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High-accuracy quantitative principle of a new compact digital PCR equipment: Lab On An Array.

Genomics Inform 2021 Sep 30;19(3):e34. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Bioconvergence Engineering, Dankook University, Yongin 16890, Korea.

Digital PCR (dPCR) is the third-generation PCR that enables real-time absolute quantification without reference materials. Recently, global diagnosis companies have developed new dPCR equipment. In line with the development, the Lab On An Array (LOAA) dPCR analyzer (Optolane) was launched last year. Read More

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September 2021

User-Agent Bond in Generalizable Environments: Long-Term Risk-Reduction via Nudged Virtual Choices.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:695389. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Communication, Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Avatars or agents are digitized self-representations of a player in mediated environments. While using agents to navigate through mediated environments, players form bonds with their self-agents or characters, a process referred to as identification. Identification can involve automatic, but temporary, self-concept "shifts in implicit self-perceptions" (Klimmt et al. Read More

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Endocranial asymmetry in New World monkeys: a comparative phylogenetic analysis of morphometric data.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Aug 29. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

División Antropología (FCNyM-UNLP), CONICET, La Plata, Argentina.

Brain lateralization is a widespread phenomenon although its expression across primates is still controversial due to the reduced number of species analyzed and the disparity of methods used. To gain insight into the diversification of neuroanatomical asymmetries in non-human primates we analyze the endocasts, as a proxy of external brain morphology, of a large sample of New World monkeys and test the effect of brain size, home range and group sizes in the pattern and magnitude of shape asymmetry. Digital endocasts from 26 species were obtained from MicroCT scans and a set of 3D coordinates was digitized on endocast surfaces. Read More

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A Digitized Representation of the Modified Prandtl-Ishlinskii Hysteresis Model for Modeling and Compensating Piezoelectric Actuator Hysteresis.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Aug 10;12(8). Epub 2021 Aug 10.

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459, Singapore.

Piezoelectric actuators are widely used in micromanipulation and miniature robots due to their rapid response and high repeatability. The piezoelectric actuators often have undesired hysteresis. The Prandtl-Ishlinskii (PI) hysteresis model is one of the most popular models for modeling and compensating the hysteresis behaviour. Read More

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Wide & Deep neural network model for patch aggregation in CNN-based prostate cancer detection systems.

Comput Biol Med 2021 09 14;136:104743. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Robotics and Tech. of Computers Lab., Universidad de Sevilla, 41012, Seville, Spain; Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Informática (ETSII), Universidad de Sevilla, 41012, Seville, Spain; Escuela Politécnica Superior (EPS), Universidad de Sevilla, 41011, Seville, Spain; Smart Computer Systems Research and Engineering Lab (SCORE), Research Institute of Computer Engineering (I3US), Universidad de Sevilla, 41012, Seville, Spain.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer and one of the leading causes of death among men, with almost 1.41 million new cases and around 375,000 deaths in 2020. Artificial Intelligence algorithms have had a huge impact on medical image analysis, including digital histopathology, where Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are used to provide a fast and accurate diagnosis, supporting experts in this task. Read More

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September 2021

Automated Analysis of Digitized Letter Fluency Data.

Front Psychol 2021 29;12:654214. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Penn Frontotemporal Degeneration Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

The letter-guided naming fluency task is a measure of an individual's executive function and working memory. This study employed a novel, automated, quantifiable, and reproducible method to investigate how language characteristics of words produced during a fluency task are related to fluency performance, inter-word response time (RT), and over task duration using digitized F-letter-guided fluency recordings produced by 76 young healthy participants. Our automated algorithm counted the number of correct responses from the transcripts of the F-letter fluency data, and individual words were rated for concreteness, ambiguity, frequency, familiarity, and age of acquisition (AoA). Read More

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Time-efficiency and cost-analysis comparing three digital workflows for treatment with monolithic zirconia implant fixed dental prostheses: A double-blinded RCT.

J Dent 2021 Oct 13;113:103779. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Reconstructive Dentistry, University Center for Dental Medicine (UZB), University of Basel, Mattenstrasse 40, Basel 4058, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Objectives: This double-blinded randomized controlled trial investigated economic performance indicators (EPI) in terms of time-efficiency and production costs of 3-unit monolithic zirconium-dioxide (ZrO2) implant fixed dental prostheses (iFDP) in three different workflows.

Methods: Twenty patients with two Straumann Tissue-Level-Implants received three iFDPs; two were fabricated in proprietary complete digital workflows with intraoral optical scanning and model-free fabrication with company-related CAD/CAM lab-software while one iFDP was manufactured on digitized casts from conventional impressions. The sequence of impression-taking for the three workflows (TRIOS 3/3Shape [Test-1]; Virtuo Vivo/Dental Wings [Test-2]; Impregum/3M Espe [Control]) was randomly allocated. Read More

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October 2021

A machine-learning algorithm for the reliable identification of oral lichen planus.

J Oral Pathol Med 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

UWA Dental School, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA, Australia.

Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common oral disorder which shares clinical and histopathological features with other lichenoid lesions, leading to considerable inter-observer disagreement. This negatively impacts understanding of the pathogenesis and malignant transformation potential of this condition.

Methods: Artificial intelligence was employed to create a machine-learning artificial neural network to identify and quantify mononuclear cells and granulocytes within the inflammatory infiltrates in digitized hematoxylin and eosin microscopic slides. Read More

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Literary runaway: Increasingly more references cited per academic research article from 1980 to 2019.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(8):e0255849. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.

References are employed in most academic research papers to give credits and to reflect scholarliness. With the upsurge in academic publications in recent decades, we are curious to know how the number of references cited per research article has changed across different disciplines over that time. The results of our study showed significant linear growth in reference density in eight disciplinary categories between 1980 and 2019 indexed in Web of Science. Read More

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The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology.

Can J Cardiol 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Division of Cardiology, Peter Munk Cardiac Center, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. Electronic address:

In recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has found numerous applications in cardiology due in part to large digitized datasets and the evolution of high performance computing. In the discipline of cardiac electrophysiology (EP), a number of clinical, imaging, and electrical waveform data are considered in the diagnosis, prognostication and management of arrhythmias, which lend themselves well to automation through AI. But equally relevant, AI offers a unique opportunity to discover novel EP concepts and improve clinical care through its inherent, hierarchical tenets of self-learning. Read More

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Semi-supervised training of deep convolutional neural networks with heterogeneous data and few local annotations: An experiment on prostate histopathology image classification.

Med Image Anal 2021 10 14;73:102165. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Information Systems Institute, University of Applied Sciences Western Switzerland (HES-SO Valais), Technopôle 3, Sierre 3960, Switzerland; Department of Neurosciences, University of Padua, Via Giustiniani 2, Padua, 35128, Italy. Electronic address:

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are state-of-the-art computer vision techniques for various tasks, particularly for image classification. However, there are domains where the training of classification models that generalize on several datasets is still an open challenge because of the highly heterogeneous data and the lack of large datasets with local annotations of the regions of interest, such as histopathology image analysis. Histopathology concerns the microscopic analysis of tissue specimens processed in glass slides to identify diseases such as cancer. Read More

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October 2021

Application of noise-reduction techniques to machine learning algorithms for breast cancer tumor identification.

Comput Biol Med 2021 08 19;135:104576. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USA. Electronic address:

The application of machine learning (ML) techniques to digitized images of biopsied cells for breast cancer diagnosis is an active area of research. We hypothesized that reducing noise in the data would lead to an increase in classification accuracies. To test this hypothesis, we first compared several classification techniques in their ability to discriminate between malignant and benign breast cancer tumors using the Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data Set and subsequently evaluated the effect of noise reduction techniques on model accuracies. Read More

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Low temperature Thomson scattering on MAST-U.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Apr;92(4):043545

UKAEA/CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB, United Kingdom.

A new divertor Thomson scattering system has been developed for the MAST-U tokamak. The diagnostic will produce electron density and temperature profiles along the Super-X strike leg. The existing polychromator design has been adapted for low temperature measurements. Read More

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Mask R-CNN-based building extraction from VHR satellite data in operational humanitarian action: An example related to Covid-19 response in Khartoum, Sudan.

Trans GIS 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Christian Doppler Laboratory for Geospatial and EO-Based Humanitarian Technologies Department of Geoinformatics - Z_GIS University of Salzburg Salzburg Austria.

Within the constraints of operational work supporting humanitarian organizations in their response to the Covid-19 pandemic, we conducted building extraction for Khartoum, Sudan. We extracted approximately 1.2 million dwellings and buildings, using a Mask R-CNN deep learning approach from a very high-resolution satellite image with 0. Read More

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A generalized deep learning framework for whole-slide image segmentation and analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 06 2;11(1):11579. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, 600036, India.

Histopathology tissue analysis is considered the gold standard in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Whole-slide imaging (WSI), i.e. Read More

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Experience Reviewing Digital Pap Tests using a Gallery of Images.

J Pathol Inform 2021 23;12. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Hologic Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA.

Introduction: Hologic is developing a digital cytology platform. An educational website was launched for users to review these digitized Pap test cases. The aim of this study was to analyze data captured from this website. Read More

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February 2021

Microscale walkability indicators for fifty-nine European central urban areas: An open-access tabular dataset and a geospatial web-based platform.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 21;36:107048. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Metsovio Interdisciplinary Research Center, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Polytechniou str, Zografou, 15780, Greece.

A growing body of empirical findings suggests that more satisfactory, compact, and traversable built environments can positively influence active travel, physical activity, and the walking experience. To this end, planning for better and more walkable places has been identified as a hot topic in urban studies and public health research, since. However, European-level indicators assessing aspects of pedestrian-friendly urban environments are largely lacking. Read More

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Influence of rescanning mesh holes and stitching procedures on the complete-arch scanning accuracy of an intraoral scanner: An in vitro study.

J Dent 2021 07 12;110:103690. Epub 2021 May 12.

Assistant Professor and Assistant Program Director AEGD Residency, Comprehensive Dentistry Department, College of Dentistry, Texas A&M University, Dallas, TX, USA; Affiliate Faculty Graduate Prosthodontics, Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, Researcher at Revilla Research Center, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Purpose: To measure the impact of different scanning patches on the accuracy (trueness and precision) of an intraoral scanner (IOS).

Material And Methods: A typodont was digitized using an industrial optical scanner (GOM Atos Q 3D 12 M) to obtain a reference mesh. The typodont was scanned using an IOS (TRIOS 3). Read More

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CLUE: A Fast Parallel Clustering Algorithm for High Granularity Calorimeters in High-Energy Physics.

Front Big Data 2020 27;3:591315. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, United Kingdom.

One of the challenges of high granularity calorimeters, such as that to be built to cover the endcap region in the CMS Phase-2 Upgrade for HL-LHC, is that the large number of channels causes a surge in the computing load when clustering numerous digitized energy deposits (hits) in the reconstruction stage. In this article, we propose a fast and fully parallelizable density-based clustering algorithm, optimized for high-occupancy scenarios, where the number of clusters is much larger than the average number of hits in a cluster. The algorithm uses a grid spatial index for fast querying of neighbors and its timing scales linearly with the number of hits within the range considered. Read More

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November 2020

New Possibilities for Testing the Service Life of Magnetic Contacts.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 22;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Security Management, Faculty of Security Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 8215/1, 010-26 Zilina, Slovakia.

Magnetic contacts we could define as a switching device used in transport structures such as a tunnel, to which the manufacturer prescribes a certain number of closures within its lifetime, during which they should operate flawlessly. Verification of the data provided by the manufacturer is time-consuming and physically demanding due to the data being large in number. For this reason, we developed a test device using torque in the research of magnetic contacts, which greatly automates the whole process and thus eliminates human error. Read More

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Upper Limb Rehabilitation Tools in Virtual Reality Based on Haptic and 3D Spatial Recognition Analysis: A Pilot Study.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;21(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Software Convergence, Graduate School, Soonchunhyang University, 22, Soonchunhyang-ro, Asan City 31538, Chungnam-do, Korea.

With aging, cerebrovascular diseases can occur more often. Stroke cases involve hemiplegia, which causes difficulties in performing activities of daily living. Existing rehabilitation treatments are based on the subjective evaluation of the therapist as the need for non-contact care arises; it is necessary to develop a system that can self-rehabilitate and offer objective analysis. Read More

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Digitized Industrial Work: Requirements, Opportunities, and Problems of Competence Development.

Front Sociol 2020 9;5:33. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Soziologisches Forschungsinstitut (SOFI), Göttingen, Germany.

German companies have been affected by a new wave of digitalization during the past years, and this has led to responses both in the way production is organized and in the goals of the German industrial policy. The coordinated response is widely referred to as "Industry 4.0" and is intended to support German industries in the increasingly fierce competition for global leadership in manufacturing. Read More

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Comparison of Mobile Application-Based ECG Consultation by Collective Intelligence and ECG Interpretation by Conventional System in a Tertiary-Level Hospital.

Korean Circ J 2021 Apr;51(4):351-357

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang, Korea.

Background And Objectives: A mobile application (app)-based electrocardiogram (ECG) consultation system (InterMD Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea) using the collective intelligence (CI) and the availability of large-scale digitized ECG data would extend the utility of ECGs beyond their current limitations, while at the same time preserving interpretability that remains critical to medical decision-making. Read More

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Compare the performance of the models in art classification.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(3):e0248414. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.

Because large numbers of artworks are preserved in museums and galleries, much work must be done to classify these works into genres, styles and artists. Recent technological advancements have enabled an increasing number of artworks to be digitized. Thus, it is necessary to teach computers to analyze (e. Read More

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October 2021

Linguistic Analysis of Online Communication About a Novel Persecutory Belief System (Gangstalking): Mixed Methods Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 03 5;23(3):e25722. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

School of English Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Gangstalking is a novel persecutory belief system whereby those affected believe they are being followed, stalked, and harassed by a large number of people, often numbering in the thousands. The harassment is experienced as an accretion of innumerable individually benign acts such as people clearing their throat, muttering under their breath, or giving dirty looks as they pass on the street. Individuals affected by this belief system congregate in online fora to seek support, share experiences, and interact with other like-minded individuals. Read More

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Is Continuous Eruption Related to Periodontal Changes? A 16-Year Follow-up.

J Dent Res 2021 07 3;100(8):875-882. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Periodontology, Endodontology, Preventive Dentistry and Pedodontics, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

The aims of this study were to 1) determine if continuous eruption occurs in the maxillary teeth, 2) assess the magnitude of the continuous eruption, and 3) evaluate the effects of continuous eruption on the different periodontal parameters by using data from the population-based cohort of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). The jaw casts of 140 participants from the baseline (SHIP-0) and 16-y follow-up (SHIP-3) were digitized as 3-dimensional models. Robust reference points were set to match the tooth eruption stage at SHIP-0 and SHIP-3. Read More

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Development and Initial Results of a Brain PET Insert for Simultaneous 7-Tesla PET/MRI Using an FPGA-Only Signal Digitization Method.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 06 1;40(6):1579-1590. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

In study, we developed a positron emission tomography (PET) insert for simultaneous brain imaging within 7-Tesla (7T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging scanners. The PET insert has 18 sectors, and each sector is assembled with two-layer depth-of-interaction (DOI)-capable high-resolution block detectors. The PET scanner features a 16. Read More

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Hidden Variables in Deep Learning Digital Pathology and Their Potential to Cause Batch Effects: Prediction Model Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 02 2;23(2):e23436. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Digital Biomarkers for Oncology Group, National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: An increasing number of studies within digital pathology show the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to diagnose cancer using histological whole slide images, which requires large and diverse data sets. While diversification may result in more generalizable AI-based systems, it can also introduce hidden variables. If neural networks are able to distinguish/learn hidden variables, these variables can introduce batch effects that compromise the accuracy of classification systems. Read More

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February 2021

Lexical and Acoustic Characteristics of Young and Older Healthy Adults.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 02 13;64(2):302-314. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Penn Frontotemporal Degeneration Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Purpose This study examines the effect of age on language use with an automated analysis of digitized speech obtained from semistructured, narrative speech samples. Method We examined the Cookie Theft picture descriptions produced by 37 older and 76 young healthy participants. Using modern natural language processing and automatic speech recognition tools, we automatically annotated part-of-speech categories of all tokens, calculated the number of tense-inflected verbs, mean length of clause, and vocabulary diversity, and we rated nouns and verbs for five lexical features: word frequency, familiarity, concreteness, age of acquisition, and semantic ambiguity. Read More

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February 2021