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Deciphering human decision rules in motion discrimination.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.

We investigated the eight decision rules for a same-different task, as summarized in Petrov (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16(6), 1011-1025, 2009). These rules, including the differencing (DF) rule and the optimal independence rule, are all based on the standard model in signal detection theory. Each rule receives two stimulus values as inputs and uses one or two decision criteria. Read More

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Exposures of Phenylacetic Acid and Phenylacetylglutamine Across Different Subpopulations and Correlation with Adverse Events.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Clinical Development, Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals, Hampton, NJ, 08827, USA.

Background: Elevated plasma ammonia is central to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Sodium phenylacetate or glycerol phenylbutyrate is approved for urea cycle disorders, but limited clinical data are available for hepatic encephalopathy. Phenylacetic acid (PAA) plasma exposure has been reported to correlate with neurologic adverse events in patients with cancer but not in patients with urea cycle disorders or hepatic encephalopathy. Read More

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Reusable membrane with multifunctional skin layer for effective removal of insoluble emulsified oils and soluble dyes.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 17;415:125677. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

The organic pollutants, typical of emulsified oils and soluble organic dyes, is commonly found in wastewater, however simultaneous removal of them remains challenging because of their difference in surface charge, molecule size, and solubility in water. Inspired by the water purification of the earth's multilayer strata, a fibrous membrane with multifunctional skin is fabricated by coupling sub-micrometer pores layer of polyaniline (PANI) and nano molecular brush of polyacrylic acid (PAA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) on polyacrylonitrile membrane, for cross-scale organic pollution/water separation. This ultrathin skin of PANI/PAA/PEI is endowed with sub-micrometer pores and strong hydration, which can effectively prevent tiny oil droplets from entering or adhering the membrane pores. Read More

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Is the routine use of antipseudomonal antibiotics in acutely exacerbated COPD patients indicated: A retrospective analysis in 437 ICU patients.

J Crit Care 2021 May 24;65:49-55. Epub 2021 May 24.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Nephrology and Medical Intensive Care Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a risk factor for acquiring multiple drug resistant bacteria. The main objective of this analysis was to question a beneficial outcome in the routine use of antipseudomonal antibiotics in the empiric treatment of severe AECOPD in Intensive Care Unit patients.

Material And Methods: We report a retrospective, observational cohort study in adult patients with severe AECOPD admitted to ICU at a tertiary care university hospital. Read More

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A systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment and natural history of popliteal artery aneurysms.

J Vasc Surg 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Evidence-based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minn. Electronic address:

Objective: To summarize the best available evidence comparing open vs endovascular popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) repair. We also summarized the natural history of PAAs to support of the Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, and Scopus for studies of patients with PAAs treated with an open vs an endovascular approach. Read More

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Adherence to instruction for use after endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysm.

Vascular 2021 Apr 19:17085381211007312. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweeden.

Objectives: Endovascular repair (ER) of popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) is an alternative to open repair. However, there is no standardized protocol for when to opt for ER and the decision is therefore at the discretion of the clinician. This study aims to evaluate the adherence to the Instruction For Use (IFU) in patients undergoing ER for PAA and factors associated with stent graft patency at one year. Read More

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Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma (EORTC 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054): health-related quality-of-life results from a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 05 12;22(5):655-664. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054 trial in patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma demonstrated improved recurrence-free survival with adjuvant pembrolizumab compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74]; p<0·0001). This study reports the results from the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) exploratory endpoint.

Methods: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Read More

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Comparison of Outcomes for Open Popliteal Artery Aneurysm Repair Using Vein and Prosthetic Conduits.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Autologous vein is considered the preferred conduit for lower extremity bypass. There is, however, limited literature regarding conduit choice for open popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) repair. We sought to compare outcomes of PAA repair using vein versus prosthetic conduits. Read More

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Study on the Efficacy of Peracetic Acid Disinfectant (Type III) on Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Disinfection.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan city, Shandong Province, Peoples Republic of China.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disinfection efficacy of peracetic acid disinfectant (Type III) on gastrointestinal endoscopy.

Methods: Endoscopes were disinfected, respectively, by 2% glutaraldehyde and peracetic acid disinfectant (Type III) according to the procedures stipulated by the 2016 version of "Regulation for cleaning and disinfection technique of flexible endoscope," then samples were collected through biopsy channel at the specified steps. The bacterial count and pathogenic bacteria of these samples were detected, and hepatitis B virus surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibody, and Treponemiapallidum antibody were detected by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay in peracetic acid disinfectant (Type III) group. Read More

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MC3T3 E1 cell response to mineralized nanofiber shish kebab structures.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Material Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Block copolymers (BCPs) are of growing interest because of their extensive utility in tissue engineering, particularly in biomimetic approaches where multifunctionality is critical. We synthesized polycaprolactone-polyacrylic acid (PCL-b-PAA) BCP and crystallized it onto PCL nanofibers, making BCP nanofiber shish kebab (BCP NFSK) structures. When mineralized in 2× simulated body fluid, BCP NFSK mimic the structure of mineralized collagen fibrils. Read More

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February 2021

Final Endodontic Irrigation with 2% Peracetic Acid: Antimicrobial Activity and Cytotoxicity.

Eur J Dent 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Health Institute of Nova Friburgo, Fluminense Federal University, Nova Friburgo, RJ, Brazil.

Objective:  The aim of present study was to assess the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial efficacy of 2% peracetic acid (PAA) compared with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX).

Material And Methods:  For the cytotoxicity test, 100 µl of the tested solutions were added in 12 wells with ECV 304 endothelial cells in each group: NaOCl, CHX and PAA, in addition to the control group. Read More

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February 2021

Nylon mesh-based 3D scaffolds for the adherent culture of neural stem/progenitor cells.

J Biosci Bioeng 2021 Apr 16;131(4):442-452. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570, Japan. Electronic address:

We developed novel scaffolds for the adherent culture of neural stem/progenitor cells on the woven mesh. Nylon mesh (NM) is an inert material for cell adhesion. We prepared polyacrylic acid-grafted nylon mesh (PAA-NM) by graft polymerization method using gamma-irradiation. Read More

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Nanohardness reduction and root dentine erosion after final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic, etidronic and peracetic acids.

Int Endod J 2020 Nov 8;53(11):1549-1558. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Statistics, Faculty of Science, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: To evaluate the nanohardness reduction and erosion in root canal dentine after application of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), 9% etidronic acid (HEBP) and 2% peracetic acid (PAA) either alone or combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl).

Methodology: One hundred and sixty single-rooted teeth were decoronated and their root canals were chemomechanically prepared. For the nanohardness evaluation, 80 roots with instrumented canals were split longitudinally into two halves. Read More

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November 2020

Effect of different chelating agents on the bond strength of a silicone-based root canal sealer to root dentin.

J Conserv Dent 2020 Mar-Apr;23(2):158-162. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Private Dental Clinic, Antalya, Turkey.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of 7% maleic acid (MA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution, 10% citric acid (CA), or 2.25% peracetic acid (PAA) on the dislodgment resistance of a silicone-based root canal sealer.

Materials And Methods: Ninety-five mandibular incisors were shaped to size R50. Read More

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November 2020

Fabrication of Porous Anodic Alumina (PAA) by High-Temperature Pulse-Anodization: Tuning the Optical Characteristics of PAA-Based DBR in the NIR-MIR Region.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Dec 9;13(24). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Faculty of Advanced Technologies and Chemistry, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Military University of Technology, Str. gen Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw, Poland.

In this work, the influence of various electrochemical parameters on the production of porous anodic alumina (PAA)-based DBRs (distributed Bragg reflector) during high-temperature-pulse-anodization was studied. It was observed that lowering the temperature from 30 to 27 °C brings about radical changes in the optical performance of the DBRs. The multilayered PAA fabricated at 27 °C did not show optical characteristics typical for DBR. Read More

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December 2020

Small interfering RNA for cancer treatment: overcoming hurdles in delivery.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2020 Nov 13;10(11):2075-2109. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Departamento de Quimica Orgánica, Facultad de Química y de Farmacia, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 7820436, Chile.

In many ways, cancer cells are different from healthy cells. A lot of tactical nano-based drug delivery systems are based on the difference between cancer and healthy cells. Currently, nanotechnology-based delivery systems are the most promising tool to deliver DNA-based products to cancer cells. Read More

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November 2020

Effectiveness of polyacrylic acid-bioactive glass air abrasion preconditioning with NovaMin remineralization on the microhardness of incipient enamel-like lesion.

J Conserv Dent 2019 Nov-Dec;22(6):548-553. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Background: Bioactive glass (BAG) remineralization is a promising method for dental hard tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness of incipient enamel-like lesions with or without preconditioning by air abrasion using polyacrylic acid (PAA)-BAG before application of NovaMin remineralizing agent.

Materials And Methods: Forty extracted human molars were selected, sectioned mesiodistally obtaining buccal and lingual halves, and embedded in resin molds. Read More

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Rational Design of Polyamine-Based Cryogels for Metal Ion Sorption.

Molecules 2020 Oct 19;25(20). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 159, prosp.100-letiya Vladivostoka, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia.

Here we report the method of fabrication of supermacroporous monolith sorbents (cryogels) via covalent cross-linking of polyallylamine (PAA) with diglycidyl ether of 1,4-butandiol. Using comparative analysis of the permeability and sorption performance of the obtained PAA cryogels and earlier developed polyethyleneimine (PEI) cryogels, we have demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of these polymers as sorbents of heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II)) in fixed-bed applications and as supermacroporous matrices for the fabrication of composite cryogels containing copper ferrocyanide (CuFCN) for cesium ion sorption. Applying the rate constant distribution (RCD) model to the kinetic curves of Cu(II) ion sorption on PAA and PEI cryogels, we have elucidated the difference in sorption/desorption rates and affinity constants of these materials and showed that physical sorption contributed to the Cu(II) uptake by PAA, but not to that by PEI cryogels. Read More

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October 2020

[Effect of bioactive glass pretreatment on the durability of dentin bonding interface].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Oct;52(5):931-937

Objective: To study the effect of bioactive glass (BG) on the dentin bond strength and the microleakage of hybrid layer.

Methods: In the study, 30 dentin planes were prepared from the third molars with no caries and equally assigned to the control group, BG group, and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP)-polyacrylic acid (PAA)-BG group (S-P-BG group), randomly. After etched with 35% phosphoric acid, the dentin planes of BG group were pretreated with 0. Read More

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October 2020

Promoting Active Aging: Lessons Learned in an Implementation Pilot in Primary Care.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Feb 2;69(2):373-380. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Sticht Center for Healthy Aging and Alzheimer's Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina.

Background: Physical activity (PA) preserves mobility, but few practices screen older adults for mobility impairment or counsel on PA.

Design: "Promoting Active Aging" (PAA) was a mixed-methods randomized-controlled pilot, to test the feasibility and acceptability of a video-based PA counseling tool and implementation into practice of two mobility assessment tools.

Setting: Three primary care practices affiliated with Wake Forest Baptist Health. Read More

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February 2021

Efficacy-shaping nanomedicine by loading Calcium Peroxide into Tumor Microenvironment-responsive Nanoparticles for the Antitumor Therapy of Prostate Cancer.

Theranostics 2020 2;10(21):9808-9829. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Urology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 20092, China.

Prostate cancer has become one of the most threatening malignant tumors in men, leading to an imperative need to develop effective and safe therapies. Because of the unique metabolism of tumor cells, the tumor microenvironment (TME) exhibits distinctive properties compared with normal tissues, among which the pH difference has been utilized as an ideal antitumor strategy. Herein, we introduce a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-controlled-release nanosystem with TME-responsiveness by applying hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) as carriers loaded with calcium peroxide (CaO) and coated with polyacrylic acid (PAA) to construct the functional material [email protected] Read More

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Component-based face recognition using statistical pattern matching analysis.

Pattern Anal Appl 2020 Jul 18:1-21. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, 1342 Bangladesh.

The aim of this research is to develop a fusion concept to component-based face recognition algorithms for features analysis of binary facial components (BFCs), which are invariant to illumination, expression, pose variations and partial occlusion. To analyze the features, using statistical pattern matching concepts, which are the combination of Chi-square (CSQ), Hu moment invariants (HuMIs), absolute difference probability of white pixels (AbsDifPWPs) and geometric distance values (GDVs) have been proposed for face recognition. The individual grayscale face image is cropped by applying the Viola-Jones face detection algorithm from a face database having variations in illumination, appearance, pose and partial occlusion with complex backgrounds. Read More

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Water Transport Mechanisms of Poly(acrylic acid), Poly(vinyl alcohol), and Poly(ethylene glycol) in C-S-H Nanochannels: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

J Phys Chem B 2020 07 1;124(28):6095-6104. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Joint Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Avenida da Universidade, Taipa, Macau SAR 999078, China.

The transport properties of water molecules in nanochannels are critical to the durability of porous materials. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the effects of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PAA), and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on the durability of modified cement-based materials. By establishing ideal composite nanopores, the absorption of water molecules in the channel is simulated. Read More

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Pubic Arch Angle Measurement by Transperineal Ultrasonography: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study.

Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet 2020 Apr 24;42(4):181-187. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Maternal Fetal Medicine Service, Maternidade Assis Chateaubriand, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.

Objective:  To evaluate the ability of the pubic arch angle (PAA) as measured by transperineal ultrasonography during labor to predict the delivery type and cephalic pole disengagement mode.

Methods:  The present prospective cross-sectional study included 221 women in singleton-gestational labor ≥ 37 weeks with cephalic fetuses who underwent PAA measurement using transperineal ultrasonography. These measurements were correlated with the delivery type, cephalic pole disengagement mode, and fetal and maternal characteristics. Read More

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Effect of smear layer deproteinization with HOCl solution on the dentin bonding of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements.

Eur J Oral Sci 2020 06 20;128(3):255-262. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Cariology and Operative Dentistry, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.

The effect of smear layer-deproteinizing pretreatment using hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on the micro-shear bond strengths (μSBS) of conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (GIC) to dentin was investigated and compared with demineralizing pretreatment with polyacrylic acid (PAA). Three GICs: Fuji IX GP Extra (restorative conventional GIC), GC Fuji II LC EM (restorative resin-modified GIC), and GC Fuji Luting EX (luting resin-modified GIC), were used. One hundred fifty human molars were divided into groups (n = 10) according to the cements and dentin pretreatments; no pretreatment (control), 10 s PAA pretreatment, and HOCl pretreatment for 5, 15, or 30 s. Read More

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Outcome of Open and Endovascular Repair in Patients with Acute Limb Ischemia Due to Popliteal Artery Aneurysm.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Aug 1;67:376-387. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Vascular Center, Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) carries a risk of sudden thromboembolism, resulting in acute limb ischemia (ALI). Since 2010, all 65 year-old-men in Region Skåne are invited for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening, and subsequently for PAA if AAA is detected. The aims of the study were to explore if the ratio of PAAs treated electively compared with acute has changed since the implementation of the AAA screening program and to investigate the risk factors for major amputation, mortality, and combined major amputation/mortality after acute open repair (OR) or endovascular repair (ER) for PAA with ALI. Read More

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Polymeric films containing pomegranate peel extract based on PVA/starch/PAA blends for use as wound dressing: In vitro analysis and physicochemical evaluation.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2020 Apr 7;109:110643. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Programa de pós-graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Departamento de Ciências Veterinárias, Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Engenharias, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES, 29.500-000, Alegre, ES, Brazil; Laboratório de Produção Farmacêutica, Departamento de Farmácia e Nutrição, Centro de Ciências Exatas, Naturais e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo - UFES, 29.500-000 Alegre, ES, Brazil. Electronic address:

Chronic wounds constitute a serious public health problem, and developing pharmaceutical dosage forms to ensure patient comfort and safety, as well as optimizing treatment effectiveness, are of great interest in the pharmaceutical, medical and biomaterial fields. In this work, the preparation of films based on blends of poly(vinyl alcohol), starch and poly(acrylic acid), polymers widely used as pharmaceutical excipients, and pomegranate peel extract (PPE), a bioactive compound with antimicrobial and healing activities relevant to the use as a bioactive wound dressing, was proposed. Initially, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the PPE was investigated by an in vitro method. Read More

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Eligibility of Endovascular Repair for Popliteal Artery Aneurysms According the Instructions for Use.

Ann Vasc Surg 2020 Aug 21;67:370-375. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Department of Radiology, University of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.

Background: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) are the most common peripheral aneurysms. Although rare and often asymptomatic, there is a significant risk of thrombosis, embolism, and limb loss. The aim of this study was to evaluate the eligibility for endovascular repair of patients treated for symptomatic and asymptomatic PAAs in accordance with the instructions for use (IFU). Read More

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Simultaneous removal of Pb, Cu and Cd ions from wastewater using hierarchical porous polyacrylic acid grafted with lignin.

J Hazard Mater 2020 06 30;392:122208. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Key Laboratory of Bio-based Material Science and Technology Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Heilongjiang, Harbin, 150040, PR China; Material Science and Engineering College, Northeast Forestry University, Heilongjiang, Harbin, 150040, PR China.

In PAA-g-lignin, phase separation, caused by the difference in expansion properties between lignin and polyacrylic acid, is used to build a porous hydrogel. In this study, PAA-g-APL was produced by grafting polyacrylic acid with acid-pretreated alkali lignin. Acid-pretreated alkali lignin acts as a hierarchical pore-forming agent that enhances the simultaneous adsorption capacities for Pb, Cu and Cd ions from wastewater. Read More

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Estrone-Decorated Polyion Complex Micelles for Targeted Melittin Delivery to Hormone-Responsive Breast Cancer Cells.

Biomacromolecules 2020 03 24;21(3):1222-1233. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Centre for Advanced Macromolecular Design (CAMD), School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW, Australia.

Tumor targeting has revolutionized cancer research, especially active cellular targeting of nanoparticles, where they are specifically homed to the pathological site to deliver the therapeutics. This strategy, which involves the utilization of affinity ligands on the surface of the nanocarriers, minimizes the nonspecific uptake of nanocarriers and the subsequent harmful side effects in healthy cells. Estrone, one of the mammalian estrogens, has affinity for estrogen receptors (ERα), which are overexpressed in hormone-responsive breast cancers. Read More

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