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Paramedic and EMT Program Performance on Certification Examinations Varies by Program Size and Geographic Location.

Prehosp Emerg Care 2021 Sep 15:1-10. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Columbus, Ohio.

: The quality of an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) or paramedic training program is likely one factor which contributes to a candidate's success on the National Registry Cognitive Examination. However, program pass rates and their associated geographic location have not previously been evaluated. Our objective was to evaluate the performance of EMT and paramedic programs in the US, pass rates on the National Registry Cognitive Examinations, and relationship to geography. Read More

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September 2021

Inverse probability weighting and doubly robust standardization in the relative survival framework.

Stat Med 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Biostatistics Research Group, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

A commonly reported measure when interested in the survival of cancer patients is relative survival. Relative survival circumvents issues with inaccurate cause of death information by incorporating the expected mortality rates of cancer individuals from population lifetables of the general population. A summary of the cancer population prognosis can be obtained using the marginal relative survival. Read More

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September 2021

Methylome-wide association study of early life stressors and adult mental health.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

The environment and events that we are exposed to in utero, during birth and in early childhood influence our future physical and mental health. The underlying mechanisms that lead to these outcomes are unclear, but long-term changes in epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation, could act as a mediating factor or biomarker. DNA methylation data was assayed at 713522 CpG sites from 9537 participants of the Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study, a family-based cohort with extensive genetic, medical, family history and lifestyle information. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of heatwaves and greenness on mortality among Chinese older adults.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 27;290:118009. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Vanke School of Public Health, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Heatwaves and greenness have been shown to affect health, but the evidence on their joint effects is limited. We aim to assess the associations of the combined exposure to greenness and heatwaves. We utilized five waves (February 2000-October 2014) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), a prospective cohort of older adults aged 65. Read More

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Association between heavy metals and metabolic syndrome in drinking water and surface soil: case-control study in Iran.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical science, Ahvaz, Iran.

Although obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS), not all obese people develop MetS that is directly related to obesity. This suggests that the risk of MetS is influenced by other genetic or environmental agents such as heavy metals. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between heavy metals in drinking water and surface soil, and its relationship with the incidence of MetS. Read More

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September 2021

Computerised cognitive remediation to enhance mobility in older adults: a single-blind, single-centre, randomised trial.

Lancet Healthy Longev 2021 Sep 2;2(9):e571-e579. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

(Prof J Verghese MBBS, J R Mahoney PhD, E Ayers MPH, C Wang PhD, Prof R Holtzer PhD), (Prof J Verghese), (A Ambrose MD), (C Wang), (Prof R Holtzer).

Background: Decline in executive functions and related cognitive processes is associated with mobility decline, and these functions might be amenable to cognitive remediation. This study aimed to examine whether a computerised cognitive remediation programme would improve walking in adults aged 70 years and older.

Methods: This single-blind, randomised trial at one academic centre in the USA evaluated the efficacy of an 8-week computerised programme (also known as brain games) of progressive intensity and complexity to improve walking in older adults at high-risk for mobility disability. Read More

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September 2021

Comparison of Vestibular Depth Relapse and Wound Healing After Reconstructive Preprosthetic Surgery Using Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane and Acellular Dermal Matrix - A Comparative Study.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2021 Jan-Jun;11(1):12-16. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Introduction: The significance of membranes as wound dressing in oral surgeries has been reported by previous studies. The aim of the present split-mouth randomized clinical study was to assess and compare the wound dressing properties of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) and cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (AM) after reconstructive preprosthetic oral surgery.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight patients with complete mandibular edentulism and resorbed alveolar bone were included. Read More

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Self-assessment of social cognition in a sample of Lebanese in-patients with schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res Cogn 2021 Dec 9;26:100207. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

INSERM, Univ. Limoges, IRD, U1094 Tropical Neuroepidemiology, Institute of Epidemiology and Tropical Neurology, GEIST, Limoges, France.

Objective: The primary objective was to evaluate social cognitive complaints in a sample of chronic in-patients with schizophrenia and compare it to healthy controls. The secondary objective was to explore factors related to social cognitive complaints in these patients, such as neurocognition, clinical symptoms, depression, and insight.

Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted between July 2019 and March 2020 at the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross (HPC)-Lebanon enrolled 120 chronic in-patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders and 60 healthy controls. Read More

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December 2021

Multiple paternity in two populations of finetooth sharks () with varying reproductive periodicity.

Ecol Evol 2021 Sep 29;11(17):11799-11807. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Ocean Engineering and Marine Sciences Florida Institute of Technology Melbourne FL USA.

The mechanisms underlying polyandry and female mate choice in certain taxonomic groups remain widely debated. In elasmobranchs, several species have shown varying rates of polyandry based on genetic studies of multiple paternity (MP). We investigated MP in the finetooth shark, , in order to directly test the encounter rate hypothesis (ERH), which predicts that MP is a result of the frequency of encounters between mature conspecifics during the breeding season, and should therefore increase when more time is available for copulation and sperm storage. Read More

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September 2021

Human papillomavirus infection predicts a better survival rate in patients with oropharyngeal cancer.

Arch Med Sci 2021 23;17(5):1308-1316. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Department of Radiotherapy, Holycross Cancer Centre, Kielce, Poland.

Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour occurring in the head and neck region. It is now understood that (human papillomavirus (HPV)- positive and HPV-negative diseases are two very different clinical entities associated with different outcomes. We decided to assess p16 expression status in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of the treatment. Read More

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September 2020

Levels of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor and polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus: a meta-analysis.

Arch Med Sci 2021 31;17(5):1232-1240. Epub 2019 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health and Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Major Autoimmune Diseases, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Introduction: Several published results have established variations in respect to plasma/serum macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) levels and gene polymorphisms with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study gave a more concise estimation on the MIF levels for SLE patients and established the association between MIF polymorphisms and SLE.

Material And Methods: All articles were searched from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wan-Fang, Chinese Biological Medical Literature, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure up to 6 October 2017, with no language restriction. Read More

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Relationship Between Mood Episode and Employment Status of Outpatients with Bipolar Disorder: Retrospective Cohort Study from the Multicenter Treatment Survey for Bipolar Disorder in Psychiatric Clinics (MUSUBI) Project.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 7;17:2867-2876. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.

Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between mood episode and employment in patients with bipolar disorder to help improve their employment status.

Methods: All medical records of patients with bipolar disorder who visited 176 member clinics of the Japanese Association of Neuro-Psychiatric Clinics in September-October 2016 were investigated in September-October 2017. Details of the medical care received were investigated using a survey sheet, which included employment status. Read More

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September 2021

Association of changes in work due to COVID-19 pandemic with psychosocial work environment and employee health: a cohort study of 24 299 Finnish public sector employees.

Occup Environ Med 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Public Health, Turun Yliopisto, Turku, Finland.

Objectives: To examine the associations of COVID-19-related changes in work with perceptions of psychosocial work environment and employee health.

Methods: In a cohort of 24 299 Finnish public sector employees, psychosocial work environment and employee well-being were assessed twice before (2016 and 2018=reference period) and once during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who reported a change (='Exposed') in work due to the pandemic (working from home, new tasks or team reorganisation) were compared with those who did not report such change (='Non-exposed'). Read More

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September 2021

Natriuretic Peptides and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium.

Diabetes Care 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany.

Objective: Natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations are increased in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but are associated with a lower diabetes risk. We investigated associations of N-terminal pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) and midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) with incident type 2 diabetes stratified by the presence of CVD.

Research Design And Methods: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium, we included 45,477 participants with NT-proBNP measurements (1,707 developed type 2 diabetes over 6. Read More

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September 2021

The Efficacy of a Multi-Theory-Based Peer-Led Intervention on Oral Health Among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Adolesc Health 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a peer-led oral health intervention based on the Health Belief Model and the Social Cognitive Theory on improving oral health among Hong Kong adolescents.

Methods: The study adopted a cluster-randomized controlled trial design, and 1184 students in 12 schools were randomized to intervention or control groups. After baseline assessment, the intervention group received a peer-led theory-based oral health intervention, while the control group received booklets for oral health promotion. Read More

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September 2021

Return to classes impact on mental health of university students during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Acta Neuropsychiatr 2021 Sep 15:1-19. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Physiology, Federal University of São Paulo, Brazil. Email:

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the necessary social isolation and distancing measures - that were adopted to prevent spreading the virus, including the suspension of university classes - negatively impacted the mental health of young adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether returning to online classes, even not presential, during the social isolation of the COVID-19 pandemic, affected the mental health of university students.

Methods: Forty students (10 men and 30 women) (age, 22. Read More

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September 2021

Validity of self-reported substance use: research setting versus primary health care setting.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2021 Sep 14;16(1):66. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Self-reported substance use is more likely to be influenced by underreporting bias compared to the biological markers. Underreporting bias or validity of self-reported substance use depends on the study population and cannot be generalized to the entire population. This study aimed to compare the validity of self-reported substance use between research setting and primary health care setting from the same source population. Read More

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September 2021

Prevalence estimates of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Belgium: results from two cross-sectional studies.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 14;21(1):947. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Service Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases, Sciensano, Rue Ernest Blerot 1, 1070, Anderlecht, Belgium.

Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) is the most diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in Belgium. Screening programs focus on young women, due to the implications of chronic asymptomatic infections for reproductive health. Thereby, the frequency of infections in men and older adults is underestimated. Read More

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September 2021

[Detection of oropharyngeal sensory function in normal population].

X L Liu X Y Li W Xu

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Aug;56(8):830-836

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China.

To study the oropharyngeal sensory function by Current Perception Threshold(CPT) detection, to explore the detection method of oropharyngeal sensory function in normal population, and to analyze the possible influencing factors. Fifty-eight normal subjects were included prospectively in this study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI) were collected. Read More

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Overweight and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Chinese Twin Study.

Diabetes Metab 2021 Sep 11:101278. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China.

Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the association between overweight and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DMM) in twins, and further to explore whether genetic and early-life environmental factors account for this association.

Methods: This study included 31,197 twin individuals from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Generalised estimating equation (GEE) models were applied for unmatched case-control analysis. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of menthol on esophageal motility in humans: Studies using high-resolution manometry.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Sep 14:e14267. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Medicine, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation and Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Background/aim: The cold receptor, transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8), has been reported to be expressed in esophageal vagal afferents. Esophageal infusion of menthol modulates esophageal perception in reflux patients via TRPM8, but the effects of menthol on esophageal motility are not well investigated. This study aimed to test the hypothesis whether the infusion of menthol into the esophagus could affect esophageal peristaltic characteristics. Read More

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September 2021

An exploration of the nomological network of trypophobia.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(9):e0257409. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Clinical Psychology and Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Trypophobia is characterised by an aversion to or even revulsion for patterns of holes or visual stimuli featuring such patterns. Past research has shown that trypophobic stimuli trigger emotional and physiological reactions, but relatively little is known about the antecedents, prodromes, or simply covariates of trypophobia.

Aim: The goals of this study were (a) to draw the contours of the nomological network of trypophobia by assessing the associations of symptoms of trypophobia with several constructs that were deemed relevant from past research on anxiety disorders and specific phobias, (b) to compare such associations with those found for symptoms of spider phobia and blood and injection phobia (alternative dependent variables), and (c) to investigate the main effect of gender on symptoms of trypophobia and replicate the association of gender with symptoms of spider phobia and blood and injection phobia (higher scores for women). Read More

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September 2021

Tuberculosis preventive therapy for people living with HIV: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 14;18(9):e1003738. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, McGill International TB Centre, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy (TPT) is an essential component of care for people living with HIV (PLHIV). We compared efficacy, safety, completion, and drug-resistant TB risk for currently recommended TPT regimens through a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) of randomized trials.

Methods And Findings: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library from inception through June 9, 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing 2 or more TPT regimens (or placebo/no treatment) in PLHIV. Read More

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September 2021

Validity of the food frequency questionnaire for adults in nutritional epidemiological studies: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Sep 14:1-19. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

As the most widely used tool for assessing dietary intake, the validity of food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) should be evaluated before application. A comprehensive search of the PubMed and Web of Science databases was conducted for publications from January 2000 to April 1, 2020. Pooled estimates were calculated for correlation coefficients and mean differences for energy and 61 nutrients between FFQs and standard methods. Read More

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September 2021

Drains after thyroid surgery.

Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc 2020 09 1;58(5):543-547. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Hospital de Especialidades "Dr. Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez", Servicio de Gastrocirugía. Ciudad de México, México.

Background: Thyroidectomy is one of the most common procedures and the most feared complication is the hematoma that obstructs the airway, which leads to the use of drains, although the evidence of the benefits of its use is limited.

Objective: To analyze the frequency of the use of drains, the type of surgery and hospital stay in patients undergoing thyroid surgery.

Method: We included patients with diverse thyroid diseases with and without drains. Read More

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September 2020

Infant Pitch and Timbre Discrimination in the Presence of Variation in the Other Dimension.

J Assoc Res Otolaryngol 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, 1417 NE 42nd Street, Box 354875, Seattle, WA, 98105, USA.

Adult listeners perceive pitch with fine precision, with many adults capable of discriminating less than a 1 % change in fundamental frequency (F0). Although there is variability across individuals, this precise pitch perception is an ability ascribed to cortical functions that are also important for speech and music perception. Infants display neural immaturity in the auditory cortex, suggesting that pitch discrimination may improve throughout infancy. Read More

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September 2021

VDR Gene Polymorphisms and Cluster Headache Susceptibility: Case-Control Study in a Southeastern European Caucasian Population.

J Mol Neurosci 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Research Group of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, Faculty of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15771, Athens, Greece.

Cluster headache (CH) is a severe primary headache disorder with a genetic component, as indicated by family and twin studies. Diurnal and seasonal rhythmicity are key features of the disease and might be related to vitamin D, as low vitamin D levels have been observed in patients with cluster headache. In addition, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) occurs in brain areas and particularly in the hypothalamus. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of hierarchy on risk communication during robot-assisted surgery: a preliminary study.

Surg Endosc 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

A.T.L.A.S. (Applied Technology Laboratory for Advanced Surgery) Program, Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Introduction: A hierarchical structure is where all individuals are organized according to importance and are subordinate to a single person. In the operating room (OR), this structure may negatively impact the quality of communication and jeopardize patient safety. We examined how the surgical team's hierarchical relationships affect the frequency and timing of risk communication, and their influence on situational awareness (SA) in the OR. Read More

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September 2021

Cost-effectiveness of a Multicomponent Intervention for Hypertension Control in Low-Income Settings in Argentina.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2122559. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Importance: Hypertension is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries, and it is an important preventable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Understanding the economic benefits of a hypertension control program is valuable to decision-makers.

Objective: To evaluate the long-term cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent hypertension management program compared with usual care among patients with hypertension receiving care in public clinics in Argentina from a health care system perspective. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of the nursing intervention Fall prevention in older adults with arterial hypertension using NANDA-I, NIC, and NOC.

Int J Nurs Knowl 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Nursing Department, Federal University of Ceara, Fortaleza, Brazil.

Purpose: To measure the effects of the NIC intervention fall prevention on the magnitude of the NANDA-I Risk for falls' risk factors and of NOC indicators related to falls in older adults with arterial hypertension.

Background: Nurses can use nursing taxonomies to provide effective care in preventing falls in specific populations.

Methods: Clinical, randomized, open, parallel, and multicenter trial following the CONSORT recommendations for nonpharmacological trials. Read More

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September 2021