5,027 results match your criteria diffuse alveolar


Covid19, beyond just the lungs: A review of multisystemic involvement by Covid19.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Feb 16;224:153384. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

With the commencement of the COVID19 pandemic, following its 1st case reported in Wuhan in China, the knowledge about the virus as well as the symptoms produced by the disease have drastically increased to this day. The manifestations of COVID19 is now known to affect multiple organ systems of the body, which have shown to have acute as well as chronic complications. Histopathological analysis of the biopsies from the affected organs have implied a direct cytopathic effect of the virus but at the same time not ruling out other causes like hypoxia metabolic changes etc. Read More

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February 2021

Post Mortem examination of Hospital Inpatient COVID-19 Deaths in Lusaka, Zambia - A Descriptive Whole Body Autopsy Series.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Ministry of Home Affairs, Office of the State Forensic Pathologist, Nationalist Road, Lusaka, Zambia. Electronic address:

Background: Since information on the pathology of COVID-19 from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains scarce, the objective of our study was to define the gross pathology and histological features of COVID-19. We report data from 29 whole-body autopsies of COVID-19 deaths occurring in hospitals, Lusaka, Zambia - the first large autopsy case series from Africa.

Methods: We performed a descriptive post-mortem examination study of inpatient COVID-19 related deaths at two hospitals in Lusaka, Zambia. Read More

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Splenic Infarcts and Pulmonary Renal Syndrome in a Young Patient with Double-Positive Anti-GBM and ANCA-Associated Vasculitis.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2021 Jan-Feb;32(1):240-244

Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of the National Guard- Health Affairs, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Double-positive disease, defined by double-seropositivity for serum anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) is a rare cause of pulmonary-renal syndrome. Here, we present an exceptional course of a 20-year-old male with seropositivity for anti-myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and anti-GBM antibody, who presented first with renal impairment due to focal necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. After receiving treatment, he presented two years later with a relapse manifesting with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and multiple splenic infarcts. Read More

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Rapidly progressing primary pulmonary lymphoma masquerading as lung infectious disease: A case report and review of the literature.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jun;9(16):4016-4023

Department of Hematology, Lishui City People's Hospital, Lishui 323000, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Primary anaplastic large cell lymphoma of the lung represents a diagnostic challenge due to diverse manifestations and non-specific radiological findings, particularly in cases that lack extra-pulmonary manifestations and lung biopsy.

Case Summary: A 40-year-old woman presented with a 6-d history of fever, dry coughing, and dyspnea. Her white blood cell count was 20100/mm with 90% neutrophils. Read More

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Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Is an Important Factor in Maintaining Arterial Oxygen Saturation.

Front Pharmacol 2021 31;12:677110. Epub 2021 May 31.

National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders and Research Center for Molecular Metabolomics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The gasotransmitter HS is involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological functions of HS in the lungs. In the model of mouse with genetic deficiency in a HS natural synthesis enzyme cystathionine--lyase (CSE), we found that arterial oxygen saturation (SaO) was decreased compared with wild type mice. Read More

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The common ABCA3 variant disrupts AT2 cell quality control and increases susceptibility to lung injury and aberrant remodeling.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 06 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Division, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

ATP binding cassette class A3 (ABCA3) is a lipid transporter that plays a critical role in pulmonary surfactant function. The substitution of valine for glutamic acid at codon 292 (E292V) produces a hypomorphic variant that accounts for a significant portion of ABCA3 mutations associated with lung disorders spanning from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and childhood interstitial lung disease to diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) in adults including pulmonary fibrosis. The mechanisms by which this and similar ABCA3 mutations disrupt alveolar type 2 (AT2) cell homeostasis and cause DPLD are largely unclear. Read More

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Cytokine signatures of end organ injury in COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 06 15;11(1):12606. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Increasing evidence has shown that Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) severity is driven by a dysregulated immunologic response. We aimed to assess the differences in inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients compared to contemporaneously hospitalized controls and then analyze the relationship between these cytokines and the development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and mortality. In this cohort study of hospitalized patients, done between March third, 2020 and April first, 2020 at a quaternary referral center in New York City we included adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and negative controls. Read More

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Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage secondary to in a vaping patient.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jun 15;14(6). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aspirus Wausau Hospital, Wausau, Wisconsin, USA.

Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage (DAH) is known to occur from several infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Among the infectious aetiologies, , an organism known to cause community-acquired pneumonia, has not been reported in association with DAH prior to this case. On the other hand, vaping, an evolving epidemic concern, has been linked to various types of lung injury, including DAH. Read More

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ECMO Rescues Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure Related to GPA.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 28;8:671396. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Respiratory Medicine (Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine), Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a subtype of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis with a wide range of clinical symptoms related to the systemic involvement of small blood vessels. The respiratory system is one of the most frequently involved, and life-threatening acute respiratory failure could occur due to diffusive alveolar hemorrhage and tracheal stenosis. When maximum mechanical ventilation is unable to maintain oxygenation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) should be considered as the final respiratory supportive method, if available. Read More

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Steroid myopathy in a child with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage: a case report.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Steroid myopathy (SM) is a side effect of glucocorticoid administration. Previous reports of SM after glucocorticoid therapy for respiratory diseases have focused on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults or adolescents. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of SM after treatment with glucocorticoid for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in preschoolers. Read More

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Expert Perspective: Management of Microvascular and Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome.

Authors:
Doruk Erkan

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Barbara Volcker Center for Women and Rheumatic Diseases, Hospital for Special Surgery; Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

A 50-year-old male with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) presents to your office for the first time with a three-month history of worsening dyspnea, dry cough, and early morning blood-tinged sputum. His APS diagnosis was based on an unprovoked left lower extremity deep vein thrombosis, four years prior to the presentation, with persistent (multiple occasions) triple antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positivity, defined as lupus anticoagulant (LA) test positive performed while off anticoagulation, high titer [≥80 U] IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL), and high titer IgG anti-β -glycoprotein-I (aβ GPI). He has no other past medical history; and he is on warfarin with a target international normalized ratio (INR) of 2. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stromal (stem) Cell (MSC) therapy modulates miR-193b-5p expression to attenuate sepsis-induced acute lung injury.

Eur Respir J 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Although mesenchymal stromal (stem) cell (MSC) administration attenuates sepsis-induced lung injury in pre-clinical models, the mechanism(s) of action and host immune system contributions to its therapeutic effects, remain elusive. We show that treatment with MSCs decreased expression of host-derived microRNA (miR)-193b-5p and increased expression of its target gene, the tight junctional protein occludin (Ocln), in lungs from septic mice. Mutating the Ocln 3' UTR miR-193b-5p binding sequence impaired binding to Ocln mRNA. Read More

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Quantitative proteomics of hamster lung tissues infected with SARS-CoV-2 reveal host factors having implication in the disease pathogenesis and severity.

FASEB J 2021 07;35(7):e21713

Institute of Life Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India.

Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) manifests lung pathology. In this study, efforts were made to check the infectivity of a local SARS-CoV-2 isolate in a self-limiting and non-lethal hamster model and evaluate the differential expression of lung proteins during acute infection and convalescence. The findings of this study confirm the infectivity of this isolate in vivo. Read More

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Identification of an Alveolar Macrophage-Related Core Gene Set in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

J Inflamm Res 2021 1;14:2353-2361. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530007, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a rapidly progressive diffuse lung injury that is characterized by high mortality and acute onset. The pathological mechanisms of ARDS are still unclear. But alveolar macrophages have been shown to play an important role in inflammatory responses during ARDS. Read More

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Electronic cigarettes, vaping-related lung injury and lung cancer: where do we stand?

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 Jul;30(4):293-296

Department of Thoracic Surgery, IRCCS European Institute of Oncology.

Electronic cigarettes have been considered a promising alternative to nicotine replacement products to help heavy tobacco smokers quit smoking. They work thanks to a heating coil causing evaporation of the liquid rapidly followed by cooling, thus creating an aerosol, a completely different mechanism from the combustion of tobacco in traditional cigarettes. The term 'vaping' indicates the use of electronic cigarettes or other devices to inhale heated, aerosolized nicotine, or other substances like cannabidiol, tetrahydrocannabinol, or butane hash oils together with solvents, mainly propylene glycol and vegetable glycerine or their combination. Read More

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Pulmonary Involvement in Sweet's Syndrome.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Westchester Medical Center, 8138, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Valhalla, New York, United States.

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A 63-Year-Old Woman With an Acute Exacerbation of Interstitial Pneumonia.

Chest 2021 Jun;159(6):e389-e394

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan. Electronic address:

Case Presentation: A 63-year-old, non-smoking Asian woman presented to our hospital due to abnormal findings on chest radiography. She had no history of dust exposure. Chest radiography and CT imaging showed patchy ground-glass attenuation (GGA) in the bilateral lower lung lobes, a ground-glass nodule in the right lower lung lobe (diameter, 9. Read More

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Recent Advances in Pathology: the 2021 Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology.

J Pathol 2021 07;254(4):303-306

RECAMO, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

The 2021 Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology contains 14 invited reviews on current research areas of particular importance in pathology. The subjects included here reflect the broad range of interests covered by the journal, including both basic and applied research fields but always with the aim of improving our understanding of human disease. This year, our reviews encompass the huge impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, the development and application of biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors, recent advances in multiplexing antigen/nucleic acid detection in situ, the use of genomics to aid drug discovery, organoid methodologies in research, the microbiome in cancer, the role of macrophage-stroma interactions in fibrosis, and TGF-β as a driver of fibrosis in multiple pathologies. Read More

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Myxomavirus serpin alters macrophage function and prevents diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in pristane-induced lupus.

Clin Immunol 2021 Jun 2;229:108764. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Rheumatology & Clinical Immunology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States of America.

C57BL/6 mice with pristane-induced lupus develop macrophage-dependent diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), which is blocked by treatment with liver X receptor (LXR) agonists and is exacerbated by low IL-10 levels. Serp-1, a myxomavirus-encoded serpin that impairs macrophage activation and plasminogen activation, blocks DAH caused by MHV68 infection. We investigated whether Serp-1 also could block DAH in pristane-induced lupus. Read More

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Oxygen Toxicity in Critically Ill Adults.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1500, Pulmonary and Critical Care, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Oxygen supplementation is one of the most common interventions in critically ill patients. Despite over a century of data suggesting both beneficial and detrimental effects of supplemental oxygen, optimal arterial oxygenation targets in adult patients remain unclear. Experimental animal studies have consistently showed that exposure to a high fraction of inspired oxygen causes respiratory failure and early death. Read More

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First evidence of infection in Aceh cattle: Pathomorphology and antigenic distribution in the lungs.

Vet World 2021 Apr 27;14(4):1007-1013. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Veterinary Clinic Reproduction and Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, IPB University, Bogor, Indonesia.

Background And Aim: is an emerging zoonotic and foodborne pathogen worldwide. Hypervirulent (hvKp) was reported as the causative agent of bovine mastitis. This is the first study in Indonesia that has been conducted to determine the capsular serotype of , pulmonary gross pathology and histopathology, and distribution of hvKp in the lungs of Aceh cattle. Read More

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COVID-19 ARDS is characterized by higher extravascular lung water than non-COVID-19 ARDS: the PiCCOVID study.

Crit Care 2021 06 1;25(1):186. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

AP-HP, Service de médecine intensive-réanimation, Hôpital de Bicêtre, DMU CORREVE, Inserm UMR S_999, FHU SEPSIS, Groupe de recherche clinique CARMAS, Université Paris-Saclay, 78 rue du Général Leclerc, 94270, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Background: In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extravascular lung water index (EVLWi) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) measured by transpulmonary thermodilution reflect the degree of lung injury. Whether EVLWi and PVPI are different between non-COVID-19 ARDS and the ARDS due to COVID-19 has never been reported. We aimed at comparing EVLWi, PVPI, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics in patients with COVID-19 ARDS vs. Read More

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A "Galactic" Chest X-ray.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 18;11(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Unit of Pathology, Department of Services, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, 71013 San Giovanni Rotondo, Italy.

Clinical manifestations accompanying respiratory failure with insidious and rapidly progressive onset are often non-specific. Symptoms such as a cough, dyspnea, and fever are common to a large number of inflammatory, infectious, or neoplastic diseases. During the COVID-19 pandemic it is essential to limit the use of hospital services and inappropriate diagnostic techniques. Read More

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Frequency and Significance of Pathologic Pulmonary Findings in Postmortem Examinations-A Single Center Experience before COVID-19.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 05 18;11(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Pathology, University of Bern, Murtenstrasse 31, 3008 Bern, Switzerland.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shown the importance of postmortem investigation of deceased patients. For a correct interpretation of the pulmonary findings in this new era, it is, however, crucial to be familiar with pathologic pulmonary conditions observed in postmortem investigations in general. Adequate postmortem histopathological evaluation of the lungs may be affected by suboptimal gross work up, autolysis or poor fixation. Read More

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Covid-19 Pneumonia and Ventilation-induced Lung Injury: A Case Report.

Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care 2020 Dec 31;27(2):80-82. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Intensive Care department, Maasstad Ziekenhuis, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

We present the case of a 67-year-old male patient, who was admitted to the intensive care unit for hypoxemic respiratory failure due to severe COVID-19 pneumonitis, requiring mechanical ventilation. Despite close monitoring using transpulmonary pressure measurements and interventions to pursue lung-protective ventilation, the patient developed extensive barotrauma including a right-sided pneumothorax, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum while on pressure support ventilation. We hypothesize that the high respiratory drive that COVID-19 patients seem to exhibit, combined with diffuse alveolar injury and increased alveolar pressure, resulted in gross barotrauma. Read More

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December 2020

Unilateral Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Due to Selective Directionality of Mitral Regurgitant Jet in a Patient With Severe Aortic Stenosis.

Cureus 2021 Apr 27;13(4):e14714. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ozarks Medical Center, West Plains, USA.

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in cardiac diseases results from pulmonary capillary stress failure due to pulmonary venous hypertension. The most common cardiac causes of DAH are heart failure and mitral valvular disease. Patients typically manifest with hemoptysis, radiologic chest abnormalities, and anemia. Read More

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Fat Embolism Syndrome Mimicking a COVID-19 Infection.

Case Rep Crit Care 2021 6;2021:5519812. Epub 2021 May 6.

Orthopedic Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Compartment, Emergency County Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a multiple organ disorder that can appear after pelvic and long bone fractures. The most common clinical finding is hypoxia, accompanied by diffuse petechiae, alveolar infiltrates, altered mental status, fever, polypnea, and tachycardia. We present a mild FES case on a 32-year-old man with no medical history admitted for an orthopedic procedure, following both tibia and fibulae fractures. Read More

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Histopathological features in fatal COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) 2021 Jun-Jul;45(5):261-270. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Département de Pathologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) shares the common histological hallmarks with other forms of ARDS. However, the chronology of the histological lesions has not been well established.

Objective: To describe the chronological histopathological alterations in the lungs of patients with COVID-19 related ARDS. Read More

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Pulmonary Nocardia infection in a child with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

BMC Pulm Med 2021 May 29;21(1):182. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Pulmonology, Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 3333 Binsheng Road, Hangzhou, 310051, China.

Background: Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) encompasses a rare and agnogenic group of diffuse alveolar capillary hemorrhagic diseases. Corticosteroid treatment is the globally preferred therapeutic strategy for IPH; however, it can cause immunodeficiency. Nocardia infection often occurs in immunocompromised patients and primarily involves the pleura and lungs. Read More

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Leptospirosis with pulmonary haemorrhage and multiple organ failure: a case report and literature review.

J Int Med Res 2021 May;49(5):3000605211019665

Department of Emergency, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, China.

Pulmonary haemorrhage is an important complication of leptospirosis. We herein report an uncommon case of severe pulmonary haemorrhage and multiple organ failure caused by leptospirosis in a 49-year-old man who was previously healthy. He was a farm worker who was admitted to the hospital because of haemoptysis. Read More

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