22,447 results match your criteria differences preventive

Dietary Restraint Related to Body Weight Maintenance and Neural Processing in Value-Coding Areas in Adolescents.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

The Center for Integrative Science of Human Behavior (CiSHuB), The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: There is an alarming increase in the obesity prevalence among children in an environment of increasing availability of preprocessed high-calorie foods. However, some people maintain a healthy weight even in such obesogenic environments. This difference in body weight management could be attributed to individual differences in dietary restraint; however, its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms in adolescents remain unclear. Read More

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Critical challenges and creative solutions for quantifying nicotine vaping: qualitative reports from young adults.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Previous studies suggest that young adults who vape nicotine experience difficulty when answering survey items assessing quantity of vaping. The current study asked young adults who vape to provide suggestions for improving the scientific measurement of vaping.

Methods: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 62 young adults who vape in Los Angeles, California between June 2018 and June 2019. Read More

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Validation of breast cancer risk assessment tools on a French-Canadian population-based cohort.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 12;11(4):e045078. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

CARTaGENE, Research Center, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: Evaluate the accuracy of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT), International Breast Cancer Intervention Study risk evaluation tool (IBIS), Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) and combined scores (BCRAT+PRS and IBIS +PRS) to predict the occurrence of invasive breast cancers at 5 years in a French-Canadian population.

Design: Population-based cohort study.

Setting: We used the population-based cohort CARTaGENE, composed of 43 037 Quebec residents aged between 40 and 69 years and broadly representative of the population recorded on the Quebec administrative health insurance registries. Read More

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When lockdown policies amplify social inequalities in COVID-19 infections: evidence from a cross-sectional population-based survey in France.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 12;21(1):705. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Background: Significant differences in COVID-19 incidence by gender, class and race/ethnicity are recorded in many countries in the world. Lockdown measures, shown to be effective in reducing the number of new cases, may not have been effective in the same way for all, failing to protect the most vulnerable populations. This survey aims to assess social inequalities in the trends in COVID-19 infections following lockdown. Read More

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Factors Related to Regional Variation in the High-risk Drinking Rate in Korea: Using Quantile Regression.

J Prev Med Public Health 2021 Mar 16;54(2):145-152. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health and Research Institute for Medical Sciences, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon, Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to identify regional differences in the high-risk drinking rate among yearly alcohol users in Korea and to identify relevant regional factors for each quintile using quantile regression.

Methods: Data from 227 counties surveyed by the 2017 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) were analyzed. The analysis dataset included secondary data extracted from the Korean Statistical Information Service and data from the KCHS. Read More

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Establishment of reference intervals for Platelet Function Analyzer -100 closure time in Algerian adults.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(4):e0249402. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Faculty of Medicine, Djellali Liabes University, Sidi-Bel Abbès, Algeria.

Introduction: The Platelet Function Analyzer-100 (PFA-100) is a point of care instrument that simulates plug formation under high shear flow. The PFA-100 measures the time required to occlude the aperture in a biochemically active cartridge and is expressed in a term of closure time (CT). In Algeria, the reference values used in clinical laboratories are of Western origin. Read More

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Effect of atorvastatin on knee cartilage volume in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: results from a randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.

Objective: To determine whether atorvastatin compared to placebo slows tibial cartilage volume loss in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Methods: Participants aged 40-70 years were randomised to oral atorvastatin 40 mg (n=151) or matching placebo (n=153) once daily. Primary endpoint: annual percentage change in tibial cartilage volume assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over two years. Read More

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The effect of various pressure of pneumatic uterine bracket by using saccule sterine external stent on incidence of supine hypotensive syndrome.

Ginekol Pol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CNNC 416th Hospital, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu Medical College, China.

Objectives: The saccule uterine external stent with a pneumatic uterine bracket reportedly prevents the incidence of supine hypotension syndrome (SHS) during cesarean section under combined spinal - epidural anesthesia (CSEA). However, the preventive effect is affected by the pressure within pneumatic uterine bracket. This study aims to explore the optimal pressure. Read More

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Effects of a Self-directed Web-Based Strengthening Exercise and Physical Activity Program Supported by Automated Text Messages for People With Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Intern Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Centre for Health, Exercise and Sports Medicine, Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Importance: Exercise therapies are advocated in osteoarthritis (OA) clinical guidelines. However, challenges to accessing exercise may be limiting widespread uptake.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of a self-directed web-based strengthening exercise and physical activity program supported by automated behavior-change text messages on knee pain and function for people with knee OA. Read More

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Meropenem Administered via Intravenous Regional Limb Perfusion for Orthopedic Sepsis in Horses: A Clinical Retrospective Study.

Front Vet Sci 2021 26;8:629627. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, United States.

Septic synovitis is a critical orthopedic condition in horses. Early intervention is key, with antibiotic therapy typically initiated prior to culture and susceptibility reports becoming available. The pharmacokinetics of several antibiotics have been studied in horses for use in intravenous regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) for septic synovitis, including the carbapenem antibiotic, meropenem. Read More

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Validation of the Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire for Patients Suffering From Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Greek.

Cureus 2021 Apr 6;13(4):e14324. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GRC.

Purpose: The Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ) represents a diagnostic tool concerning patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). The application of such a tool in the Greek clinical praxis requires validation.

Methods: Validation consists of three stages - translation, reverse translation, and patient application. Read More

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Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status and Peer Relationships: Mediating Roles of Self-Esteem and Perceived Stress.

Front Psychiatry 2021 24;12:634976. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

The Clinical Hospital of Chengdu Brain Science Institute, MOE Key Lab for Neuroinformation, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

This study explored the relationships between subjective family socioeconomic status (FSES), self-esteem, perceived stress, and perceived peer relationships among Chinese adolescents. A total of 1,353 adolescents (age range: 15-19 years) were asked to complete a questionnaire. Mediation analysis revealed that subjective FSES influenced perceived peer relationships in three ways: first, through the mediating effect of perceived stress; second, through the mediating effect of self-esteem; and third, through the serial mediating effects of perceived stress and self-esteem. Read More

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Psychological distress in responders and nonresponders in a 5-year follow-up health survey: The RIAS Study.

J Epidemiol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine.

Background: People with poor health or mental conditions are generally unwilling to participate in the health examinations, and no studies have directly examined the relationship of psychological distress among disaster survivors with participation status to date. The present study thus examined psychosocial differences according to the respondent status in a 5-year follow-up survey among participants in the prospective health surveys on survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster study in Iwate prefecture, Japan.

Methods: We analyzed data from 10203 Japanese survivors aged ≥18 years (mean age, 65. Read More

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Correlation of Seizure Increase and COVID-19 Outbreak in Adult Patients with Epilepsy: Findings and Suggestions from a Nationwide Multi-centre Survey in China.

Seizure 2021 Mar 31;88:102-108. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the behaviours, mental health and seizure control of adult patients with epilepsy (PWE) and to identify the correlation of seizure increase and the COVID-19 outbreak to guide the medical care of individuals with epilepsy during a public health crisis.

Methods: This study was conducted at 28 centres from February 2020 to April 2020. Participants filled out a 62-item online survey including sociodemographic, COVID-19-related, epilepsy-related and psychological variables and were divided into two groups based on whether their seizure frequency increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Etiology of early hearing loss in Brazilian children.

Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Departamento de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Oftalmologia e Otorrinolaringologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Introduction: Hearing loss etiology depends on the population studied as well as on the ethnicity and the socio-economic condition of the analyzed region. Etiological diagnosis contributes to the improvement of preventive measures and to the early identification of this deficiency.

Objective: To identify the etiological factors of hearing loss and its prevalence in a tertiary hospital in southern Brazil, to verify the frequency of mutations in GJB2 and GJB6 genes, and to correlate the degree of hearing loss with the etiological factors of deafness. Read More

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Effects of high fat diets and supplemental tart cherry and fish oil on obesity and type 2 diabetes in male and female C57BL/6J and TALLYHO/Jng mice.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Apr 7:108644. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Marshall University, Huntington, WV 25755, USA. Electronic address:

Obesogenic and diabetogenic high fat (HF) diets can influence genetic factors in disease development with sexual dimorphic responses. We investigated potential protective effects of tart cherry (TC), fish oil (FO) and TC+FO supplementation in TALLYHO/Jng (TH) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice fed HF diets. Male and female TH and B6 mice were weaned onto five different diets; low fat (LF), HF, and HF supplemented with TC, FO, or TC+FO and maintained. Read More

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Gains in insurance coverage following the affordable care act and change in preventive services use among non-elderly US immigrants.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 7;148:106546. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Wayne State University, Institute of Gerontology, USA; Wayne State University, Department of Economics, USA; University of New Mexico, Department of Sociology, USA; University of California San Diego, Department of Neurosciences and Shiley-Marcos Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, USA; Wayne State University, Department of Healthcare Sciences, USA. Electronic address:

Immigrants have lower and disproportionate use of preventive care. We use longitudinal panel data to examine how the 2014 full implementation of the ACA mandates affected change in preventive services (PS) use among immigrants that gained insurance. We used data on Foreign-Born (FB) and US-Born (USB) adults, ages 26-64 years, from the 2013/16 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey longitudinal files to examine within-person change in yearly utilization of age/sex specific United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended services. Read More

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Neural activity during cognitive reappraisal in chronic low back pain: a preliminary study.

Scand J Pain 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC3004, Australia.

Objectives: Chronic pain patients often report higher levels of negative emotions, suggesting reduced ability to regulate emotions effectively, however, little is known of the underlying neural cognitive mechanisms. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore brain activity and connectivity during cognitive reappraisal in chronic low back pain (CLBP).

Methods: This study recruited 24 female participants; 12 with CLBP and 12 healthy controls. Read More

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Diabetes and health-related quality of life among American Indians: the role of psychosocial factors.

Qual Life Res 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Purpose: Little is known about the association of psychosocial factors with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among American Indians with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study described functional social support, emotional support, coping, resilience, post-traumatic stress disorder, and HRQoL, among American Indians by diabetes status and, among those with diabetes, examined the association of these factors with HRQoL.

Methods: Using data from the Cherokee Nation Health Survey collected between 2017 and 2019, we evaluated differences in each measure of interest according to diabetes status, using t-test and Chi-squared tests of association. Read More

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Comparison of diagnostic methods for Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae detection in salmonid fish.

J Fish Dis 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Ecology and Diseases of Zoo Animals, Game, Fish and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Diagnostic accuracy of pathogen detection depends upon the selection of suitable tests. Problems can arise when the selected diagnostic test gives false-positive or false-negative results, which can affect control measures, with consequences for the population health. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity of different diagnostic methods IHC, PCR and qPCR detecting Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonid fish and as a consequence differences in disease prevalence. Read More

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Trends in mortality due to pressure ulcers in Spain, over the period 1999-2016.

J Tissue Viability 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Clinical Medicine Department, Miguel Hernández University, Carretera Nacional, N-332 S/n, 03550, Sant Joan, Alicante, Spain. Electronic address:

Aim: to analyse trends in mortality by Pressure Ulcers (PU) in Spain, between 1999 and 2016.

Methods: Mortality due to PU in residents in Spain over 65, where a PU was underlying/basic cause of death, was analysed. Data for populations and deaths were gathered from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Read More

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Association between apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms and hyperlipidemia: a meta-analysis.

BMC Genom Data 2021 Apr 9;22(1):14. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Health, Guizhou Medical University, 550025, Guiyang, China.

Background: Hyperlipidemia plays an important role in the etiology of cardio-cerebrovascular disease. Over recent years, a number of studies have explored the impact of apolipoprotein genetic polymorphisms in hyperlipidemia, but considerable differences and uncertainty have been found in their association with different populations from different regions.

Results: A total of 59 articles were included, containing in total 13,843 hyperlipidemia patients in the case group and 15,398 healthy controls in the control group. Read More

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Treatment Satisfaction of Galcanezumab in Japanese Patients with Episodic Migraine: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Study.

Neurol Ther 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kobe, Japan.

Introduction: This analysis evaluated the treatment satisfaction of Japanese patients receiving galcanezumab (GMB) as a preventive medication for episodic migraine (4-14 monthly migraine headache days).

Methods: This phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled patients aged 18-65 years at 40 centers in Japan. Patients were randomized 2:1:1 to receive monthly subcutaneous injections of placebo (PBO, n = 230), GMB 120 mg (n = 115), or GMB 240 mg (n = 114) for 6 months. Read More

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Prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse among US racial populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based screening studies.

Neurourol Urodyn 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Aims: To determine the differences in pooled prevalence rates of symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (POP) across different US racial/ethnic groups using existing screening-based epidemiologic studies.

Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Scopus was conducted to retrieve eligible studies. We included studies that identified POP by either physical exam or questionnaire, conducted in non-gynecologic care-seeking settings, and had a representative sample of US community-dwelling women from more than one racial/ethnic group with prevalence rates reported for each population. Read More

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Effects of DNA preservation solution and DNA extraction methods on microbial community profiling of soil.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Systems Biology Lab, Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Microbial community profiling using high-throughput sequencing relies in part on the preservation of the DNA and the effectiveness of the DNA extraction method. This study aimed at understanding to what extent these parameters affect the profiling. We obtained samples treated with and without a preservation solution. Read More

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Comparison of Soft Tissue Changes Produced by Two Different Appliances on Mixed Dentition Children.

Biomed Res Int 2021 25;2021:6612598. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Craniofacial and Biomaterial Sciences Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Objective: This study was focused on comparing and analyzing the soft tissue changes induced by Reverse Twin-Block (RTB) and Reverse Pull Face Mask (RPFM) in early and late mixed dentition Malay children having Class III malocclusion.

Methods: This cross-sectional study includes a total sample of 95 Malay children of both early (8-9 years) and late (10-11 years) mixed dentition stages. The comparison was between 49 samples treated by RTB and 46 samples treated by RPFM. Read More

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Iatrogenic vs. Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Retrospective Study of Neonatal Outcome Among Very Preterm Infants.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:649749. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Henan Key Laboratory of Child Brain Injury and Henan Pediatric Clinical Research Center, Institute of Neuroscience and Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Preterm birth is a leading contributor to childhood morbidity and mortality, and the incidence tends to increase and is higher in developing countries. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential impact of preterm birth in different etiology groups on neonatal complications and outcomes and to gain insight into preventive strategies. We performed a retrospective cohort study of preterm infants less than 32 weeks' gestation in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from 2014 to 2019. Read More

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Treatment of maternal anemia by using oral iron drugs combined with diet therapy.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Sep;33(5(Special)):2417-2422

No.2 Postpartum Department, Tengzhou Central People's Hospital, Tengzhou, China.

Iron deficiency anemia is a common nutritional deficiency disease in women during pregnancy, mainly due to the increased iron requirements of pregnant women and fetuses, resulting in a lack of iron elements necessary for the production of red blood cells, resulting in a decrease in the number of red blood cells and the symptoms of anemia; Causes chronic fetal hypoxia and affects the normal development of some important organs of the fetus. This article explores the clinical value of oral iron drugs combined with diet therapy for maternal anemia. Observed the changes of hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), average hemoglobin concentration (McHc), serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS) and other indicators of pregnant women before and after treatment and the differences in pregnancy outcomes. Read More

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September 2020

Sex and gender gap in spinal cord injury research: Focus on cardiometabolic diseases. A mini review.

Maturitas 2021 May 4;147:14-18. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Swiss Paraplegic Research, Nottwil, Switzerland; Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Cardiometabolic disease (CMD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in people with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Despite well-acknowledged sex and gender differences in CMD in the general population, they remain insufficiently studied in persons with SCI. To describe the landscape of sex and gender in SCI research, we searched the literature for systematic reviews on cardiometabolic health in this population. Read More

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