30,212 results match your criteria direct pcr

miR-424 induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells and targets AKT1 and RAF1 oncogenes from the ERBB signaling pathway.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 Jun 18:174273. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

- Department of Hematology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Glioblastoma is a lethal and incurable cancer. Tumor suppressor miRNAs are promising gene therapy tools for cancer treatment. In silico, we predicted miR-424 as a tumor suppressor. Read More

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Allele and haplotype frequencies of human leukocyte antigen-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3/4/5, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1, and -DPB1 by next generation sequencing-based typing in Koreans in South Korea.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(6):e0253619. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Bank, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea.

Allele frequencies and haplotype frequencies of HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3/4/5, -DQA1, -DQB1, -DPA1, and -DPB1 have been rarely reported in South Koreans using unambiguous, phase-resolved next generation DNA sequencing. In this study, HLA typing of 11 loci in 173 healthy South Koreans were performed using next generation DNA sequencing with long-range PCR, TruSight® HLA v2 kit, Illumina MiSeqDx platform system, and Assign™ for TruSight™ HLA software. Haplotype frequencies were calculated using the PyPop software. Read More

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Constructing and adjusting estimates for household transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from prior studies, widespread-testing and contact-tracing data.

Int J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Statistics, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA.

Background: With reduced community mobility, household infections may become increasingly important in SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics.

Methods: We investigate the intra-household transmission of COVID-19 through the secondary-attack rate (SAR) and household reproduction number (Rh). We estimate these using (i) data from 29 prior studies (February-August 2020), (ii) epidemiologically linked confirmed cases from Singapore (January-April 2020) and (iii) widespread-testing data from Vo' (February-March 2020). Read More

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The role of circTMOD3 in regulating LPS-induced acute inflammation and injury in human lung fibroblast WI-38 cells.

Exp Lung Res 2021 Jun 20:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Affiliated Hospital of Yan'an University, Yan'an, China.

Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been implicated in the molecular etiology of pediatric pneumonia. Here, we investigated the precise action of circRNA tropomodulin 3 (circTMOD3, hsa_circ_0035292) in cell injury and inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell viability was gauged by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Read More

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Oral Delivery of Expressing Chicken NK-2 Peptide Protects Against Infection in Broiler Chickens.

Front Vet Sci 2021 4;8:684818. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Animal Bioscience and Biotechnology Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD, United States.

Chicken NK-lysin peptide 2 (cNK-2) is a natural lytic peptide with direct cytotoxicity against many apicomplexan parasites including . Developing an effective oral delivery strategy to express cNK-2 in the intestine, where parasites interact with the host's gut epithelial cells, may effectively reduce the fecundity of parasites and minimize intestinal damage. Furthermore, cNK-2 modulates gut immune responses to decrease local inflammation elicited by infection in the intestine. Read More

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Microneedle-based devices for point-of-care infectious disease diagnostics.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU, UK.

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as COVID-19 and Ebola, have highlighted the need for rapid and accurate diagnosis to initiate treatment and curb transmission. Successful diagnostic strategies critically depend on the efficiency of biological sampling and timely analysis. However, current diagnostic techniques are invasive/intrusive and present a severe bottleneck by requiring specialist equipment and trained personnel. Read More

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February 2021

miR-125b-5p inhibits cell proliferation by targeting ASCT2 and regulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in an LPS-induced intestinal mucosa cell injury model.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 6;22(2):838. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

NHC Key Laboratory of Drug Addiction Medicine, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, P.R. China.

Intestinal barrier injury is an important cause of death in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Therefore, it is of great significance to identify a therapeutic target for intestinal barrier injury to delay the progression of AIDS. microRNA (miRNA/miR)-125b-5p has an extensive role in cancer and controlling intestinal epithelial barrier function, but its role in human immunodeficiency virus-related intestinal mucosal damage remains unknown. Read More

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Celecoxib ameliorates diabetic neuropathy by decreasing apoptosis and oxidative stress in dorsal root ganglion neurons via the miR-155/COX-2 axis.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 2;22(2):825. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neurology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, Kunming, Yunnan 650101, P.R. China.

Celecoxib (CXB) is the only clinical cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor. Oral administration of CXB in experimental diabetic mice effectively relieved the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy (DN); however, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms of CXB in the treatment of DN. Read More

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New Microbiological Techniques for the Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections and Sepsis in ICU Including Point of Care.

Curr Infect Dis Rep 2021 16;23(8):12. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, Herston, Queensland 4029 Australia.

Purpose Of Review: The aim of this article is to review current and emerging microbiological techniques that support the rapid diagnosis of bacterial infections in critically ill patients, including their performance, strengths and pitfalls, as well as available data evaluating their clinical impact.

Recent Findings: Bacterial infections and sepsis are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit and their management is further complicated by the increase in the global burden of antimicrobial resistance. In this setting, new diagnostic methods able to overcome the limits of traditional microbiology in terms of turn-around time and accuracy are highly warranted. Read More

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Viremia controls Env-specific antibody-secreting cell responses in SIV-infected macaques pre- and post-ART.

AIDS 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329 - USA Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30329 - USA Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322 - USA Current address: Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analyses, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP - 05508-000 - Brazil Current address: National Primate Research Center (NPRC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Ochang, Korea Current address: New Iberia Research Center, University of Louisiana at Lafayette, New Iberia - LA, 70560 - USA Current address: Department of Pharmaceutical and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha - NE - 58800 - USA.

Objective: To investigate the kinetics of Env (gp140)-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute and early chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, and prior to and post-antiretroviral therapy (ART) in rhesus macaques (RMs).

Design And Methods: At week 0, RMs were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239 and the viral loads were allowed to develop. Daily ART was initiated at week 5 post infection until week 18, though the animals were monitored until week 28 for the following parameters: enumeration of SIV gp140-specific ASCs by ELISPOT; quantification of viremia and SIV gp140-specific IgG titers through qRT-PCR and ELISA, respectively; estimation of monocytes, follicular helper T cells (Tfh), and memory B cell frequencies using polychromatic flow cytometry. Read More

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Detection and characterization of spp. in dogs diagnosed with kidney and/or liver disease in Selangor, Malaysia.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2021 Jun 19:10406387211024575. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Departments of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Leptospirosis is a serious bacterial disease that affects both humans and animals. A wide range of symptoms have been described in humans; the disease in dogs is commonly associated with kidney and/or liver disease. In Malaysia, information about the common serovars infecting dogs is limited. Read More

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Upregulation of Basonuclin1 Is Associated with p63-Involved Epithelial Barrier Impairment and Type-2 Helper T-cell Inflammation in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 Jun 18:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing TongRen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Tumor protein p63 has been shown to be important for epithelial dysfunction, including epithelial barrier defects and mucosal inflammation, in the development of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Basonuclin1 (BNC1), an epithelial-specific transcriptional factor, is a direct downstream target of p63 and thus might be involved in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP.

Objective: We sought to investigate whether BNC1 was associated with p63-mediated epithelial barrier defects and nasal mucosal inflammation in CRSwNP. Read More

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miR-934 promotes breast cancer metastasis by regulation of PTEN and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Tissue Cell 2021 Jun 11;71:101581. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Medical Technology, Jiangsu College of Nursing, Huai'an, China.

Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females. Over 90 % of the cases of death in BC patients are attributed to tumor cell metastasis. Therefore, it is urgently needed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of BC metastasis. Read More

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MiR-433-3p restrains the proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells via targeting SMC4.

Brain Res 2021 Jun 17:147563. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

The Fourth Department of Neurosurgery, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan, 063000, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Glioma is a common primary malignant brain tumor characterized by high mortality and poor prognosis. The purpose of this study is to explore the molecular mechanism underlying glioma, aiming to provide a new target for the treatment of glioma to improve the prognosis of patients.

Methods: The differentially expressed genes and regulatory axis affecting the prognosis of glioma were identified with bioinformatics analysis, and the expression of miR-433-3p and SMC4 mRNA was detected with qRT-PCR. Read More

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A novel RdRp-based colorimetric RT-LAMP assay for rapid and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 in clinical and sewage samples from Pakistan.

Virus Res 2021 Jun 16:198484. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2, causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has become a global health challenge particularly for developing countries like Pakistan where overcrowded cities, inadequate sanitation, little health awareness and poor socioeconomic conditions exist. The SARS-CoV-2 has been known to spread primarily through direct contact and respiratory droplets. However, detection of SARS-CoV-2 in stool and sewage, have raised the possibility of fecal-oral mode of transmission. Read More

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Assessing the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine as outpatient treatment of COVID-19: a randomized controlled trial.

CMAJ Open 2021 Apr-Jun;9(2):E693-E702. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases (Schwartz, Mponponsuo), Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Alberta Strategy for Patient Oriented Research SUPPORT Unit (Boesen); Cumming School of Medicine (Boesen, Cerchiaro, Greenfield, Kenney, Ryckborst), University of Calgary; Section of Infectious Diseases (Edwards), Department of Medicine, and Department of Clinical Neurosciences (Doram, Ganesh, Karnik), Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.; Quality Management in Clinical Research Office (Jamieson, Stewart), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Division of Respirology (Lim), Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, and Departments of Clinical Neurosciences and Community Health Sciences (Menon, Metz), Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.; Women and Children's Research Institute (Rathwell, Yaskina), and Department of Pediatrics (Richer), Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Departments of Clinical Neurosciences, Community Health Sciences, and Medicine (Hill), Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.

Background: Identification of therapies to prevent severe COVID-19 remains a priority. We sought to determine whether hydroxychloroquine treatment for outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could prevent hospitalization, mechanical ventilation or death.

Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in Alberta during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic without direct contact with participants. Read More

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Role of functionalized self-assembled peptide hydrogels in vasculogenesis.

Soft Matter 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, İzmir, 35620, Turkey. and Bonegraft Biomaterials Co., Ege University Technopolis, 35100, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey.

Fabrication of vascularized tissue constructs plays an integral role in creating clinically relevant tissues. Scaffold materials should be sufficiently vascularized to mimic functional and complex native tissues. Herein, we report the development of bioactive and biomimetic self-assembled peptide (SAP) hydrogels that allow the rapid formation of a vascular structure in vitro. Read More

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A single-domain small protein Med-ORF10 regulates the production of antitumour agent medermycin in Streptomyces.

Microb Biotechnol 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Helmholtz International Lab for Anti-Infectives, Shandong University-Helmholtz Institute of Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, 266237, China.

Med-ORF10, a single-domain protein with unknown function encoded by a gene located in a gene cluster responsible for the biosynthesis of a novel antitumour antibiotic medermycin, shares high homology to a group of small proteins widely distributed in many aromatic polyketide antibiotic pathways. This group of proteins contain a nuclear transport factor-2 (NTF-2) domain and appear to undergo an evolutionary divergence in their functions. Gene knockout and interspecies complementation suggested that Med-ORF10 plays a regulatory role in medermycin biosynthetic pathway. Read More

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Duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding: A population-based, Canadian study.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(6):e0252217. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: There is an evidence gap regarding the duration of SARS-CoV-2 shedding and of its variability across different care settings and by age, sex, income, and co-morbidities. Such evidence is part of understanding of infectivity and reinfection. We examine direct measures of viral shedding using a linked population-based health administrative dataset. Read More

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In Search of the SARS-CoV-2 Protection Correlate: Head-to-Head Comparison of Two Quantitative S1 Assays in Pre-characterized Oligo-/Asymptomatic Patients.

Infect Dis Ther 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) Munich, Leopoldstr. 5, 80802, Munich, Germany.

Background: Quantitative serological assays detecting response to SARS-CoV-2 are needed to quantify immunity. This study analyzed the performance and correlation of two quantitative anti-S1 assays in oligo-/asymptomatic individuals from a population-based cohort.

Methods: In total, 362 plasma samples (108 with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction [RT-PCR]-positive pharyngeal swabs, 111 negative controls, and 143 with positive serology without confirmation by RT-PCR) were tested with quantitative assays (Euroimmun Anti-SARS-CoV-2 QuantiVac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [EI-S1-IgG-quant]) and Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S [Ro-RBD-Ig-quant]), which were compared with each other and confirmatory tests, including wild-type virus micro-neutralization (NT) and GenScriptcPass™. Read More

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Effect of a Topical Formulation on Infective Viral Load in Lambs Naturally Infected with Orf Virus.

Vet Med (Auckl) 2021 9;12:149-158. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, 2570, Australia.

Introduction: Orf is a highly contagious eruptive viral disease of the skin and mucosa of sheep and goats. Although vaccination with live or attenuated orf virus is the preferred option for disease control, the vaccine is unavailable in many countries. Treatment of orf lesions involves standard hygiene and in numerous cases, management of presumptive secondary infections with antibiotics, increasing risks of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Read More

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Encephalopathies Associated With Severe COVID-19 Present Neurovascular Unit Alterations Without Evidence for Strong Neuroinflammation.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 Jul 16;8(5). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

From the Service of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroimmunology (R.B.-V., S.P., M.C., B.P., L.C., M.C.-J., J.-B.E., S.V., P.S.-C., A.A., A.S., R.A.D.P.), Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Lausanne University Hospital (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois) and University of Lausanne; Institute of Microbiology (K.J., G.G.), University of Lausanne and University Hospital of Lausanne; Service of Internal Medicine (J.V.), Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois) and University of Lausanne; and Service of Immunology and Allergy (M.P., G.P.), Department of Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Switzerland.

Objective: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with a large variety of neurologic disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying these neurologic complications remain elusive. In this study, we aimed at determining whether neurologic symptoms were caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) direct infection or by either systemic or local proinflammatory mediators. Read More

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Macroscopic, histological, and molecular aspects of Sarcocystis spp. infection in tissues of cattle and sheep.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 14;30(3):e003621. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Laboratório de Doenças Parasitárias - LADOPAR, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil.

The macroscopic, histological, and molecular aspects of Sarcocystis spp. were examined in the tissues of two cattle and four sheep, 16 and eight fragments analyzed respectively, condemned in the slaughterhouse. All 24 samples were collected and analyzed for detecting macrocysts and macroscopic lesions. Read More

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Effect of C reactive protein on the sodium-calcium exchanger 1 in cardiomyocytes.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Aug 28;22(2):815. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510120, P.R. China.

Numerous previous studies have found that C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac remodeling. However, the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. Sodium-calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1) serves an important role in the regulation of intracellular calcium concentration, which is closely related with cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac remodeling. Read More

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Changes in the co-expressions of interleukin 29 (IL-29), IFN-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monokine induced by IFNγ (MIG) genes in chronic hepatitis C Egyptian patients untreated and treated with DAAs.

Acta Virol 2021 ;65(2):141-148

Direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are a group of antiviral drugs that inhibit specific non-structural proteins of the virus and disrupt viral replication and infection. DAAs regimens for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection provide a particular event to tackle mechanistic intracellular relationships between the innate immunity and HCV, potentially providing perceptions about the rate of the viral replication and complex decay. Interleukin 29 (IL-29) prevents the replication of HCV. Read More

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Nicotinamide mononucleotide-elicited NAMPT signaling activation aggravated adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats by affecting peripheral immune cells differentiation.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jun 12;98:107856. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College (Yijishan Hospital), Wuhu 241000, China; Research Center of Integration of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241000, China; Key Laboratory of Non-coding RNA Transformation Research of Anhui Higher Education Institution, Wannan Medical College, Wuhu 241000, China. Electronic address:

Supplement of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the direct precursor of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) has gained prominence due to the significant anti-aging potentials of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferas (NAMPT)/NAD signaling. Because over-expression of NAMPT is deeply implicated in inflammatory arthritis, we investigated the effects of NMN supplement on rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA). Tested rats were given oral treatment of NMN at 200 mg/kg/day for 25 days. Read More

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Mesenchyme homeobox 1 mediated-promotion of osteoblastic differentiation is negatively regulated by mir-3064-5p.

Differentiation 2021 Jun 10;120:19-27. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, No. 59 Haier Road, Qingdao, 266000, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that can be differentiated into different cell types including osteoblasts. Herein we aimed to assess the regulation of transcription factor mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) in the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and to determine the microRNA which targets on Meox1. Total RNA was extracted from the isolated ligamentum flavum tissue samples and cultured hMSCs, and the expression of Meox1 was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot assays. Read More

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Microscopic and molecular detection of Deraiophoronema evansi (Lewis, 1882) in domestic Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) of Mongolia.

Parasitol Int 2021 Jun 12:102404. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Mongolian University of Life Science, Zaisan, 17042, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Electronic address:

Cameline filarosis is an important parasitic disease having an economic impact on the camel industry around the world. However, there has been no study on filarosis in Bactrian camels of Mongolia. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to detect and identify microfilariae of Deraiophoronema evansi (D. Read More

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Laboratory evaluation of the rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 using diarrheal samples.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 15;15(6):e0009521. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Bacteriology, ICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.

Background: Cholera, an acute diarrheal disease is a major public health problem in many developing countries. Several rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are available for the detection of cholera, but their efficacies are not compared in an endemic setting. In this study, we have compared the specificity and sensitivity of three RDT kits for the detection of Vibrio cholerae O1 and compared their efficiency with culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Read More

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First report of infecting white clover () in Finland.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Finnish Food Authority, Laboratory and Research, Mustialankatu 3, Helsinki, Finland, 00790;

Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV, genus ) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus able to infect several legume species. SbDV was first reported in Japan where it was associated with significant yield losses in soybean (Tamada, 1969). Since then the virus has been detected worldwide. Read More

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