20,193 results match your criteria dietary phase

Label-free screening of brain tissue myelin content using phase imaging with computational specificity (PICS).

APL Photonics 2021 Jul 12;6(7):076103. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Abbott Nutrition, Strategic Research, 3300 Stelzer Road, Columbus, Ohio 43219, USA.

Inadequate myelination in the central nervous system is associated with neurodevelopmental complications. Thus, quantitative, high spatial resolution measurements of myelin levels are highly desirable. We used spatial light interference microcopy (SLIM), a highly sensitive quantitative phase imaging (QPI) technique, to correlate the dry mass content of myelin in piglet brain tissue with dietary changes and gestational size. Read More

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Physical properties of UHT light cream: impact of the high-pressure homogenization and addition of hydrocolloids.

J Dairy Res 2021 Jul 22:1-8. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The beneficial effects of a healthy diet on the quality of life have prompted the food industry to develop low-fat variants, but fat content directly affects the physicochemical and sensory properties of food products. The utilization of high-pressure homogenization (HP) and incorporation of hydrocolloids have been suggested as strategies to improve the physical stability and rheological properties of light cream. Thus, this study aims to analyze the associated effect of high-pressure homogenization (80 MPa) and three different hydrocolloids: microcrystalline cellulose, locust bean gum and xanthan gum, on emulsion stability and rheological properties of ultra-high-temperature (UHT) light cream (ULC) with a 15% w/w fat content. Read More

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Bioaccumulation of dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in fish.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 21;281:130948. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Resource and Environmental Management, Biological Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6, Canada. Electronic address:

To investigate the bioaccumulation behavior of dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6, CAS number: 540-97-6) in fish, an OECD-305 style dietary bioaccumulation study of D6 in rainbow trout was conducted in the presence of non-metabolizable reference chemicals. The dietary uptake absorption efficiency of D6 was 14 (3 SE) % and lower than that of the reference chemicals which ranged between 22 (2 SE) to 60 (8 SE) %. The concentration of D6 in the body of the fish showed a rapid 40% drop during the first day of the depuration phase, followed by a slower decline during the remainder of the depuration period. Read More

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October 2021

Evaluation of Cadmium Transfer from Soil to the Human Body Through Maize Consumption in a Cadmium Anomaly Area of Southwestern China.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang, 550025, China.

Evaluating the bioavailability, bioaccessibility and transferability of cadmium (Cd) in soil-grain-human systems is essential in areas with a Cd anomaly in the karst region of southwestern China. In the present study, the main controlling factors and prediction models for Cd transfer in a soil-grain-human systems were investigated in a typical area where natural processes and anthropogenic activities interact in the karst region of southwestern China. The environmental availability of Cd (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid- [DTPA] and CaCl -extractable Cd [Cd ]) in the soil varies significantly because of the diversity of soil properties. Read More

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Modulation and bioinformatics screening of hepatic mRNA-lncRNAs (HML) network associated with insulin resistance in prediabetic and exercised mice.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 Jul 20;18(1):75. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, University of Isfahan, Hezar Jerib Avenue, Azadi Sq., Isfahan, 81746-73441, Iran.

Background: Insulin resistance is associated with prediabetes and further progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aims to investigate novel hepatic lncRNAs associated with key genes in insulin resistance in prediabetes.

Methods: In the bioinformatics phase, we have collected screened a pool of lncRNAs and mRNAs according to their potential association to prediabetic condition. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Effectiveness of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Symptoms, Social Functions, and Neurobiological Variables in Schizophrenia.

Biol Res Nurs 2021 Jul 20:10998004211020121. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, 63443Jianan Psychiatric Center, Ministry of Health and Welfare, Tainan City, Taiwan.

Background: Disturbance of lipid, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), metabolism is associated with the etiology and symptoms of schizophrenia. Numerous clinical studies have tried to evaluate whether omega-3 PUFA supplementation can ameliorate the disorder, but the results are inconclusive.

Objectives: This systematic review integrates and refines the research evidence of the effectiveness of omega-3 PUFA nutritional supplementation on schizophrenia during the different developmental phases of the disease (prodromal, first-episode, and chronic phases) and examines whether different developmental stages modulate the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA supplementation. Read More

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Albumin Infusion in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients: Hemodilution and Anticoagulation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 1;22(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Internal Medicine University Clinic, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany Robert-Koch-Strasse 40, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

Hypercoagulation is one of the major risk factors for ICU treatment, mechanical ventilation, and death in critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. At the same time, hypoalbuminemia is one risk factor in such patients, independent of age and comorbidities. Especially in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2-infection, albumin infusion may be essential to improve hemodynamics and to reduce the plasma level of the main marker of thromboembolism, namely, the D-dimer plasma level, as suggested by a recent report. Read More

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The PERSonalized Glucose Optimization Through Nutritional Intervention (PERSON) Study: Rationale, Design and Preliminary Screening Results.

Front Nutr 2021 30;8:694568. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands.

It is well-established that the etiology of type 2 diabetes differs between individuals. Insulin resistance (IR) may develop in different tissues, but the severity of IR may differ in key metabolic organs such as the liver and skeletal muscle. Recent evidence suggests that these distinct tissue-specific IR phenotypes may also respond differentially to dietary macronutrient composition with respect to improvements in glucose metabolism. Read More

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Physical Activity, Weight Loss, and Weight Maintenance in the DiOGenes Multicenter Trial.

Front Nutr 2021 30;8:683369. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, Netherlands.

In this secondary analysis of the DiOGenes study, we investigated whether physical activity (PA) contributes to diet-induced weight loss and helps to reduce subsequent regain. We also studied the associations of PA with changes in cardiometabolic variables. Adults with overweight were included and followed an 8-week low-calorie diet (LCD). Read More

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Long-term intake of Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 prevents age-related circadian locomotor activity and changes in gut metabolism in physiologically aged mice.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Jul 13;153:111477. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Inflammation and Immunosenescence, Geroscience Research Center, Research Institute, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Obu, Aichi 474-8511, Japan.; Department of Aging Research, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Aichi, 466-8550, Japan. Electronic address:

Aging involves age-progressive loss of physiological functions in organs and tissues. We previously showed that Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 suppressed age-related inflammation and prevented age-related retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. As RGCs mediate biological behaviors associated with responses to ambient light, we assessed whether L. Read More

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Ketogenic diet as an advanced option for the management of pediatric obesity.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Duke Healthy Lifestyles Program, Department of Pediatrics Duke Center for Childhood Obesity Research, Department of Pediatrics, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose: The Duke Healthy Lifestyles Program (HL), established in 2006, has treated over 15,000 pediatric patients with obesity. A subset of patients with obesity do not respond to dietary and lifestyle changes. Development of the Staged Transitional Eating Plan (STEP) in 2012 provided a ketogenic advanced dietary option for these specific patients. Read More

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Histological assessment of systemic granulomatosis progression in meagre Argyrosomus regius during cage ongrowing phase.

Dis Aquat Organ 2021 Jul 15;145:165-172. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy.

Meagre Argyrosomus regius is a potential candidate for Mediterranean aquaculture diversification, although several health issues still represent important bottlenecks for its sustainable production, including systemic granulomatosis (SG). To evaluate the SG progression in meagre during a 10 mo period of cage ongrowing, a histopathological investigation was carried out on 108 meagre fed 3 different diets (commercial pellets, hydrated commercial pellets and defrosted sardines). Histological sections of the gills and visceral organs were examined and lesions referable to SG scored from 1-3 according to the severity of the granulomatosis. Read More

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The association between dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet and mediterranean diet with metabolic syndrome in a large sample of Iranian adults: YaHS and TAMYZ Studies.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 11;9(7):3932-3941. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Nutrition and Food Security Research Center Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences Yazd Iran.

Dietary patterns are considered as a modifiable risk factor for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the association between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean (MED) dietary patterns and MetS. This cross-sectional study was conducted on the data from recruitment phase of prospective studies on Iranian adults known as Yazd Health Study (YaHS) and Yazd Nutrition Study (TAMYZ). Read More

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Mediterranean diet adherence and dietary calcium intake in a group of pregnant women: Results of an Italian survey.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jul 6;9(7):3426-3435. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Experimental and Clinical biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio" University of Florence Florence Italy.

Pregnancy is a delicate phase in woman's life that could become a risk factor for osteoporosis in pregnant women who do not meet recommended nutrient standards, especially for calcium and vitamin D. Mediterranean diet (MD) has been demonstrated to be beneficial for adequate nutrient intake. This article aims to evaluate the MD adherence and dietary calcium intake in a group of pregnant Italian women and to investigate how these are linked to each other and to fast glycemia at first trimester of pregnancy. Read More

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The gut microbiome: what the oncologist ought to know.

Br J Cancer 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK.

The gut microbiome (GM) has been implicated in a vast number of human pathologies and has become a focus of oncology research over the past 5 years. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation and protection against pathogens. Strong evidence is emerging to support the effects of the GM on the development of some malignancies but also on responses to cancer therapies, most notably, immune checkpoint inhibition. Read More

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Multi-carbohydrase enzymes improve feed energy in broiler diets containing standard or low crude protein.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 26;7(2):496-505. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England, Armidale, NSW, 2351, Australia.

This study evaluated the effect of multi-carbohydrase (MC) on energy and nitrogen (N) balance and gene expression in broilers fed diets with different crude protein (CP) contents. The study employed a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The factors were presence or absence of MC, and standard (SCP) or low (LCP) dietary CP concentration. Read More

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Dietary inclusion of multispecies probiotics to reduce the severity of post-weaning diarrhea caused by F18 in pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 10;7(2):326-333. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27695, United States.

This study was aimed to determine the efficacy of multispecies probiotics in reducing the severity of post-weaning diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic (ETEC) F18 on newly weaned pigs. Thirty-two pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts, BW = 6.99 ± 0. Read More

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Natural capsicum extract replacing chlortetracycline enhances performance via improving digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory function, and gut health in weaned pigs.

Anim Nutr 2021 Jun 4;7(2):305-314. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of natural capsicum extract (NCE, containing 2% natural capsaicin, the rest is carrier) replacing chlortetracycline (CTC) on performance, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant capacity, inflammatory cytokines, and gut health in weaned pigs. A total of 108 weaned pigs (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire], initial body weight = 8.68 ± 1. Read More

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Role of Dietary Antioxidants in p53-Mediated Cancer Chemoprevention and Tumor Suppression.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 26;2021:9924328. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Cancer arises through a complex interplay between genetic, behavioral, metabolic, and environmental factors that combined trigger cellular changes that over time promote malignancy. In terms of cancer prevention, behavioral interventions such as diet can promote genetic programs that may facilitate tumor suppression; and one of the key tumor suppressors responsible for initiating such programs is p53. The p53 protein is activated by various cellular events such as DNA damage, hypoxia, heat shock, and overexpression of oncogenes. Read More

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Adolescent Levers for a Diet and Physical Activity Intervention Across Socioecological Levels in Kenya, South Africa, Cameroon, and Jamaica: Mixed Methods Study Protocol.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Jul 13;10(7):e26739. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: The increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases that are prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is largely attributed to modifiable behavioral risk factors such as unhealthy diets and insufficient physical activity (PA). The adolescent stage, defined as 10 to 24 years of age, is an important formative phase of life and offers an opportunity to reduce the risk of noncommunicable diseases across the life course and for future generations.

Objective: The aim of this paper is to describe a protocol for a study using a convergent mixed methods design to explore exposures in the household, neighborhood, school, and the journey from home to school that may influence diet and PA behaviors in adolescents from LMICs. Read More

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The in vivo metabolism of Furazadrol in greyhounds.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Research School of Chemistry, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.

Samples of the 'dietary supplement' Furazadrol sourced through the internet have been reported to contain the designer anabolic androgenic steroids [1',2']isoxazolo[4',5':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol (furazadrol F) and [1',2']isoxazolo[4',3':2,3]-5α-androstan-17β-ol (isofurazadrol IF). These steroids contain an isoxazole fused to the A-ring and were designed to offer anabolic activity while evading detection, raising concerns over the potential for abuse of this preparation in sports. The metabolism of Furazadrol (F:IF, 10:1) was studied by in vivo methods in greyhounds. Read More

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Conditions stimulating neutral detergent fiber degradation by dosing branched-chain volatile fatty acids. III: Relation with solid passage rate and pH on prokaryotic fatty acid profile and community in continuous culture.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus 43210. Electronic address:

Our objectives were to evaluate potential interactions in culture conditions that influence how exogenously dosed branched-chain VFA (BCVFA) would be recovered as elongated fatty acids (FA) or would affect bacterial populations. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments evaluated 3 factors: (1) without versus with BCVFA (0 vs. 2 mmol/d each of isobutyrate, isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyrate; each dose was partially substituted with C-enriched tracers before and during the collection period); (2) high versus low pH (ranging diurnally from 6. Read More

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In vitro models of gut digestion across childhood: current developments, challenges and future trends.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Jul 9:107796. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, UMR 454 MEDIS, Microbiologie Environnement Digestif et Santé, CRNH Auvergne, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. Electronic address:

The human digestion is a multi-step and multi-compartment process essential for human health, at the heart of many issues raised by academics, the medical world and industrials from the food, nutrition and pharma fields. In the first years of life, major dietary changes occur and are concomitant with an evolution of the whole child digestive tract anatomy and physiology, including colonization of gut microbiota. All these phenomena are influenced by child exposure to environmental compounds, such as drugs (especially antibiotics) and food pollutants, but also childhood infections. Read More

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The Preventive Role of () in Immune and Oxidative Insults in a Stress-induced Rat Model.

J Vet Res 2021 Jun 8;65(2):193-200. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bursa Uludağ University, 16059 Bursa, Turkey.

Introduction: There is a balance between oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity and immune response. Their roles in physiological and behavioural mechanisms are important for the maintenance of the organism's internal equilibrium. This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effects of the exogenous alga in a stress-induced rat model, and to describe its possible mechanism of action. Read More

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Efficacy of Semaglutide in a Subcutaneous and an Oral Formulation.

Juris J Meier

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:645617. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Diabetes Center Bochum-Hattingen, St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Despite the benefits of early and effective glycemic control in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), achieving glycated hemoglobin (HbA) targets is challenging in some patients. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) provide effective reductions in HbA and body weight. Semaglutide is the only GLP-1RA that is available in both an injectable and oral formulation. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 May(314):87-90

Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University; 2Department of Propaedeutic Pediatrics and Medical Genetics, Ukraine.

Cow's milk protein allergy is an urgent problem in young children. Early diagnostics and formation of therapeutic tactics are the basic priorities in allergy treatment among young children. Oral provocation tests, which can be performed only in medical establishments, are a golden standard for diagnosing food allergy. Read More

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Dietary sophorolipid accelerates growth by modulation of gut microbiota population and intestinal environments in broiler chickens.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jul 12;12(1):81. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Biotechnology, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seoul, 02841, Republic of Korea.

Background: Gut is a crucial organ for the host's defense system due to its filtering action of the intestinal membrane from hazardous foreign substances. One strategy to strengthen the gut epithelial barrier function is to upregulate beneficial microflora populations and their metabolites. Sophorolipid (SPL), which is a glycolipid bio-surfactant, could increase beneficial microflora and decrease pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. Read More

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An UPLC - Q - Orbitrap method for pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of four triterpenoids in rats after oral administration of Poria cocos ethanol extracts.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 2;203:114237. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, China; Institute of Pharmaceutics, Anhui Academy of Chinese Medicine, Hefei, 230012, China; Engineering Technology Research Center of Modernized Pharmaceutics, Education Office of Anhui Province, Hefei, 230012, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicinal Formula, Hefei, 230012, China; Synergetic Innovation Center of Anhui Authentic Chinese Medicine Quality Improvement, Hefei, 230012, China; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Preparation Technology and Application, Hefei, 230012, China. Electronic address:

Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf, is a fungus that is widely used as medicine and dietary supplement in China. But its action mechanism is still not very clear. Read More

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September 2021

Lexical and syntactic gemination in Italian consonants-Does a geminate Italian consonant consist of a repeated or a strengthened consonant?

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 May;149(5):3375

Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

Two types of consonant gemination characterize Italian: lexical and syntactic. Italian lexical gemination is contrastive, so that two words may differ by only one geminated consonant. In contrast, syntactic gemination occurs across word boundaries and affects the initial consonant of a word in specific contexts, such as the presence of a monosyllabic morpheme before the word. Read More

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The gravitostat protects diet-induced obese rats against fat accumulation and weight gain.

J Neuroendocrinol 2021 Jun 3:e12997. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Physiology/Endocrine, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The gravitostat is a novel homeostatic body weight-regulating mechanism, mostly studied in mice, and recently confirmed in obese humans. In the present study, we explored the effect of weight loading on metabolic outcomes, meal patterns and parameters linked to energy expenditure in both obese and lean rats. Diet-induced obese (DIO) and lean rats were implanted with capsules weighing either 15% of biological body weight (load) or empty capsules (1. Read More

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