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Accuracy of procalcitonin for diagnosing peripheral blood culture contamination among patients with positive blood culture for potential contaminants.

Infection 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Microbiology, University Hospital of Nancy, F-54000, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Purpose: Blood culture contamination is still a frequently observed event and may lead to unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions and additional hazards and costs. However, in patients hospitalized in tertiary care, true bacteremias for pathogens that are classically considered as contaminants can be observed. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for differentiating blood culture contamination from bacteremia in patients with positive blood cultures for potential contaminants. Read More

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September 2021

Diagnostic accuracy of end-tidal carbon dioxide detection in determining correct placement of nasogastric tube: An updated systematic review with meta-analysis.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Aug 24;123:104071. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Misplacement of the nasogastric tube in the respiratory tract could cause serious complications and even death. Thus, nasogastric tube verification is necessary for optimal patient safety and comfort. Although end-tidal carbon dioxide detection is considered an effective approach to determine nasogastric tube location, there is a paucity of up-to-date evidence. Read More

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Differentiation between small (< 4.5 cm) true subepithelial tumors and ectopic pancreas in the small bowel on computed tomography enterography.

Eur Radiol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehangno, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, South Korea.

Objectives: To identify imaging features that can differentiate ectopic pancreas from true subepithelial tumors (SETs) in the small bowel using CT enterography and to assess whether radiologists' performance for the differentiation can be improved with the knowledge of significant CT findings.

Methods: CT images of ectopic pancreas (n = 29) and pathologically proven SETs (n = 61) were retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists in consensus. CT items analyzed included lesion location, contour (round, ovoid, flat/conformed), growth pattern, margin, homogeneity, necrosis, feeding vessel, surface ulceration, and enhancement pattern. Read More

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September 2021

The Potential Use of Radiomics with Pre-Radiation Therapy MR Imaging in Predicting Risk of Pseudoprogression in Glioblastoma Patients.

J Imaging 2021 Jan 28;7(2). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common adult glioma. Differentiating post-treatment effects such as pseudoprogression from true progression is paramount for treatment. Radiomics has been shown to predict overall survival and MGMT (methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) promoter status in those with GBM. Read More

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January 2021

Application of spectroscopic techniques and chemometric methods to differentiate between true cinnamon and false cinnamon.

Food Chem 2021 Aug 10;368:130746. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Departamento de Tecnologia Rural e Animal, Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia, Praça Primavera - 40, Bairro Primavera, 45700-000 Itapetinga, BA, Brazil. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to identify useful chemical markers for the differentiation of true and false cinnamon; to develop a fast and efficient method of differentiation using MIR associated with chemometric methods. A total of 129 cinnamon samples from 3 countries (Brazil, Sri Lanka, and Paraguay) were purchased, being differentiated by visual analysis. The bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, HPLC, and MIR analysis were performed. Read More

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Brain FET PET tumor-to-white mater ratio to differentiate recurrence from post-treatment changes in high-grade gliomas.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Aug 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, India.

Background And Purpose: Highergrade glial neoplasms undergo standard treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and alkylating agents. There is often a clinical/neuroimaging dilemma in the post-treatment setting to differentiate disease recurrence from treatment-related changes. FET (fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine) PET has emerged as a molecular imaging modality for cases where MR imaging is inconclusive. Read More

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Recurrent Glioma: Does Qualitative Simultaneous 18F-DOPA PET/mp-MRI Improve Diagnostic Workup? An Initial Experience.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Sep;46(9):703-709

Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Neuro Sciences, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi, India.

Rationale Of The Study: Neuroimaging modalities such as contrast-enhanced MRI and PET provide significant insight in the evaluation of gliomas. However, their reliability in successfully differentiating the tumor recurrence with treatment-related changes is still technologically challenging. The current study aims to qualitatively investigate the potential of the hybrid PET/multiparametric MRI modality to noninvasively distinguish between these 2 outcomes of brain tumor diagnostics for optimum and early patient management. Read More

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September 2021

The role of quantitative HBsAg in the natural history of e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B: A Tunisian prospective study.

Infect Dis Now 2021 Aug 30;51(5):464-469. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Faculty of medicine of Monastir, Department of gastroenterology, Fattouma Bourguiba Hospital, Monastir, Tunisia.

Background/aims: During the natural course of Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) infection, differentiation between inactive carrier (IC) and HBeAg negative CHB is a subject of ongoing debate. We studied the role of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level as a means of differentiating between CHB and IC in a group of untreated chronic HBeAg-negative HBV-infected patients.

Study: A total of 115 HBeAg negative carriers were enrolled and followed up for>12 months; 78 as inactive carriers (IC), and 37 as active carriers (AC). Read More

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Radiographical Spectrum of High-altitude Pulmonary Edema: A Pictorial Essay.

Indian J Crit Care Med 2021 Jun;25(6):668-674

Department of Haemato-Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Apollo CBCC Cancer Care, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.

Background: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a common cause of hospitalization in high altitude areas with significant morbidity. The clinical presentation of HAPE can overlap with a broad spectrum of cardiopulmonary diseases. Also, it is associated with varied radiological manifestations mimicking other conditions and often leading to unnecessary and inappropriate treatment. Read More

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Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) elevations in a clinical sample of children and adolescents who do not have autism: Phenotypic profiles of false positives.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jul 22:1-17. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Pediatric Psychology, Department of Pediatrics, Institute on Development and Disability, Oregon Health & Science University and Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Portland, OR, USA.

Objective: While the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Second Edition (ADOS-2) shows high sensitivity for detecting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when present (i.e. true positives), scores on the ADOS-2 may be falsely elevated for individuals with cognitive impairments or psychological concerns other than ASD (i. Read More

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Significance of electrical activity in the right superior pulmonary vein post-isolation and relationship to superior vena cava potentials.

J Interv Card Electrophysiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Purpose: After antral pulmonary vein isolation (PVI), electrical potentials may persist deep in the right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV). Whether these potentials signify true pulmonary vein potential (PVP) (implying inadequate RSPV isolation) or are far-field potentials (FFP) from the superior vena cava (SVC) is unclear. Here, we attempt to assess the incidence of persistent potentials in RSPV post-isolation and methods to differentiate PVP from FFP. Read More

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Differentiating pagetoid Bowen disease from Paget disease on the nipple-areola complex: Two unique, challenging cases.

J Cutan Pathol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Dermatology Department, Clinical University Hospital of Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.

Pagetoid Bowen disease is a subtype of Bowen disease that accounts for 5% of Bowen disease. It is extremely rare for Bowen disease to appear on the nipple-areola complex, with only seven cases described in the previous literature. Of those seven cases, only one was of the pagetoid subtype. Read More

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Molecular diagnosis of sex chromosome mosaics in fetal amniotic cells.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(25):e26331

Qinzhou Key Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology on Endemic Diseases, Qinzhou, Guangxi.

Abstract: Mosaicism can be observed in karyotype analyses of amniotic fluid cells. Differentiating between true mosaicism and pseudomosaicism and determining mosaic proportions can help avoid misjudgments by doctors and effectively reduce mental and physical harm to pregnant women. However, the detection of mosaicism and mosaic proportions via karyotype analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is extremely complex. Read More

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Comparison of mono-exponential, bi-exponential, and stretched exponential diffusion-weighted MR imaging models in differentiating hepatic hemangiomas from liver metastases.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Aug 6;141:109806. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Radiology, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194, Japan.

Purpose: This study aims to compare the diagnostic values of mono-exponential, bi-exponential, and stretched exponential diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in differentiating hepatic hemangiomas and liver metastases.

Method: This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. In this study, 244 patients with known or suspected liver disease underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Read More

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Diagnostic Accuracy of PET for Differentiating True Glioma Progression From Post Treatment-Related Changes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 20;12:671867. Epub 2021 May 20.

Medical School of Chinese People's Liberation Army, Beijing, China.

To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET with different radiotracers and parameters in differentiating between true glioma progression (TPR) and post treatment-related change (PTRC). Studies on using PET to differentiate between TPR and PTRC were screened from the PubMed and Embase databases. By following the PRISMA checklist, the quality assessment of included studies was performed, the true positive and negative values (TP and TN), false positive and negative values (FP and FN), and general characteristics of all the included studies were extracted. Read More

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COV-SNET: A deep learning model for X-ray-based COVID-19 classification.

Inform Med Unlocked 2021 27;24:100620. Epub 2021 May 27.

Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Rd, Thunder Bay, ON P7B 5E1, Canada.

The AI research community has recently been intensely focused on diagnosing COVID-19 by applying deep learning technology to the X-ray scans taken of COVID-19 patients. Differentiating COVID-19 from other pneumonia-inducing illnesses is a highly challenging task as it shares many of the same imaging characteristics as other pulmonary diseases. This is especially true given the small number of COVID-19 X-rays that are publicly available. Read More

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Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography in Differentiating Metastatic Brain Tumor Recurrence from Radiation Necrosis.

World Neurosurg 2021 07 27;151:e1059-e1068. Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Neurological Surgery, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, USA.

Background: Clinical and/or neuroimaging changes after whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for metastatic brain tumor(s) present the clinical dilemma of differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis. Several imaging modalities attempt to answer this clinical question, including magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET) computed tomography (CT). We evaluated our experience regarding the ability of MRS and PET CT to differentiate tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis in patients who have received WBRT or SRS. Read More

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Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting 18S ribosomal RNA genes for identifying P. vivax and P. ovale species and mitochondrial DNA for detecting the genus Plasmodium.

Parasit Vectors 2021 May 24;14(1):278. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Kunming Medical University, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used to diagnose various infectious diseases. Malaria is a globally distributed infectious disease attributed to parasites in the genus Plasmodium. It is known that persons infected with Plasmodium vivax and P. Read More

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Combined F-FET PET and diffusion kurtosis MRI in posttreatment glioblastoma: differentiation of true progression from treatment-related changes.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab044. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany.

Background: Radiological differentiation of tumor progression (TPR) from treatment-related changes (TRC) in pretreated glioblastoma is crucial. This study aimed to explore the diagnostic value of diffusion kurtosis MRI combined with information derived from -(2-[F]-fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (F-FET) PET for the differentiation of TPR from TRC in patients with pretreated glioblastoma.

Methods: Thirty-two patients with histomolecularly defined and pretreated glioblastoma suspected of having TPR were included in this retrospective study. Read More

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Prognostic Value of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients With Troponin Elevation and Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 07 13;96(7):1822-1834. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Cardiology, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

Objective: To define the diagnostic yield of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in differentiating the underlying causes of myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) and to determine the long-term prognostic implications of such diagnoses.

Methods: Cardiac magnetic resonance evaluation was performed in 227 patients (mean age, 56.4±14. Read More

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Case of Symptomatic Dermal Neurofibroma With Microcystic Features.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, OH; and Departments of Dermatology and Pathology, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

Abstract: A neurofibroma is a benign neural tumor arising within a peripheral nerve sheath composed of Schwann cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells involved in the nerve. Microcystic elements have been rarely described in these tumors. Neurofibromas are classically described as unencapsulated tumors of interspersed spindle cells and mast cells in a hypocellular, myxoid stroma. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of lateral cephalograms and cone-beam computed tomography for the assessment of sella turcica bridging.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2021 Aug 8;160(2):231-239. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY. Electronic address:

Introduction: The purpose of this research was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of sella turcica bridging on lateral cephalograms when compared with true sella turcica bridging determined via cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using CBCT images from which lateral cephalograms were generated. The study included 185 subjects (118 females and 67 males; age range, 10-30 years; mean age, 16. Read More

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Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Adnexal Lesions: The Role of Texture Analysis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Radiology and Imaging Department, County Emergency Hospital, Clinicilor Street 5, 400006 Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

The classic ultrasonographic differentiation between benign and malignant adnexal masses encounters several limitations. Ultrasonography-based texture analysis (USTA) offers a new perspective, but its role has been incompletely evaluated. This study aimed to further investigate USTA's capacity in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal tumors, as well as comparing the workflow and the results with previously-published research. Read More

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Accuracy, predictability and prognostic implications of fine-needle aspiration biopsy for parotid gland tumours: A retrospective case series.

Clin Otolaryngol 2021 Sep 31;46(5):1065-1072. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Objective: To evaluate the precision and utility of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in differentiating between benign and malignant parotid tumours, and the implications of FNA results on management and outcomes.

Design: Retrospective case series.

Setting: Tertiary medical centre. Read More

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September 2021

Differentiating Real-World Autobiographical Experiences without Recourse to Behaviour.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 20;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Brain and Mind Institute, Western University, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada.

Investigating human consciousness based on brain activity alone is a key challenge in cognitive neuroscience. One of its central facets, the ability to form autobiographical memories, has been investigated through several fMRI studies that have revealed a pattern of activity across a network of frontal, parietal, and medial temporal lobe regions when participants view personal photographs, as opposed to when they view photographs from someone else's life. Here, our goal was to attempt to decode when participants were re-experiencing an entire event, captured on video from a first-person perspective, relative to a very similar event experienced by someone else. Read More

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Differentiating Pseudo Versus True Aortic Stenosis in Patients Without Contractile Reserve: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

Cureus 2021 Mar 24;13(3):e14086. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Massachusetts, USA.

Low-flow, low-gradient (LF-LG) aortic stenosis with depressed left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction is a diagnostic challenge that is frequently encountered in the management of valvular heart disease. True-severe LF-LG aortic stenosis is amenable to valve replacement, whereas pseudo-severe aortic stenosis requires management of the underlying cardiomyopathy. This distinction is important as it serves as a critical branch point in guiding therapeutic decisions. Read More

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The diagnostic value of intravoxel incoherent motion imaging in differentiating high-grade from low-grade gliomas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Br J Radiol 2021 May;94(1121):20201321

Department of Radiology, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Child Development and Disorders, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Pediatrics, National Clinical Research Center for Child Health and Disorders, China International Science and Technology Cooperation base of Child development and Critical Disorders, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Objective: This meta-analysis was carried out for assessing the accuracy of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) parameters true diffusion coefficient (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), and perfusion fraction (f) in differentiating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) from high-grade gliomas (HGGs).

Methods: Literatures concerning IVIM in the grading of brain gliomas published prior to October 20, 2020, searched in the Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane library. Use the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies 2 (QUADAS 2) to evaluate the quality of studies. Read More

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Pseudohyperkalemia in Serum and Plasma: The Phenomena and Its Clinical Implications.

Indian J Clin Biochem 2021 Apr 14;36(2):235-238. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Patna, Phulwarisharif, Patna, Bihar 801507 India.

Hyperkalemia is a life threatening electrolyte derangement that must be recognized and treated quickly. Pseudohyperkalemia is defined as a difference between serum and plasma potassium concentration of more than 0.4 meq/L with serum values on the higher side when both the samples are obtained at the same time, remain at room temperature and are tested within 1 h of sample collection. Read More

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Investigating new CT contrast agents: a phantom study exploring quantification and differentiation methods for high-Z elements using dual-energy CT.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX, 75390-9061, USA.

Objectives: To develop a dual-energy CT method for differentiating and quantifying high-Z contrast elements and to evaluate the limitations based on element concentration and atomic number by using an anthropomorphic phantom study.

Methods: Mass spectrometry standards for iodine, barium, gadolinium, ytterbium, tantalum, gold, and bismuth were diluted from 10.0 to 0. Read More

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Knowledge graphs and their applications in drug discovery.

Authors:
Finlay MacLean

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 09 12;16(9):1057-1069. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Target Identification., BenevolentAI, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Introduction: Knowledge graphs have proven to be promising systems of information storage and retrieval. Due to the recent explosion of heterogeneous multimodal data sources generated in the biomedical domain, and an industry shift toward a systems biology approach, knowledge graphs have emerged as attractive methods of data storage and hypothesis generation.

Areas Covered: In this review, the author summarizes the applications of knowledge graphs in drug discovery. Read More

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September 2021