3,974 results match your criteria diisopropyl fluorophosphate


Differential phosphoprotein signaling in the cortex in mouse models of Gulf War Illness using corticosterone and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

Heliyon 2021 Jul 12;7(7):e07552. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Aims: Veterans from the 1990-91 Gulf War were exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), and, following service, an estimated one-third began suffering from a medically unexplained, multi-symptom illness termed Gulf War Illness (GWI). Previous research has developed validated rodent models that include exposure to exogenous corticosterone (CORT) and AChEIs to simulate high stress and chemical exposures encountered in theater. This combination of exposures in mice resulted in a marked increase in neuroinflammation, which is a common symptom of veterans suffering from GWI. Read More

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Epigenetic histone acetylation and Bdnf dysregulation in the hippocampus of rats exposed to repeated, low-dose diisopropylfluorophosphate.

Life Sci 2021 Sep 26;281:119765. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Aims: Deployment-related exposures to organophosphate (OP) compounds are implicated for Gulf War Illness (GWI) development in First GW veterans. However, reasons for the persistence of GWI are not fully understood. Epigenetic modifications to chromatin are regulatory mechanisms that can adaptively or maladaptively respond to external stimuli. Read More

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September 2021

Computational Design of Novel Allosteric Inhibitors for DegP.

Molecules 2021 May 7;26(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Translational Bioinformatics Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi 110067, India.

The serine protease, DegP exhibits proteolytic and chaperone activities, essential for cellular protein quality control and normal cell development in eukaryotes. The DegP is essential for the parasite survival and required to combat the oscillating thermal stress conditions during the infection, protein quality checks and protein homeostasis in the extra-cytoplasmic compartments, thereby establishing it as a potential target for drug development against malaria. Previous studies have shown that diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) and the peptide SPMFKGV inhibit DegP protease activity. Read More

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The K7 Modulator, Retigabine, is an Efficacious Antiseizure Drug for Delayed Treatment of Organophosphate-induced Status Epilepticus.

Neuroscience 2021 05 6;463:143-158. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Medical Toxicology Research Division, Neuroscience Department, 2900 Ricketts Point Rd, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010, USA.

Benzodiazepines are the primary treatment option for organophosphate (OP)-induced status epilepticus (SE), but these antiseizure drugs (ASDs) lose efficacy as treatment is delayed. In the event of a mass civilian or military exposure, significant treatment delays are likely. New ASDs that combat benzodiazepine-resistant, OP-induced SE are critically needed, particularly if they can be efficacious after a long treatment delay. Read More

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Textile-based wearable solid-contact flexible fluoride sensor: Toward biodetection of G-type nerve agents.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 23;182:113172. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, United States. Electronic address:

Rising global concerns posed by chemical and biological threat agents highlight the critical need to develop reliable strategies for the real-time detection of such threats. While wearable sensing technology is well suited to fulfill this task, the use of on-body devices for rapid and selective field identification of chemical agents is relatively a new area. This work describes a flexible printed textile-based solid-contact potentiometric sensor for the selective detection of fluoride anions liberated by the biocatalytic hydrolysis of fluorine-containing G-type nerve agents (such as sarin or soman). Read More

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GI Bleed DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 8;46(2):411-412. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

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February 2021

GERD DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 5;46(2):406-407. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

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February 2021

HCC diagnosis DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 4;46(2):415-416. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

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February 2021

Uterine and ovarian cancer DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 4;46(2):421-422. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

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February 2021

Rectal Cancer DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 4;46(2):417-418. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

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February 2021

Neuroendocrine neoplasm DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 2;46(2):401-402. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

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February 2021

Endometriosis DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 1;46(2):409-410. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

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February 2021

Crohn disease DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 1;46(2):399-400. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

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February 2021

Pancreatic cancer DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02 25;46(2):425-426. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

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February 2021

Hepatic Iron Overload DFP 2020.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02;46(2):408

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February 2021

Pelvic floor DFP report.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02;46(2):420

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February 2021

Liver fibrosis DFP summary 2020.

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Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02;46(2):413-414

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February 2021

Decomposition of the Simulant 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide Blister Agent under Ambient Conditions Using Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 18;13(3):3782-3792. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Chemistry and Nuclear & WMD Protection Research Center, Korea Military Academy, Seoul 01805, Republic of Korea.

Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) have been suggested as promising materials for application in the degradation of chemical warfare agents, with the majority of studies to date focusing on nerve agents. One of the most prominent MOFs used in the detoxification of nerve agents is UiO-66, which is of interest as a future nerve agent decontaminant. However, blister agents, which constitute one of the most toxic and highly reactive categories of chemical agents, are yet to be examined as gas-phase decontamination targets using MOF structures. Read More

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January 2021

HCC Treatment Response DFP report.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 02;46(2):423-424

Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

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February 2021

Improving Quantification of tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, and sulfur mustard by focusing agents: A field portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry study.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jan 13;1636:461784. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Hazardous Materials Research Center (HMRC), Battelle Columbus Laboratories, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH, USA.

Commercial gas chromatograph-mass spectrometers, one of which being Inficon's HAPSITE® ER, have demonstrated chemical detection and identification of nerve agents (G-series) and blistering agents (mustard gas) in the field; however most analyses relies on self-contained or external calibration that inherently drifts over time. We describe an analytical approach that uses target-based thermal desorption standards, called focusing agents, to accurately calculate concentrations of chemical warfare agents that are analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Here, we provide relative response factors of focusing agents (2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, diethyl methylphosphonate, diethyl malonate, methyl salicylate, and dichlorvos) that are used to quantify concentrations of tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin and sulfur mustard loaded on thermal desorption tubes (Tenax® TA). Read More

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January 2021

Remote Detection of HCN, HF, and Nerve Agent Vapors Based on Self-Referencing, Dye-Impregnated Porous Silicon Photonic Crystals.

ACS Sens 2021 02 2;6(2):418-428. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, United States.

A one-dimensional photonic crystal is prepared from porous silicon (pSi) and impregnated with a chemically specific colorimetric indicator dye to provide a self-referenced vapor sensor for the selective detection of hydrogen fluoride (HF), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and the chemical nerve agent diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). The photonic crystal is prepared with two stop bands: one that coincides with the optical absorbance of the relevant activated indicator dye and the other in a spectrally "clear" region, to provide a reference. The inner pore walls of the pSi sample are then modified with octadecylsilane to provide a hydrophobic interior, and the indicator dye of interest is then loaded into the mesoporous matrix. Read More

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February 2021

Organophosphorus diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) intoxication in zebrafish larvae causes behavioral defects, neuronal hyperexcitation and neuronal death.

Sci Rep 2020 11 5;10(1):19228. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

NeuroDiderot, Inserm, Université de Paris, 75019, Paris, France.

With millions of intoxications each year and over 200,000 deaths, organophosphorus (OP) compounds are an important public health issue worldwide. OP poisoning induces cholinergic syndrome, with respiratory distress, hypertension, and neuron damage that may lead to epileptic seizures and permanent cognitive deficits. Existing countermeasures are lifesaving but do not prevent long-lasting neuronal comorbidities, emphasizing the urgent need for animal models to better understand OP neurotoxicity and identify novel antidotes. Read More

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November 2020

Mixed-Metal Cerium/Zirconium MOFs with Improved Nerve Agent Detoxification Properties.

Inorg Chem 2020 Nov 5;59(22):16160-16167. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Granada, Avenida Fuentenueva S/N, 18071 Granada, Spain.

A series of Ce/Zr mixed-metal-organic frameworks with different topology/connectivity, namely, Ce/Zr-UiO-66 (U01, U02, and U03) (fcu (12-c)), Ce/Zr-DUT-67-PZDC (D01 and D02) (reo (8-c)), and Ce/Zr-MOF-808 (M01, M02, and M03) (spn (6-c)) were evaluated toward the detoxification of toxic nerve agent model diisopropylfluorophosphate (DIFP) at room temperature in unbuffered aqueous solution. Noteworthily, the catalytic rate for P-F bond cleavage increased with increasing Ce/Zr molar ratio. A further increase in catalytic activity can be achieved by Mg(OMe) doping of the mixed-metal MOFs as exemplified with [email protected](OMe) and [email protected](OMe) systems. Read More

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November 2020

A role for neuroimmune signaling in a rat model of Gulf War Illness-related pain.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 01 27;91:418-428. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Laboratories of Neuroimmunology, Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

More than a quarter of veterans of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War suffer from Gulf War Illness (GWI), a chronic, multi-symptom illness that commonly includes musculoskeletal pain. Exposure to a range of toxic chemicals, including sarin nerve agent, are a suspected root cause of GWI. Moreover, such chemical exposures induce a neuroinflammatory response in rodents, which has been linked to several GWI symptoms in rodents and veterans with GWI. Read More

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January 2021

Recent advances in process engineering and upcoming applications of metal-organic frameworks.

Coord Chem Rev 2021 Jan 18;426:213544. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Sookmyung Women's University, 100 Cheongpa-ro 47 gil, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 04310, Republic of Korea.

Progress in metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has advanced from fundamental chemistry to engineering processes and applications, resulting in new industrial opportunities. The unique features of MOFs, such as their permanent porosity, high surface area, and structural flexibility, continue to draw industrial interest outside the traditional MOF field, both to solve existing challenges and to create new businesses. In this context, diverse research has been directed toward commercializing MOFs, but such studies have been performed according to a variety of individual goals. Read More

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January 2021

Allopregnanolone and perampanel as adjuncts to midazolam for treating diisopropylfluorophosphate-induced status epilepticus in rats.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 11 11;1480(1):183-206. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California.

Combinations of midazolam, allopregnanolone, and perampanel were assessed for antiseizure activity in a rat diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) status epilepticus model. Animals receiving DFP followed by atropine and pralidoxime exhibited continuous high-amplitude rhythmical electroencephalography (EEG) spike activity and behavioral seizures for more than 5 hours. Treatments were administered intramuscularly 40 min after DFP. Read More

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November 2020

Acute administration of diazepam or midazolam minimally alters long-term neuropathological effects in the rat brain following acute intoxication with diisopropylfluorophosphate.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Nov 6;886:173538. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA, 95616, USA. Electronic address:

Acute intoxication with organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors (OPs) can trigger seizures that rapidly progress to life-threatening status epilepticus. Diazepam, long considered the standard of care for treating OP-induced seizures, is being replaced by midazolam. Whether midazolam is more effective than diazepam in mitigating the persistent effects of acute OP intoxication has not been rigorously evaluated. Read More

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November 2020

Delayed Adjunctive Treatment of Organophosphate-Induced Status Epilepticus in Rats with Phenobarbital, Memantine, or Dexmedetomidine.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 10 1;375(1):59-68. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Organophosphate (OP) exposure induces status epilepticus (SE), a medical emergency with high morbidity and mortality. Current standard medical countermeasures lose efficacy with time so that treatment delays, in the range of tens of minutes, result in increasingly poor outcomes. As part of the Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats Neurotherapeutics Screening Program, we previously developed a realistic model of delayed treatment of OP-induced SE using the OP diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) to screen compounds for efficacy in the termination of SE and elimination of neuronal death. Read More

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October 2020

Post-diaminobenzidine Treatments for Double Stainings: Extension of Sulfide-Silver-Gold Intensification for Light and Fluorescent Microscopy.

J Histochem Cytochem 2020 08 13;68(8):571-582. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Double staining protocols using the most popular immunoperoxidase techniques may raise difficulties. The two ordinary detection systems may cross-talk, when the primary antibodies are derived from phylogenetically closely related animals. A color shift of the 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) polymer may occur during the second development, resulting in poor distinction between the two kinds of deposits. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms for the antidepressant-like effects of a low-dose ketamine treatment in a DFP-based rat model for Gulf War Illness.

Neurotoxicology 2020 09 24;80:52-59. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Departments of Neurology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Exposure to organophosphates (OP) during the First Gulf War is among one of the factors for Gulf War Illness (GWI) development in veterans and it has been challenging to treat GWI symptoms with existing therapies. Ketamine produces a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant response, but there is no evidence whether ketamine treatment is effective for GWI depression. Repeated, low-dose exposure to diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) mimic Gulf War related OP exposures and produces a chronic depressive state in rats. Read More

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September 2020