57,040 results match your criteria differentiated neurons


The novel persistent sodium current inhibitor PRAX-562 has potent anticonvulsant activity with improved protective index relative to standard of care sodium channel blockers.

Epilepsia 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Praxis Precision Medicines, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Objective: This study investigates the effects of PRAX-562 on sodium current (I ), intrinsic neuronal excitability, and protection from evoked seizures to determine whether a preferential persistent I inhibitor would exhibit improved preclinical efficacy and tolerability compared to two standard voltage-gated sodium channel (Na ) blockers.

Methods: Inhibition of I  was characterized using patch clamp analysis. The effect on intrinsic excitability was measured using evoked action potentials recorded from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in mouse brain slices. Read More

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January 2022

Defining neuroplasticity.

Handb Clin Neurol 2022 ;184:3-18

Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Neuroplasticity, i.e., the modifiability of the brain, is different in development and adulthood. Read More

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January 2022

Lidocaine Ameliorates Psoriasis by Obstructing Pathogenic CGRP Signaling-Mediated Sensory Neuron-Dendritic Cell Communication.

J Invest Dermatol 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Precision Research Center for Refractory Diseases, Shanghai General Hospital, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of Chinese Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disorder with the nervous system contributing to its pathology. The neurogenic mediators of psoriasis are elusive and whether the intervention of cutaneous nervous system can treat psoriasis remains to be determined. Here we conducted a pilot study using epidural injection of lidocaine to treat patients with psoriasis. Read More

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January 2022

Transcriptional programs regulating neuronal differentiation are disrupted in DLG2 knockout human embryonic stem cells and enriched for schizophrenia and related disorders risk variants.

Nat Commun 2022 01 14;13(1):27. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 4HQ, UK.

Coordinated programs of gene expression drive brain development. It is unclear which transcriptional programs, in which cell-types, are affected in neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Here we integrate human genetics with transcriptomic data from differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into cortical excitatory neurons. Read More

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January 2022

Physical exercise promotes integration of grafted cells and functional recovery in an acute stroke rat model.

Stem Cell Reports 2022 Jan 3. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) transplantation holds great potential to treat neurological diseases. However, hNPC grafts take a long time to differentiate into mature neurons due to their intrinsically prolonged developmental timetable. Here, we report that postoperative physical exercise (PE), a prevailing rehabilitation intervention, promotes the neuronal commitment, maturation, and integration of engrafted hNPCs, evidenced by forming more synapses, receiving more synaptic input from host neurons, and showing higher neuronal activity levels. Read More

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January 2022

The Drosophila functional Smad suppressing element fuss, a homologue of the human Skor genes, retains pro-oncogenic properties of the Ski/Sno family.

PLoS One 2022 14;17(1):e0262360. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Developmental Biology, Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Over the years Ski and Sno have been found to be involved in cancer progression e.g. in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, oestrogen receptor-positive breast carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, and leukaemia. Read More

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January 2022

Single-cell transcriptomics of human iPSC differentiation dynamics reveal a core molecular network of Parkinson's disease.

Commun Biol 2022 Jan 13;5(1):49. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

The Integrative Cell Signalling Group, Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB), University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons (mDA) in the midbrain. The underlying mechanisms are only partly understood and there is no treatment to reverse PD progression. Here, we investigated the disease mechanism using mDA neurons differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carrying the ILE368ASN mutation within the PINK1 gene, which is strongly associated with PD. Read More

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January 2022

Inhibiting mitochondrial fission rescues degeneration in hereditary spastic paraplegia neurons.

Brain 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine Rockford, Rockford, IL 61107, USA.

Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are characterized by lower limb spasticity resulting from degeneration of long corticospinal axons. SPG11 is one of the most common autosomal recessive HSPs, and the SPG11 protein spatacsin forms a complex with the SPG15 protein spastizin and heterotetrameric AP5 adaptor protein complex, which includes the SPG48 protein AP5Z1. Using the integration-free episomal method, we established SPG11 patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts. Read More

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January 2022

Studies on Regulation of Global Protein Profile and Cellular Bioenergetics of Differentiating SH-SY5Y Cells.

Mol Neurobiol 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Systems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment Group, , CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR), Uttar Pradesh, Vishvigyan Bhawan, Lucknow, India.

The SH-SY5Y cells differentiated by sequential exposure of retinoic acid (RA) and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) are a well-employed cellular model for studying the mechanistic aspects of neural development and neurodegeneration. Earlier studies from our lab have identified dramatic upregulation (77 miRNAs) and downregulation (17 miRNAs) of miRNAs in SH-SY5Y cells differentiated with successive exposure of RA + BDNF and demonstrated the essential role of increased levels of P53 proteins in coping with the differentiation-induced changes in protein levels. In continuation to our earlier studies, we have performed unbiased LC-MS/MS global protein profiling of naïve and differentiated SH-SY5Y cells and analyzed the identified proteins in reference to miRNAs identified in our earlier studies to identify the cellular events regulated by both identified miRNAs and proteins. Read More

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January 2022

Optimization of Long-Term Human iPSC-Derived Spinal Motor Neuron Culture Using a Dendritic Polyglycerol Amine-Based Substrate.

ASN Neuro 2022 Jan-Dec;14:17590914211073381

Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, 12367Montreal Neurological Institute-Hospital, 5620McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from healthy and diseased individuals can give rise to many cell types, facilitating the study of mechanisms of development, human disease modeling, and early drug target validation. In this context, experimental model systems based on hiPSC-derived motor neurons (MNs) have been used to study MN diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Modeling MN disease using hiPSC-based approaches requires culture conditions that can recapitulate in a dish the events underlying differentiation, maturation, aging, and death of MNs. Read More

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January 2022

Dendritic Polyglycerol Amine: An Enhanced Substrate to Support Long-Term Neural Cell Culture.

ASN Neuro 2022 Jan-Dec;14:17590914211073276

Program in Neuroengineering, Montreal Neurological Institute, 98613McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Long-term stable cell culture is a critical tool to better understand cell function. Most adherent cell culture models require a polymer substrate coating of poly-lysine or poly-ornithine for the cells to adhere and survive. However, polypeptide-based substrates are degraded by proteolysis and it remains a challenge to maintain healthy cell cultures for extended periods of time. Read More

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January 2022

A Matrigel-based 3D construct of SH-SY5Y cells models the α-synuclein pathologies of Parkinson's disease.

Dis Model Mech 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Institute of Nutrition and Diseases, Department of Preventive Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is featured with α-synuclein-based Lewy body pathology, which however was difficult to observe in conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture and even in animal models. We herein aimed to develop a three-dimensional (3D) cellular model of PD to recapitulate the α-synuclein pathologies. All-trans-retinoic acid-differentiated human SH-SY5Y cells and Matrigel were optimized for 3D construction. Read More

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January 2022

Estrogens regulate early embryonic development of the olfactory sensory system via estrogen-responsive glia.

Development 2022 Jan 13;149(1). Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Biosciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon EX4 4QD, UK.

Estrogens are well-known to regulate development of sexual dimorphism of the brain; however, their role in embryonic brain development prior to sex-differentiation is unclear. Using estrogen biosensor zebrafish models, we found that estrogen activity in the embryonic brain occurs from early neurogenesis specifically in a type of glia in the olfactory bulb (OB), which we name estrogen-responsive olfactory bulb (EROB) cells. In response to estrogen, EROB cells overlay the outermost layer of the OB and interact tightly with olfactory sensory neurons at the olfactory glomeruli. Read More

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January 2022

GATOR2 complex-mediated amino acid signaling regulates brain myelination.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 Jan;119(3)

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Systems Biology, School of Life Sciences, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518005, People's Republic of China;

Amino acids are essential for cell growth and metabolism. Amino acid and growth factor signaling pathways coordinately regulate the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase in cell growth and organ development. While major components of amino acid signaling mechanisms have been identified, their biological functions in organ development are unclear. Read More

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January 2022

Measuring stimulus-evoked neurophysiological differentiation in distinct populations of neurons in mouse visual cortex.

eNeuro 2022 Jan 10. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Allen Institute, Seattle, WA, 98109, United States of America

Despite significant progress in understanding neural coding, it remains unclear how the coordinated activity of large populations of neurons relates to what an observer actually perceives. Since neurophysiological differences must underlie differences among percepts, -quantifying distinct patterns of neurophysiological activity-has been proposed as an "inside-out" approach that addresses this question. This methodology contrasts with "outside-in" approaches such as feature tuning and decoding analyses, which are defined in terms of extrinsic experimental variables. Read More

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January 2022

Optimization of application-driven development of in vitro neuromuscular junction models.

Tissue Eng Part B Rev 2022 Jan 12. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

Los Alamos National Laboratory, 5112, Bioscience, SM30 Bikini Attol, MS 8888, Los Alamos, New Mexico, United States, 87545-1663;

Neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) are specialized synapses responsible for signal transduction between motor neurons and skeletal muscle tissue. Malfunction at this site can result from developmental disorders, toxic environmental exposures, and neurodegenerative diseases leading to severe neurological dysfunction. Exploring these conditions in human or animal subjects is restricted by ethical concerns and confounding environmental factors. Read More

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January 2022

Identification of a modular super-enhancer in murine retinal development.

Nat Commun 2022 Jan 11;13(1):253. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 38105, USA.

Super-enhancers are expansive regions of genomic DNA comprised of multiple putative enhancers that contribute to the dynamic gene expression patterns during development. This is particularly important in neurogenesis because many essential transcription factors have complex developmental stage- and cell-type specific expression patterns across the central nervous system. In the developing retina, Vsx2 is expressed in retinal progenitor cells and is maintained in differentiated bipolar neurons and Müller glia. Read More

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January 2022

Reducing host aldose reductase activity promotes neuronal differentiation of transplanted neural stem cells at spinal cord injury sites and facilitates locomotion recovery.

Neural Regen Res 2022 Aug;17(8):1814-1820

Department of Neurobiology and Institute of Neurosciences, School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is a promising strategy for replacing lost neurons following spinal cord injury. However, the survival and differentiation of transplanted NSCs is limited, possibly owing to the neurotoxic inflammatory microenvironment. Because of the important role of glucose metabolism in M1/M2 polarization of microglia/macrophages, we hypothesized that altering the phenotype of microglia/macrophages by regulating the activity of aldose reductase (AR), a key enzyme in the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, would provide a more beneficial microenvironment for NSC survival and differentiation. Read More

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Shaping axial identity during human pluripotent stem cell differentiation to neural crest cells.

Biochem Soc Trans 2022 Jan 11. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

Centre for Stem Cell Biology, School of Biosciences, The University of Sheffield, Western Bank, Sheffield S10 2TN, U.K.

The neural crest (NC) is a multipotent cell population which can give rise to a vast array of derivatives including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, cartilage, cardiac smooth muscle, melanocytes and sympathoadrenal cells. An attractive strategy to model human NC development and associated birth defects as well as produce clinically relevant cell populations for regenerative medicine applications involves the in vitro generation of NC from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). However, in vivo, the potential of NC cells to generate distinct cell types is determined by their position along the anteroposterior (A-P) axis and, therefore the axial identity of hPSC-derived NC cells is an important aspect to consider. Read More

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January 2022

Carboxypeptidase E Independently Changes Microtubule Glutamylation, Dendritic Branching, and Neuronal Migration.

ASN Neuro 2022 Jan-Dec;14:17590914211062765

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, 242612The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA.

Neuronal migration and dendritogenesis are dependent on dynamic changes to the microtubule (MT) network. Among various factors that regulate MT dynamics and stability, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of MTs play a critical role in conferring specificity of regulatory protein binding to MTs. Thus, it is important to understand the regulation of PTMs during brain development as multiple developmental processes are dependent on MTs. Read More

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January 2022

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Endocytic Pathways Adapted by Small DNA Nanocages in Model Neuroblastoma Cell-Derived Differentiated Neurons.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 Apr 10;4(4):3350-3359. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Biological Engineering Discipline, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Palaj, Gujarat 382355, India.

Multiple endocytic pathways operate on the plasma membrane of cells at any moment with diverse but specific cellular functions. Knowledge of uptake of synthetic nanoparticles and ligands with respect to endocytic pathways is crucial to device the appropriate ligands for therapeutic delivery into differentiated neurons for targeting neuronal diseases. We herein explore the mechanisms of cellular uptake of 3D tetrahedral DNA nanocages at different stages of differentiating neurons. Read More

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Altered White Matter and microRNA Expression in a Murine Model Related to Williams Syndrome Suggests That miR-34b/c Affects Brain Development via and Modulation.

Cells 2022 Jan 4;11(1). Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801, Israel.

Williams syndrome (WS) is a multisystem neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a de novo hemizygous deletion of ~26 genes from chromosome 7q11.23, among them the general transcription factor II-I (). By studying a novel murine model for the hypersociability phenotype associated with WS, we previously revealed surprising aberrations in myelination and cell differentiation properties in the cortices of mutant mice compared to controls. Read More

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January 2022

Functional Characterization of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Models of the Brain with Microelectrode Arrays.

Cells 2021 Dec 29;11(1). Epub 2021 Dec 29.

A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neuron cultures have emerged as models of electrical activity in the human brain. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) measure changes in the extracellular electric potential of cell cultures or tissues and enable the recording of neuronal network activity. MEAs have been applied to both human subjects and hPSC-derived brain models. Read More

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December 2021

SOX2 Regulates Neuronal Differentiation of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Dec 26;23(1). Epub 2021 Dec 26.

Department of Biology, University of Toronto Mississauga, Mississauga, ON L5L 1C6, Canada.

In mammals, the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) functions as the central circadian pacemaker, orchestrating behavioral and physiological rhythms in alignment to the environmental light/dark cycle. The neurons that comprise the SCN are anatomically and functionally heterogeneous, but despite their physiological importance, little is known about the pathways that guide their specification and differentiation. Here, we report that the stem/progenitor cell transcription factor, (), is required in the embryonic SCN to control the expression of SCN-enriched neuropeptides and transcription factors. Read More

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December 2021

Fluoxetine regulates the neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells transplanted into rat brains after stroke by increasing the 5HT level.

Neurosci Lett 2022 Jan 7;772:136447. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, 515041 Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Fluoxetine, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor, has been adopted for the treatment of post-stroke depression in recent years. It has been confirmed to induce neuronal regeneration in vivo, but its effect on inducing stem cell differentiation after transplantation has not yet been verified. To evaluate its regulatory effect on stem cell differentiation, fluoxetine was used in this study to treat rats with cerebral ischemia after neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation. Read More

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January 2022

The RNA helicases DDX5 and DDX17 facilitate neural differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells NTERA2.

Life Sci 2022 Jan 7;291:120298. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; Center for Neuroscience, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand. Electronic address:

Aims: Understanding human neurogenesis is critical toward regenerative medicine for neurodegeneration. However, little is known how neural differentiation is regulated by DEAD box-containing RNA helicases, which comprise a diverse class of RNA remodeling enzymes.

Materials And Methods: ChIP-seq was utilized to identify binding sites of DDX5 and DDX17 in both human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) line NTERA2 and their retinoic acid-induced neural derivatives. Read More

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January 2022

Reduced Graphene Oxide Fibers for Guidance Growth of Trigeminal Sensory Neurons.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 May 3;4(5):4236-4243. Epub 2021 May 3.

The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China.

Neurite alignment and elongation play special roles in the treatment of neuron disease, design of tissue engineering implants, and bioelectrodes applications. For instance, the trigeminal neurons (TGNs) free nerve endings are a key component of the pulp-dentin complex. The reinnervation of the pulp canal space requires the recruitment of apically positioned free nerve endings through axonal guidance. Read More

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Origin, molecular specification and stemness of astrocytes.

Dev Neurobiol 2022 Jan 10. Epub 2022 Jan 10.

Institute of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, College of Life Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, 311121, China.

Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system, carrying out a wide spectrum of biological functions. During early development, neural progenitor cells in the ventricular zone first produce neurons, followed by macroglia in the form of astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. While the lineage progression of oligodendrocytes has been well understood, the developmental staging of astrocytes has not been defined and the molecular mechanisms underlying their fate specification and differentiation remain largely unknown. Read More

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January 2022

Astrocyte and Oligodendrocyte Responses From the Subventricular Zone After Injury.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 24;15:797553. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

Under normal conditions, neural stem cells (NSCs or B cells) in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) give rise to amplifying neural progenitor cells (NPCs or C cells), which can produce neuroblasts (or A cells) that migrate to the olfactory bulb and differentiate into new neurons. However, following brain injury, these cells migrate toward the injury site where they differentiate into astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. In this review, we will focus on recent findings that chronicle how astrocytes and oligodendrocytes derived from SVZ-NSCs respond to different types of injury. Read More

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December 2021

Meta-Analysis: The Clinical Application of Autologous Adult Stem Cells in the Treatment of Stroke.

Stem Cells Cloning 2021 29;14:81-91. Epub 2021 Dec 29.

Regenerative Medicine Centre, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain.

Introduction: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The disease is caused by reduced blood flow into the brain resulting in the sudden death of neurons. Limited spontaneous recovery might occur after stroke or brain injury, stem cell-based therapies have been used to promote these processes as there are no drugs currently on the market to promote brain recovery or neurogenesis. Read More

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December 2021