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Mapping functional gradients of the striatal circuit using simultaneous microelectric stimulation and ultrahigh-field fMRI in non-human primates: Mapping the dorsal and ventral striatum circuits.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 17:118077. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science, Suwon, Republic of Korea;; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea;. Electronic address:

Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have significantly enhanced our understanding of the striatal system of both humans and non-human primates (NHP) over the last few decades. However, its circuit-level functional anatomy remains poorly understood, partly because in-vivo fMRI cannot directly perturb a brain system and map its casual input-output relationship. Also, routine 3T fMRI has an insufficient spatial resolution. Read More

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Promotion of germination of fynbos seeds by plant-derived smoke.

Authors:
N A C Brown

New Phytol 1993 Mar;123(3):575-583

Conservation Biology Research Unit, National Botanical Institute, Kirstenbosch, Private Bag X7, Claremont, 7735 South Africa.

Fynbos is the dominant vegetation type in the Cape floristic region. Periodic fires are a natural phenomenon in fynbos and fire-stimulated seed germination has been reported for a number of fynbos species. Amongst the factors proposed as being directly responsible for the effects of fire are: heat fracturing hard seed coats, heat stimulating seed embryos, high-temperature desiccation of seed coats, ethylene and ammonia in smoke stimulating seed germination, and unknown chemical factors in plant-derived smoke and smoke extracts stimulating germination. Read More

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GERMINATION RESPONSES TO LIGHT AND ALTERNATING TEMPERATURES IN EUROPEAN POPULATIONS OF DACTYLIS GLOMERATA L.: V. THE PRINCIPLE COMPONENTS OF THE ALTERNATING TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENT.

New Phytol 1986 Jan;102(1):133-142

The Environmental Research Laboratory, Department of Biology North East London Polytechnic, Romford Road, London E1 5 4LZ, UK.

Detailed germination responses to temperature and light in two populations of Dactylis glomerata L. originating from S.E. Read More

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January 1986

Mechanisms That Underly T Cell Immunity in Graves' Orbitopathy.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 1;12:648732. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Ophthalmology, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Graves' orbitopathy (GO), also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, is the most common ocular abnormality of Graves' disease. It is a disfiguring, invalidating, and potentially blinding orbital disease mediated by an interlocking and complicated immune network. Self-reactive T cells directly against thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor-bearing orbital fibroblasts contribute to autoimmune inflammation and tissue remodeling in GO orbital connective tissues. Read More

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Identification of Novel Neurocircuitry Through Which Leptin Targets Multiple Inputs to the Dopamine System to Reduce Food Reward Seeking.

Biol Psychiatry 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Brain Center, Department of Translational Neuroscience, University Medical Center Utrecht and University Utrecht, the Netherlands; Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Leptin reduces the motivation to obtain food by modulating activity of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system upon presentation of cues that predict a food reward. Although leptin directly reduces the activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons, the majority of leptin receptor (LepR)-expressing DA neurons do not project to the nucleus accumbens, the projection implicated in driving food reward seeking. Therefore, the precise locus of leptin action to modulate motivation for a food reward is unresolved. Read More

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February 2021

Heme activates platelets and exacerbates rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury via CLEC-2 and GPVI/FcRγ.

Blood Adv 2021 Apr;5(7):2017-2026

Department of Clinical and Laboratory Medicine and.

There is increasing evidence that platelets participate in multiple pathophysiological processes other than thrombosis and hemostasis, such as immunity, inflammation, embryonic development, and cancer progression. A recent study revealed that heme (hemin)-activated platelets induce macrophage extracellular traps (METs) and exacerbate rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (RAKI); however, how hemin activates platelets remains unclear. Here, we report that both C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2) and glycoprotein VI (GPVI) are platelet hemin receptors and are involved in the exacerbation of RAKI. Read More

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Exploring the Use of Intracranial and Extracranial (Remote) Photobiomodulation Devices in Parkinson's Disease: A Comparison of Direct and Indirect Systemic Stimulations.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Anatomy, University of Sydney, Australia.

In recent times, photobiomodulation has been shown to be beneficial in animal models of Parkinson's disease, improving locomotive behavior and being neuroprotective. Early observations in people with Parkinson's disease have been positive also, with improvements in the non-motor symptoms of the disease being evident most consistently. Although the precise mechanisms behind these improvements are not clear, two have been proposed: direct stimulation, where light reaches and acts directly on the distressed neurons, and remote stimulation, where light influences cells and/or molecules that provide systemic protection, thereby acting indirectly on distressed neurons. Read More

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Assessing the risk of rapid fibroid growth in patients with asymptomatic solitary uterine myoma using a multivariate prediction model.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):370

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Long-term conservative approaches are effective management options for asymptomatic uterine fibroids, but not for uterine myomas with excessive growth. In this investigation, a regression model was constructed to evaluate the clinical characteristics related to uterine fibroids' growth.

Methods: In this retrospective study, 19,840 patients with ultrasound-diagnosed uterine fibroids were identified from six centers between 2013 and 2019. Read More

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Transcription factor forkhead box K1 regulates miR-32 expression and enhances cell proliferation in colorectal cancer.

Oncol Lett 2021 May 22;21(5):407. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong 524001, P.R. China.

Increased microRNA (miR)-32 expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues enhances CRC cell proliferation, migration, invasion and attenuates CRC cell apoptosis by repressing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Forkhead box K1 (FOXK1) was identified as a potential interacting transcription factor using DNA pull-down assays and mass spectrometry. The present study aimed to elucidate the role of FOXK1 in regulating miR-32 expression in CRC. Read More

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Distal Enhancer Potentiates Activin- and GnRH-Induced Transcription of FSHB.

Endocrinology 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Center for Reproductive Science and Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is critical for fertility. Transcription of FSHB, the gene encoding the beta subunit, is rate-limiting in FSH production and is regulated by both gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and activin. Activin signals through SMAD transcription factors. Read More

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Percutaneous management of bone metastases: state of the art.

Radiologia 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Alcorcón, Madrid, España.

Interventional radiology is playing an increasingly important role in the local treatment of bone metastases; this treatment is usually done with palliative intent, although in selected patients it can be done with curative intent. Two main groups of techniques are available. The first group, centered on bone consolidation, includes osteoplasty / vertebroplasty, in which polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is injected to reinforce the bone and relieve pain, and percutaneous osteosynthesis, in which fractures with nondisplaced or minimally bone fragments are fixed in place with screws. Read More

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Effects of Sodium Chloride-Rich Mineral Water on Intestinal Epithelium. Experimental Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 22;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Professional School of Medical Hydrology, Complutense University of Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Since knowledge concerning the cellular and tissue substrate that explains the therapeutic action of mineral waters is generally very scarce, we address the different effects that Lanjarón-Capuchina mineral water exerts on the intestinal epithelium in an experimental model as a prototype of the sodium chloride-rich mineral waters used in digestive disorders. In the experimental protocol, two groups of five adult Wistar rats received unrestricted mineral water in their diet or mineral water directly into the gastrointestinal tract through a catheter. A third control group was given a standard diet and water ad libitum. Read More

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Thrombin-Fibrin(ogen) Interactions, Host Defense and Risk of Thrombosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 4;22(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Fibrinogen is a well-known risk factor for arterial and venous thrombosis. Its function is not restricted to clot formation, however, as it partakes in a complex interplay between thrombin, soluble plasma fibrinogen, and deposited fibrin matrices. Fibrinogen, like thrombin, participates predominantly in hemostasis to maintain vascular integrity, but executes some important pleiotropic effects: firstly, as observed in thrombin generation experiments, fibrin removes thrombin from free solution by adsorption. Read More

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Role of Zinc-Doped Bioactive Glass Encapsulated with Microspherical Gelatin in Localized Supplementation for Tissue Regeneration: A Contemporary Review.

Molecules 2021 Mar 24;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Dental Hygiene, Division of Health Science, Baekseok University, Cheonan 31065, Korea.

Gelatin, a natural polymer, provides excellent tissue compatibility for use in tissue rehabilitation. Bioactive glasses (BAG) offer superior capacity in stimulating a bioactive response but show high variability in uptake and solubility. To tackle these drawbacks, a combination of gelatin with BAG is proposed to form composites, which then offer a synergistic response. Read More

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Talimogene Laherparepvec (T-VEC): An Intralesional Cancer Immunotherapy for Advanced Melanoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Hemato-Oncology Division, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, 20141 Milan, Italy.

Direct intralesional injection of specific or even generic agents, has been proposed over the years as cancer immunotherapy, in order to treat cutaneous or subcutaneous metastasis. Such treatments usually induce an effective control of disease in injected lesions, but only occasionally were able to demonstrate a systemic abscopal effect on distant metastases. The usual availability of tissue for basic and translational research is a plus in utilizing this approach, which has been used in primis for the treatment of locally advanced melanoma. Read More

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The Motor Neuron-Like Cell Line NSC-34 and Its Parent Cell Line N18TG2 Have Glycogen that is Degraded Under Cellular Stress.

Neurochem Res 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Interfaculty Institute for Biochemistry, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 34, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Brain glycogen has a long and versatile history: Primarily regarded as an evolutionary remnant, it was then thought of as an unspecific emergency fuel store. A dynamic role for glycogen in normal brain function has been proposed later but exclusively attributed to astrocytes, its main storage site. Neuronal glycogen had long been neglected, but came into focus when sensitive technical methods allowed quantification of glycogen at low concentration range and the detection of glycogen metabolizing enzymes in cells and cell lysates. Read More

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Resveratrol Reduces COMPopathy in Mice Through Activation of Autophagy.

JBMR Plus 2021 Mar 22;5(3):e10456. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pediatrics, McGovern Medical School The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) Houston TX USA.

Misfolding mutations in cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) cause it to be retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of chondrocytes, stimulating a multitude of damaging cellular responses including ER stress, inflammation, and oxidative stress, which ultimately culminates in the death of growth plate chondrocytes and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH). Previously, we demonstrated that an antioxidant, resveratrol, substantially reduces the intracellular accumulation of mutant-COMP, dampens cellular stress, and lowers the level of growth plate chondrocyte death. In addition, we showed that resveratrol reduces mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, suggesting a potential mechanism. Read More

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The Complex World of Regulation of Pituitary Growth Hormone Secretion: The Role of Ghrelin, Klotho, and Nesfatins in It.

Authors:
Jesús Devesa

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 11;12:636403. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Scientific and Medical Direction, Medical Center Foltra, Teo, Spain.

The classic concept of how pituitary GH is regulated by somatostatin and GHRH has changed in recent years, following the discovery of peripheral hormones involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis and mineral homeostasis. These hormones are ghrelin, nesfatins, and klotho. Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone, released primarily by the gastric mucosa, although it is widely expressed in many different tissues, including the central nervous system and the pituitary. Read More

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Osteoblast role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Rheumatology Clinic - Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Foggia - Policlinico Riuniti Foggia, Viale Pinto 1, 71121, Foggia, Italy.

In the pathogenesis of several rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, alterations in osteoblast growth, differentiation and activity play a role. In particular, in rheumatoid arthritis bone homeostasis is perturbed: in addition to stimulating the pathologic bone resorption process performed by osteoclasts in course of rheumatoid arthritis, proinflammatory cytokines (such as Tumor Necrosis factor-α, Interleukin-1) can also inhibit osteoblast differentiation and function, resulting in net bone loss. Mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis showed that complete resolution of inflammation (with maximal reduction in the expression of pro-inflammatory factors) is crucial for bone healing, performed by osteoblasts activity. Read More

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Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 induced by a high-fat diet promotes prostate cancer progression by stimulating tumor-promoting cytokine production from tumor stromal cells.

Cancer Commun (Lond) 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Urology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Hondo, Akita, 010-8543, Japan.

Background: Recent studies have indicated that a high-fat diet (HFD) and/or HFD-induced obesity may influence prostate cancer (PCa) progression, but the role of HFD in PCa microenvironment is unclear. This study aimed to delineate the molecular mechanisms of PCa progression under HFD milieus and define the stromal microenvironment focusing on macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1) activation.

Methods: We investigated the effects of HFD on PCa stromal microenvironment and MIC-1 signaling activation using PC-3M-luc-C6 PCa model mice fed with HFD or control diet. Read More

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TPCA-1 negatively regulates inflammation mediated by NF-κB pathway in mouse chronic periodontitis model.

Mol Oral Microbiol 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Public Health, Xi'an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

The dysregulation of immune system plays a crucial function in periodontitis development. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are thought to be critical for the generation and development of periodontitis. The enhanced activity of osteoclasts contributes to periodontitis pathogenesis. Read More

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Bacteriophage manipulation of the microbiome associated with tumour microenvironments-can this improve cancer therapeutic response?

FEMS Microbiol Rev 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Victoria, Australia.

Some cancer treatment failures have been attributed to the tumour microbiota, with implications that microbiota manipulation may improve treatment efficacy. While antibiotics have been used to control bacterial growth, their dysbiotic effects on the microbiome, failure to penetrate biofilms and decreased efficacy due to increasing antimicrobial resistance by bacteria, suggest alternatives are needed. Bacteriophages may provide a precise means for targeting oncobacteria whose relative abundance is increased in tumour tissue microbiomes. Read More

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Activation of the GPR35 pathway drives angiogenesis in the tumour microenvironment.

Gut 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cambridge Institute of Therapeutic Immunology & Infectious Disease (CITIID), Jeffrey Cheah Biomedical Centre, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK

Objective: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is in 70% of cases associated with inflammatory bowel disease. The hypermorphic T108M variant of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35 increases risk for PSC and ulcerative colitis (UC), conditions strongly predisposing for inflammation-associated liver and colon cancer. Lack of GPR35 reduces tumour numbers in mouse models of spontaneous and colitis associated cancer. Read More

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S-adenosylmethionine upregulates the angiotensin receptor-binding protein ATRAP via the methylation of HuR in NAFLD.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Mar 22;12(4):306. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 430071, Wuhan, China.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged globally and is associated with inflammatory signaling. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly delineated, although NAFLD has attracted considerable attention and been extensively investigated. Recent publications have determined that angiotensin II (Ang II) plays an important role in stimulating NAFLD progression by causing lipid metabolism disorder and insulin resistance through its main receptor, Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R). Read More

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Evaluating the effect of spaceflight on the host-pathogen interaction between human intestinal epithelial cells and Salmonella Typhimurium.

NPJ Microgravity 2021 Mar 9;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Spaceflight uniquely alters the physiology of both human cells and microbial pathogens, stimulating cellular and molecular changes directly relevant to infectious disease. However, the influence of this environment on host-pathogen interactions remains poorly understood. Here we report our results from the STL-IMMUNE study flown aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-131, which investigated multi-omic responses (transcriptomic, proteomic) of human intestinal epithelial cells to infection with Salmonella Typhimurium when both host and pathogen were simultaneously exposed to spaceflight. Read More

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Use of Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide Treatment to Build a Tolerance Platform to Prevent Liquid and Solid Organ Allograft Rejection.

Front Immunol 2021 2;12:636789. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States.

Corneal transplantation (CT) is the most frequent type of solid organ transplant (SOT) performed worldwide. Unfortunately, immunological rejection is the primary cause of graft failure for CT and therefore advances in immune regulation to induce tolerance remains an unmet medical need. Recently, our work and others in pre-clinical studies found that cyclophosphamide (Cy) administered after ("post-transplant," PTCy) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), i. Read More

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Mucin O-glycans suppress quorum-sensing pathways and genetic transformation in Streptococcus mutans.

Nat Microbiol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Mucus barriers accommodate trillions of microorganisms throughout the human body while preventing pathogenic colonization. In the oral cavity, saliva containing the mucins MUC5B and MUC7 forms a pellicle that coats the soft tissue and teeth to prevent infection by oral pathogens, such as Streptococcus mutans. Salivary mucin can interact directly with microorganisms through selective agglutinin activity and bacterial binding, but the extent and basis of the protective functions of saliva are not well understood. Read More

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Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1A with Normocalcaemia, due to the Novel C.389A>G Variant of Exon 5 of the Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein, α-Stimulating Gene.

J Bone Metab 2021 Feb 28;28(1):85-89. Epub 2021 Feb 28.

Unit of Paediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, Second Department of Paediatrics, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, AHEPA University General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) is a rare disease caused by molecular defects in the maternally-inherited allele of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein, α-stimulating (GNAS) gene. The GNAS gene encodes the stimulatory G-protein α-subunit that regulates production of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Heterozygous inactivating mutations in these specific loci are responsible for a spectrum of phenotypic characteristics of the disease, including clinical features of the Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, due to resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Read More

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February 2021

A conserved cell division protein directly regulates FtsZ dynamics in filamentous and unicellular actinobacteria.

Elife 2021 03 17;10. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, John Innes Centre, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Bacterial cell division is driven by the polymerization of the GTPase FtsZ into a contractile structure, the so-called Z-ring. This essential process involves proteins that modulate FtsZ dynamics and hence the overall Z-ring architecture. Actinobacteria like and lack known key FtsZ-regulators. Read More

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Arundic acid (ONO-2526) inhibits stimulated-S100B secretion in inflammatory conditions.

Neurosci Lett 2021 04 13;751:135776. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Graduate Program in Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Institute of Basic Health Sciences, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Astrocytes respond to injury by modifying the expression profile of several proteins, including the S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), assumed to be a marker as well as a mediator of brain injury. AA is an inhibitor of S100B synthesis and plays a protective role in different models of brain injury, as decreases in S100B expression cause decreases in extracellular S100B. However, S100B mRNA expression, S100B protein content and S100B secretion do not always occur in association; as such, we herein investigated the effect of AA on S100B secretion, using different approaches with three stimulating conditions for S100B secretion, namely, low potassium medium, TNF-α (in hippocampal slices) and LPS exposure (in astrocyte cultures). Read More

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