656,729 results match your criteria differentiated


Smad2 and Smad3 differentially modulate chordin transcription via direct binding on the distal elements in gastrula Xenopus embryos.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 30;559:168-175. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Cell Differentiation and Aging, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-Do, 24252, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Transforming growth factor (TGF)β/activin superfamily regulates diverse biological processes including germ layer specification and axis patterning in vertebrates. TGFβ/activin leads to phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, followed by regulation of their target genes. Activin treatment also induces the essential organizer gene chordin (chrd). Read More

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Proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles of Sertoli cells in buffalo.

Theriogenology 2021 Apr 27;170:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Animal Reproduction Institute, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi, China. Electronic address:

Sertoli cells provide nutrients and support for germ cell differentiation and maintain a stable microenvironment for spermatogenesis. Comprehensive identification of Sertoli cellular proteins is important in understanding spermatogenesis. In this study, we performed an integrative analysis of the proteome and phosphoproteome to explore the role of Sertoli cells in spermatogenesis. Read More

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Higenamine alleviates allergic rhinitis by activating AKT1 and suppressing the EGFR/JAK2/c-JUN signaling.

Phytomedicine 2021 Apr 20;86:153565. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China; Guangzhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Pharmaceutics, Guangzhou 510515, China; Guangdong Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Preparation Technology, Guangzhou 510515, China. Electronic address:

Background: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated disease characterized by the typical symptoms of sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and congestion. Higenamine (HG) is a plant-based alkaloid, possesses a wide range of activities, including vascular and tracheal relaxation, antioxidative, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities. So far, the effect and the underlying mechanism of HG on AR have not been studied. Read More

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Sustained oxidative stress instigates differentiation of cancer stem cells into tumor endothelial cells: Pentose phosphate pathway, reactive oxygen species and autophagy crosstalk.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;139:111643. Epub 2021 May 1.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Tumor angiogenesis plays a vital role in tumor growth and metastasis. It is proven that in tumor vasculature, endothelial cells (ECs) originate from a small population of cancer cells introduced as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Autophagy has a vital role in ECs differentiation from CSCs and tumor angiogenesis. Read More

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Phytochemicals in cancer and their effect on the PI3K/AKT-mediated cellular signalling.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 May 1;139:111650. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M, Denmark. Electronic address:

Protein kinases belong to the largest family of enzymes controlling every aspect of cellular activity including gene expression, cell division, differentiation and metabolism. They are part of major intracellular signalling pathways. Hence, it is not surprising that they are involved in the development of major diseases such as cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, dementia and, most importantly, cancer when they undergo mutations, modifications and unbalanced expression. Read More

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Blood mRNA levels of T cells and IgE receptors are novel non-invasive biomarkers for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).

Clin Immunol 2021 May 1:108752. Epub 2021 May 1.

John W. Deming Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary Diseases, Tulane Eosinophilic Disorder Center (TEDC), Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA. Electronic address:

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is often misdiagnosed as GERD; therefore, the goal of the current study is to establish a non-invasive diagnostic and monitoring biomarker that differentiated GERD from EoE. Reports indicates that IL-15 responsive iNKT cells and tissue specific IgE have a critical in EoE pathogenesis, not in GERD. Therefore, we tested the hypothesized that the panel of IL-15-responsive T cell and IgE receptors may be novel non-invasive biomarkers for EoE. Read More

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Novel antiadipogenic effect of menadione in 3T3-L1 cells.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 1:109491. Epub 2021 May 1.

Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas de Bahía Blanca, Universidad Nacional Del Sur (UNS)-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Departamento de Biología, Bioquímica y Farmacia, UNS, Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Electronic address:

Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation can be used as a strategy for preventing adipose tissue expansion and, consequently, for obesity management. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) have emerged as key modulators of adipogenesis, the effect of menadione (a synthetic form of vitamin K known to induce the increase of intracellular ROS) on 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation was studied. Menadione (15 μM) increased ROS and lipid peroxidation, generating mild oxidative stress without affecting cell viability. Read More

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Targeting microRNA-mediated gene repression limits adipogenic conversion of skeletal muscle mesenchymal stromal cells.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Center for Tissue Regeneration, Repair and Restoration, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA. Electronic address:

Intramuscular fatty deposits, which are seen in muscular dystrophies and with aging, negatively affect muscle function. The cells of origin of adipocytes constituting these fatty deposits are mesenchymal stromal cells, fibroadipogenic progenitors (FAPs). We uncover a molecular fate switch, involving miR-206 and the transcription factor Runx1, that controls FAP differentiation to adipocytes. Read More

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miR-25-5p regulates endothelial progenitor cell differentiation in response to shear stress through targeting ABCA1.

Cell Biol Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai affiliated to Naval Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

The importance of flow shear stress (SS) on the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has been demonstrated in various studies. Cholesterol retention and miRNA regulation have been also proposed as relevant factors involved in this process, though evidence regarding their regulatory roles in the differentiation of EPCs is currently lacking. In the present study on high shear stress (HSS)-induced differentiation of EPCs, we investigated the importance of ABCA1, an important regulator in cholesterol efflux, and miR-25-5p, a potential regulator of endothelial reconstruction. Read More

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Streptococcus suis serotyping by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(5):e0249682. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Streptococcus suis, particularly S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), is an important zoonotic pathogen causing meningitis in humans worldwide. Although the proper classification of the causative and pathogenic serotype is salutary for the clinical diagnosis, cross-reactions leading to the indistinguishability of serotypes by the current serotyping methods are significant limitations. Read More

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Hippo signaling pathway in companion animal diseases, an under investigated signaling cascade.

Vet Q 2021 May 4:1-14. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

The Hippo pathway is a highly conserved kinase cascade in mammals with the proteins YAP and TAZ as its most important downstream effectors that shuttle between cytoplasma and nucleus. It has a crucial role in processes such as embryogenesis, organ size control, homeostasis and tissue regeneration, where mechanosensing and/or cell-cell interactions are involved. As the pathway is associated with many essential functions in the body, its dysregulation is related to many diseases. Read More

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Cell cycle deregulation in neurodegenerative diseases.

Int J Neurosci 2021 May 4:1-15. Epub 2021 May 4.

Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Cell cycle is critical for a wide range of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in dividing cells. Neurons are postmitotic cells which have withdrawn from the cell division cycle. Recent data show us that inappropriate activation of cell cycle regulators including cyclins, cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) and endogenous cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) may take part in the aetiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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A tale of two morphs: developmental patterns and mechanisms of seed coat differentiation in the dimorphic diaspore model Aethionema arabicum (Brassicaceae).

Plant J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, United Kingdom.

The developmental transition from a fertilised ovule to a dispersed diaspore (seed or fruit) involves complex differentiation processes of the ovule's integuments leading to the diversity in mature seed coat structures in angiosperms. In this study, comparative imaging and transcriptome analysis were combined to investigate the morph-specific developmental differences during outer seed coat differentiation and mucilage production in Aethionema arabicum, the Brassicaceae model for diaspore dimorphism. One of the intriguing adaptations of this species is the production and dispersal of morphologically distinct, mucilaginous and non-mucilaginous diaspores from the same plant (dimorphism). Read More

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Feeder-Dependent/Independent Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Protocol.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were first derived and cultured nearly 30 years ago and have been beneficial tools to create transgenic mice and to study early mammalian development so far. Fibroblast feeder cell layers are often used at some stage in the culture protocol of mESCs. The feeder layer-often mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)-contribute to the mESC culture as a substrate to increase culture efficiency, maintain pluripotency, and facilitate survival and growth of the stem cells. Read More

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ChIP-qPCR for Polycomb Group Proteins During Neuronal Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Symbiosis Centre for Stem Cell Research (SCSCR), Symbiosis International University (SIU), Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Neuronal differentiation is an intricate and a complex process which involves crosstalk among various signaling pathways, growth factors, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifiers. During different stages of neuronal development, there are various histone modifiers which drive the expression of lineage-specific genes. Polycomb group proteins are one of the histone modifiers that control transcriptional repression of specific genes in development, differentiation, and functionality of various tissues. Read More

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MAM-2201, One of the Most Potent-Naphthoyl Indole Derivative-Synthetic Cannabinoids, Exerts Toxic Effects on Human Cell-Based Models of Neurons and Astrocytes.

Neurotox Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Toxicology, and Poison Control Centre and National Toxicology Information Centre, Toxicology Unit, Istituti Clinici Scientifici Maugeri IRCCS, Via Maugeri 10, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

Considering the consequences on human health, in general population and workplace, associated with the use of new psychoactive substances and their continuous placing on the market, novel in vitro models for neurotoxicology research, applying human-derived CNS cells, may provide a means to understand the mechanistic basis of molecular and cellular alterations in brain. Cytotoxic effects of MAM-2201, a potent-naphthoyl indole derivative-synthetic cannabinoid, have been evaluated applying a panel of human cell-based models of neurons and astrocytes, testing different concentrations (1-30 µM) and exposure times (3-24-48 h). MAM-2201 induced toxicity in primary neuron-like cells (hNLCs), obtained from transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord. Read More

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Reclaimed water driven lettuce cultivation in a hydroponic system: the need of micropollutant removal by advanced wastewater treatment.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Pockelsstraße 2a, 38106, Braunschweig, Germany.

For a novel approach of resource-efficient water reuse, a municipal wastewater treatment plant was extended at pilot scale for advanced wastewater treatment, i.e., ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration, and a hydroponic system for reclaimed water driven lettuce cultivation. Read More

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Laboratory Evaluation and Pathological Workup of Neoplastic Monocytosis - Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia and Beyond.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Monocytosis is a distinct but non-specific manifestation of various physiologic and pathologic conditions. Among hematopoietic stem cell neoplasms, depending on the criteria used for disease classification, monocytosis may be a consistent and integral component of diseases such as chronic myelomonocytic leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation, or it may represent an inconsistent finding that often provides a clue to the underlying genetic changes driving the neoplasm. The purpose of this review is to provide the readers with a laboratory-based approach to neoplastic monocytosis. Read More

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Draft Genome of the Korean smelt Hypomesus nipponensis and its transcriptomic responses to heat stress in the liver and muscle.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Applied Animal Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea.

Pond smelt (Hypomesus nipponensis) is a cold-freshwater fish species as a winter economic resource of aquaculture in South Korea. Due to its high susceptibility to abnormal water temperature from global warming, a large number of smelt die in hot summer. Here, we present the first draft genome of H. Read More

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A positive feedback loop reinforces the allergic immune response in human peanut allergy.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 4;218(7). Epub 2021 May 4.

Sean N. Parker Center for Allergy & Asthma Research at Stanford University and Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Food allergies are a leading cause of anaphylaxis, and cellular mechanisms involving antigen presentation likely play key roles in their pathogenesis. However, little is known about the response of specific antigen-presenting cell (APC) subsets to food allergens in the setting of food allergies. Here, we show that in peanut-allergic humans, peanut allergen drives the differentiation of CD209+ monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and CD23+ (FcєRII) myeloid dendritic cells through the action of allergen-specific CD4+ T cells. Read More

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Differentiated Immunohistochemical Expression of Osteoclastogenic Markers in Radicular Cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, and Ameloblastoma.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2021 May-Jun 01;29(5):352-358

Department of Pathology, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the osteoclastogenesis process by means of immunohistochemical markers for receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and cathepsin K (CTSK) antigens in osteolytic lesions of maxillary bones. The sample consisted of 23 radicular cysts (RC), 25 odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), and 25 ameloblastomas (AM). RANKL was statistically higher in RC (49. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles in chondrogenesis and Cartilage regeneration.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Orthopedics, Huangyan Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Taizhou First People's Hospital, Taizhou, China.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), mainly exosomes and microvesicles, are bilayer lipids containing biologically active information, including nucleic acids and proteins. They are involved in cell communication and signalling, mediating many biological functions including cell growth, migration and proliferation. Recently, EVs have received great attention in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Read More

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A novel lncRNA promotes myogenesis of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells via PFN1-RhoA/Rac1.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Breeding and Healthy Husbandry, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin, China.

Myogenesis, the process of skeletal muscle formation, is a highly coordinated multistep biological process. Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as a gatekeeper in myogenesis. Up to now, most studies on muscle development-related lncRNAs are mainly focussed on humans and mice. Read More

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Therapeutic effects of CXCR4 subpopulation of transgene-free induced cardiosphere-derived cells on experimental myocardial infarction.

Cell Prolif 2021 May 4:e13041. Epub 2021 May 4.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases, Department of Immunology, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

Objectives: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the most predominant type of cardiovascular diseases with high mortality and morbidity. Stem cell therapy, especially cardiac progenitor cell therapy, has been proposed as a promising approach for cardiac regeneration and MI treatment. Previously, we have successfully generated cardiac progenitor-like cells, induced cardiosphere (iCS), via somatic reprogramming. Read More

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A fluorometric erythrophagocytosis assay using differentiated monocytic THP-1 cells to assess the clinical significance of antibodies to red blood cells.

Vox Sang 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Gynecology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background And Objectives: The significance of antibodies to red blood cells (RBCs) is variable and cannot be predicted solely by serological testing. A flow cytometry-based erythrophagocytosis assay was established using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cells and RBCs labelled with PKH26 to assess allo- and autoantibodies to RBCs.

Materials And Methods: THP-1 cells were differentiated into macrophage-like cells by treatment with PMA. Read More

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Cortical and trabecular bone structure of the hominoid capitate.

J Anat 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Skeletal Biology Research Centre, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.

Morphological variation in the hominoid capitate has been linked to differences in habitual locomotor activity due to its importance in movement and load transfer at the midcarpal joint proximally and carpometacarpal joints distally. Although the shape of bones and their articulations are linked to joint mobility, the internal structure of bones has been shown experimentally to reflect, at least in part, the loading direction and magnitude experienced by the bone. To date, it is uncertain whether locomotor differences among hominoids are reflected in the bone microarchitecture of the capitate. Read More

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Changes in prolactin receptor location in prostate tumors.

Arch Esp Urol 2021 May;74(4):419-426

Instituto de Medicina y Biología Experimental de Cuyo (IMBECU). Centro Científico y Tecnológico Mendoza. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Mendoza. Argentina.

Introduction: Prolactin (PRL) binds its receptor (PRLR) and stimulates cell proliferation, differentiation and survival in prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines via STAT5a, MAPK and AKT.

Objective: To evaluate the expression of PRL and PRLR in normal and tumor prostate tissues with different Gleason patterns.

Methods: Samples of normal, benign prostatic hyperplasia and PCa with different Gleason patterns were selected from radical prostatectomy. Read More

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DNA damage and repair in differentiation of stem cells and cells of connective cell lineages: A trigger or a complication?

Eur J Histochem 2021 May 3;65(2). Epub 2021 May 3.

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The review summarizes literature data on the role of DNA breaks and DNA repair in differentiation of pluripotent stem cells (PSC) and connective cell lineages. PSC, including embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), are rapidly dividing cells with highly active DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms to ensure the stability and integrity of the DNA. In PSCs, the most common DDR mechanism is error-free homologous recombination (HR) that is primarily active during S phase of the cell cycle, whereas in quiescent, slow-dividing or non-dividing tissue progenitors and terminally differentiated cells, error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) mechanism of the double-strand break (DSB) repair is dominating. Read More

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MiR-664-3p suppresses osteoblast differentiation and impairs bone formation via targeting Smad4 and Osterix.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Xenotransplantation, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Osteoporosis is a metabolic disorder characterized by low bone mass and deteriorated microarchitecture, with an increased risk of fracture. Some miRNAs have been confirmed as potential modulators of osteoblast differentiation to maintain bone mass. Our miRNA sequencing results showed that miR-664-3p was significantly down-regulated during the osteogenic differentiation of the preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. Read More

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