observed by US Emergency Medical Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles.

Importance: Provisional records from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through July 2020 indicate that overdose deaths spiked during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic, yet more recent trends are not available, and the data are not disaggregated by month of occurrence, race/ethnicity, or other social categories. In contrast, data from emergency medical services (EMS) provide a source of information nearly in real time that may be useful for rapid and more granular surveillance of overdose mortality.

Objective: To describe racial/ethnic, social, and geographic trends in EMS-observed overdose-associated cardiac arrests during the COVID-19 pandemic through December 2020 and assess the concordance with CDC-reported provisional total overdose mortality through May 2020. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer screening volumes and patient screening behaviors.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 May 25. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Purpose: In order to facilitate targeted outreach, we sought to identify patient populations with a lower likelihood of returning for breast cancer screening after COVID-19-related imaging center closures.

Methods: Weekly total screening mammograms performed throughout 2019 (baseline year) and 2020 (COVID-19-impacted year) were compared. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including age, race, ethnicity, breast density, breast cancer history, insurance status, imaging facility type used, and need for interpreter, were compared between patients imaged from March 16 to October 31 in 2019 (baseline cohort) and 2020 (COVID-19-impacted cohort). Read More

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COVID-19 Testing and Social Determinants of Health Among Disadvantaged Baltimore Neighborhoods: A Community Mobile Health Clinic Outreach Model.

Popul Health Manag 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Population Health, LifeBridge Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

The objective was to summarize data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing uptake, social determinants of health, and patient satisfaction with mobile health clinic services within underserved minority and low-income communities. This COVID-19 pilot project was conducted during June and July 2020 in low-income residential neighborhoods in West Baltimore, Maryland. Quantitative data were collected and assessed cross-sectionally. Read More

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Network spillovers and neighborhood crime: A computational statistics analysis of employment-based networks of neighborhoods.

Justice Q 2021 26;38(2):344-374. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Department of Computer Science & Engineering, Pennsylvania State University.

Research on communities and crime has predominantly focused on social conditions within an area or in its immediate proximity. However, a growing body of research shows that people often travel to areas away from home, contributing to connections between places. A few studies highlight the criminological implications of such connections, focusing on important but rare ties like co-offending or gang conflicts. Read More

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Characteristics associated with downward residential mobility among birthing persons in California.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 4;279:113962. Epub 2021 May 4.

Program in Public Health & Center for Population, Inequality, and Policy, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA.

Background: Substantial research documents health consequences of neighborhood disadvantage. Patterns of residential mobility that differ by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) may sort non-Hispanic (NH) Black and low-SES families into disadvantaged neighborhoods. In this study, we leverage a sibling-linked dataset to track residential mobility among birthing persons between pregnancies and investigate baseline characteristics associated with downward mobility, including race/ethnicity, SES, and pre-existing health conditions. Read More

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Association of Socioeconomic Disadvantage With Long-term Mortality After Myocardial Infarction: The Mass General Brigham YOUNG-MI Registry.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with poor health outcomes. However, whether socioeconomic factors are associated with post-myocardial infarction (MI) outcomes in younger patient populations is unknown.

Objective: To evaluate the association of neighborhood-level socioeconomic disadvantage with long-term outcomes among patients who experienced an MI at a young age. Read More

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Who Moves after SCI? Individual, Health, and Neighborhood Predictors of Residential Mobility among Participants in the National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems Database.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Case Western University; MetroHealth System.

Objective: To investigate residential mobility among community-living adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) and the individual, health, and neighborhood factors associated with the propensity to relocate.

Design: Retrospective analysis of data from the National SCI Model Systems (SCIMS) database collected between 2006 and 2018 and linked with the American Community Survey five-year estimates.

Setting: Community. Read More

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Socioeconomic Disadvantage and the Pace of Biological Aging in Children.

Pediatrics 2021 Jun 17;147(6). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Psychology and.

Background And Objectives: Children who grow up in socioeconomic disadvantage face increased burden of disease and disability throughout their lives. One hypothesized mechanism for this increased burden is that early-life disadvantage accelerates biological processes of aging, increasing vulnerability to subsequent disease. To evaluate this hypothesis and the potential impact of preventive interventions, measures are needed that can quantify early acceleration of biological aging in childhood. Read More

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Running while Black: A distinctive safety concern and barrier to exercise in White neighborhoods.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Jun 20;22:101378. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Kinesiology, Recreation, & Sport Studies, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 322 HPER Building, 1914 Andy Holt Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996-2700, USA.

While literature has shown that some Black Americans cite safety concerns as a barrier to outdoor activity in their neighborhoods for reasons related to violence, limitations in the built environment (e.g., lack of sidewalks), and even unleashed dogs, recent national events suggest that attention should also be directed toward the safety concerns of Black Americans living in neighborhoods that do not involve the commonly referenced issues above. Read More

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Which disadvantaged students study medicine? Analysis of an English outreach scheme.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Jun 6;4(2):e264. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Exeter Medical School Exeter UK.

Background: Students from disadvantaged backgrounds continue to be underrepresented in medical education. Widening participation (WP) or outreach schemes seek to increase diversity. Drawing on previously unexplored data from a scheme called Realising Opportunities in England, this study aimed to investigate which high-achieving socioeconomically disadvantaged students in a national WP scheme went on to study medicine at university. Read More

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Ambient fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of hospitalization among COVID-19 positive individuals: Cohort study.

Environ Int 2021 Apr 9;154:106564. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Clinical Epidemiology Center, Research and Development Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Veterans Research & Education Foundation of Saint Louis, 501 N Grand Blvd, Suite 300, Saint Louis, MO 63103, United States; Department of Medicine, Washington University in Saint Louis, 4921 Parkview Pl, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States; Nephrology Section, Medicine Service, VA Saint Louis Health Care System, 915 N Grand Blvd, Saint Louis, MO 63106, United States; Institute for Public Health, Washington University in Saint Louis, 600 S Taylor Ave, Saint Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking.

Methods: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans Affairs national healthcare databases and built a national cohort of 169,102 COVID-19 positive United States Veterans, enrolled between March 2, 2020 and January 31, 2021, and followed them through February 15, 2021. Read More

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The blueprint of disaster: COVID-19, the Flint water crisis, and unequal ecological impacts.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 05;5(5):e309-e315

Program on the Global Environment, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

COVID-19 is unique in the scope of its effects on morbidity and mortality. However, the factors contributing to its disparate racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic effects are part of an expansive and continuous history of oppressive social policy and marginalising geopolitics. This history is characterised by institutionally generated spatial inequalities forged through processes of residential segregation and neglectful urban planning. Read More

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Comparison of infection control strategies to reduce COVID-19 outbreaks in homeless shelters in the United States: a simulation study.

BMC Med 2021 05 7;19(1):116. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 94110, USA.

Background: COVID-19 outbreaks have occurred in homeless shelters across the US, highlighting an urgent need to identify the most effective infection control strategy to prevent future outbreaks.

Methods: We developed a microsimulation model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a homeless shelter and calibrated it to data from cross-sectional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) surveys conducted during COVID-19 outbreaks in five homeless shelters in three US cities from March 28 to April 10, 2020. We estimated the probability of averting a COVID-19 outbreak when an exposed individual is introduced into a representative homeless shelter of 250 residents and 50 staff over 30 days under different infection control strategies, including daily symptom-based screening, twice-weekly PCR testing, and universal mask wearing. Read More

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Association of Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage With Complicated Appendicitis in Children.

J Surg Res 2021 May 4;265:245-251. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

Background: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to poorer outcomes for a variety of health conditions in children, potentially through delay in accessing care. The objective of this study was to measure the association between SES and delay in surgical care as marked by presentation with complicated appendicitis (CA).

Methods: Children treated for acute appendicitis between 2015-2019 at a large academic children's hospital were reviewed. Read More

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Prenatal Neighborhood Ethnocultural Context and the Mental Health of Mothers and Children in Low-Income Mexican American Families.

Child Dev 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

T. Denny Sanford School of Social and Family Dynamics, Arizona State University.

Socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods increase the risk for poor mental health among residents, yet protective factors may operate alongside risk. This study evaluated the influence of the prenatal neighborhood ethnocultural context on child behavior problems and maternal depressive symptoms. Prenatal maternal role expectations, prenatal culture-specific stress, and postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms were evaluated as mediators. Read More

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Higher risk of death from COVID-19 in low-income and non-White populations of São Paulo, Brazil.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 04;6(4)

School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Introduction: Little evidence exists on the differential health effects of COVID-19 on disadvantaged population groups. Here we characterise the differential risk of hospitalisation and death in São Paulo state, Brazil, and show how vulnerability to COVID-19 is shaped by socioeconomic inequalities.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using hospitalised severe acute respiratory infections notified from March to August 2020 in the database. Read More

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Facility Attractiveness and Social Vulnerability Impacts on Spatial Accessibility to Opioid Treatment Programs in South Carolina.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 16;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Opioid dependence and opioid-related mortality have been increasing in recent years in the United States. Available and accessible treatments may result in a reduction of opioid-related mortality. This work describes the geographic variation of spatial accessibility to opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and identifies areas with poor access to care in South Carolina. Read More

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Determinants of Risk Disparity Due to Infrastructure Service Losses in Disasters: A Household Service Gap Model.

Risk Anal 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UrbanResilience.AI Lab, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.

The objective of this article is to systematically assess and identify factors affecting risk disparity due to infrastructure service disruptions in extreme weather events. We propose a household service gap model that characterizes societal risks at the household level by examining service disruptions as threats, level of tolerance of households to disruptions as susceptibility, and experienced hardship as an indicator for the realized impacts of risk. The concept of "zone of tolerance" for the service disruptions was encapsulated to account for different capabilities of the households to endure the adverse impacts. Read More

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Evaluation of a Short-Term Digital Group Intervention to Relieve Mental Distress and Promote Well-Being Among Community-Dwelling Older Individuals During the COVID-19 Outbreak: A Study Protocol.

Front Public Health 2021 9;9:577079. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Spitzer Department of Social Work, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Older individuals are at an increased risk of experiencing adverse social and health consequences due to both the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures taken to manage it, such as social distancing. To promote community-dwelling older individuals' well-being during this time, the aims of the current project are to develop effective strategies in order (a) to increase older individuals' digital literacy, and (b) to help them acquire behavioral and cognitive skills that will improve their coping abilities with the stressful situation created as a result of the pandemic, as well as reducing adverse mental health effects. The project comprises an intervention arm that includes digital group sessions for older individuals meant to improve their digital literacy, promote their effective coping, and relieve their mental distress and loneliness. Read More

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High prevalence of intestinal parasite infestations among stunted and control children aged 2 to 5 years old in two neighborhoods of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 20;15(4):e0009333. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Unité de Bactériologie Expérimentale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Background: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasite infestations (IPIs) in stunted children, compared to control children, in Ankasina and Andranomanalina Isotry (two disadvantaged neighborhoods of Antananarivo, Madagascar), to characterize associated risk factors and to compare IPI detection by real-time PCR and standard microscopy techniques.

Methodology/principal Findings: Fecal samples were collected from a total of 410 children (171 stunted and 239 control) aged 2-5 years. A single stool sample per subject was examined by simple merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIF), Kato-Katz smear and real-time PCR techniques. Read More

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Diverse students collaborating to address social determinants of health using listening sessions.

J Prof Nurs 2021 Mar-Apr;37(2):451-458. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, United States of America.

In this article, a Nursing Workforce Diversity grant-funded project examined the social determinants of health (SDH) including diverse high school and baccalaureate nursing students. All involved students were from educationally and/or economically disadvantaged backgrounds and/or underrepresented minority groups. The purpose of this article is to report the project outcome data and analysis gathered from students' experiences of SDH, using the collaborative method, listening sessions. Read More

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Association of Neighborhood Context, Cognitive Decline, and Cortical Change in an Unimpaired Cohort.

Neurology 2021 05 14;96(20):e2500-e2512. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

From the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (J.F.V.H., N.M.V., M.Z., L.R.C., C.E.G., O.O., S.C.J., S.A., B.B.B., A.J.H.K.), Wisconsin Alzheimer's Institute (E.M.J., R.L.K., O.O., S.C.J., S.A., B.B.B.), Department of Medicine, Geriatrics Division (W.R.B., M.Z., L.R.C., C.E.G., O.O., S.C.J., S.A., B.B.B., A.J.H.K.), Health Services and Care Research Program (W.R.B., A.J.H.K.), and Department of Biostatistics & Medical Informatics (M.Y.), University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health; University of Wisconsin School of Nursing (M.Z.); and Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC) (L.R.C., C.E.G., O.O., S.C.J., S.A., B.B.B., A.J.H.K.), William S. Middleton Hospital, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, Madison, WI.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that neighborhood-level disadvantage is associated with longitudinal measures of neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in an unimpaired cohort.

Methods: Longitudinal MRI and cognitive testing data were collected from 601 cognitively unimpaired participants in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention Study and the Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center clinical cohort. Area Deprivation Index was geospatially determined based on participant residence geocode and ranked relative to state of residence. Read More

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Chronic high risk of intimate partner violence against women in disadvantaged neighborhoods: An eight-year space-time analysis.

Prev Med 2021 Jul 20;148:106550. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

We conducted a small-area ecological longitudinal study to analyze neighborhood contextual influences on the spatio-temporal variations in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) risk in a southern European city over an eight-year period. We used geocoded data of IPVAW cases with associated protection orders (n = 5867) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2018). The city's 552 census block groups were used as the neighborhood units. Read More

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The cumulative risk of jail incarceration.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Apr;118(16)

Yale Law School, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520.

Research on incarceration has focused on prisons, but jail detention is far more common than imprisonment. Jails are local institutions that detain people before trial or incarcerate them for short sentences for low-level offenses. Research from the 1970s and 1980s viewed jails as "managing the rabble," a small and deeply disadvantaged segment of urban populations that struggled with problems of addiction, mental illness, and homelessness. Read More

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