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The Dietary Inflammatory Index and Human Health: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Deakin University, Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation (IMPACT), Food & Mood Centre, School of Medicine, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Numerous observational studies have investigated the role of the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) in chronic disease risk. The aims of this umbrella review and integrated meta-analyses were to systematically synthesize the observational evidence reporting on the associations between the DII and health outcomes based on meta-analyses, and to assess the quality and strength of the evidence for each associated outcome. This umbrella review with integrated meta-analyses investigated the association between the DII and a range of health outcomes based on meta-analyses of observational data. Read More

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Proposed reductions in limits on added sugar and alcohol for the new dietary guidelines: our perspective.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Departments of Nutrition Science and Public Health, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

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Simulation Modeling for the Economic Evaluation of Population-Based Dietary Policies: A Systematic Scoping Review.

Adv Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.

Simulation modeling can be useful to estimate the long-term health and economic impacts of population-based dietary policies. We conducted a systematic scoping review following the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) guideline to map and critically appraise economic evaluations of population-based dietary policies using simulation models. We searched Medline, Embase, and EconLit for studies published in English after 2005. Read More

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Autonomic and Perceptual Responses to Induction of a Ketogenic Diet in Free-Living Endurance Athletes: A Randomized, Crossover Trial.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Apr 19:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Purpose: Considerable interindividual heterogeneity has been observed in endurance performance responses following induction of a ketogenic diet (KD). It is plausible that a physiological stress response in the period following the dramatic dietary shift associated with transition to a KD may explain this heterogeneity.

Methods: In a randomized, crossover study design, 8 trained male runners completed an incremental exercise test and ran to exhaustion at 70%VO2max before and after a 31-day rigorously controlled habitual diet or KD intervention, and recorded heart rate variability (root mean square of the sum of successive differences in R-R intervals [rMSSD]) upon waking each morning along with the recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes each week. Read More

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A Hazard Evaluation of the Reproductive/Developmental Toxicity of Cobalt in Medical Devices.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Apr 16:104932. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Cardno ChemRisk, 20 Stanwix Street, Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222.

Cobalt (Co) is an essential element with human exposure occurring from the diet, supplement ingestion, occupational sources, and medical devices. The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) recently voted to classify Co metal as a Reproductive Hazard Category 1B; presumed human reproductive toxicant due to adverse testicular effects in male rodents. A weight of evidence evaluation of the preclinical reproductive and developmental toxicity studies and available clinical data was performed to critically evaluate the relevance of this proposed classification for Co in medical devices. Read More

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Effect of type II diabetes-induced osteoarthritis on articular cartilage aging in rats: A study in vivo and in vitro.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 16:111354. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratory of the Provincial Education Department of Heilongjiang for Common Animal Disease Prevention and Treatment, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: Some evidence suggests that type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoarthritis (OA) usually occur together clinically, and the symptoms are more obvious compared with non-diabetic patients with OA. We aimed to explore the effects in cartilage degradation, damage, and aging after T2DM combined with OA.

Methods: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the young-control group (YCG, n = 10), old-control group (OCG, n = 10), and old T2DM-induced OA group (OTOG, n = 10) after the pre-experiment. Read More

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Impact of physical activity on mitochondrial enzymes, muscle stem cell and anti-oxidant protein Sestrins in Sarcopenic mice.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 16:111358. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Introduction: Sarcopenia is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. It is a major health issue in old age due to lack of understanding of the origin and molecular mechanism. Altered dietary pattern, sedentary lifestyle and physical inactivity have shown adverse effect of skeletal muscle function. Read More

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E-vaping and high-fat diet consumption: it's all a hazy memory.

Authors:
Ross Vlahos

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC, 3083, Australia. Electronic address:

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Development of grape polyphenols as multi-targeting strategies for Alzheimer's disease.

Neurochem Int 2021 Apr 16:105046. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029; Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468. Electronic address:

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is by far the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging and is a major burden for patients, caregivers, and the overall health care system. The complexity of AD pathophysiology and the lack of deep understanding of disease mechanisms impeded the development of AD therapy. Currently approved treatments for AD only modestly improve cognitive function but do not modify disease course. Read More

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Carboxylesterase 2 proteins are efficient diglyceride and monoglyceride lipases possibly implicated in metabolic disease.

J Lipid Res 2021 Apr 16:100075. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, 8010 Graz, Austria. Electronic address:

Carboxylesterase 2 (CES2/Ces2) proteins exert established roles in (pro)drug metabolism. Recently, human and murine CES2/Ces2c have been discovered as triglyceride (TG) hydrolases implicated in the development of obesity and fatty liver disease. The murine Ces2 family consists of seven homologous genes as opposed to a single CES2 gene in humans. Read More

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Haemoglobin thresholds to define anaemia in a national sample of healthy children and adolescents aged 1-19 years in India: a population-based study.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Population Council, India Habitat Centre, New Delhi, India.

Background: WHO's haemoglobin cutoffs to define anemia were based on five studies of predominantly White adult populations, done over 50 years ago. Therefore, a general re-examination of the existing haemoglobin cutoffs is warranted for global application, in representative healthy populations of children and adults. Such data are scarce in low-income and middle-income countries; however, a 2019, large-scale, nationally representative survey of children and adolescents aged 0-19 years in India (Comprehensive National Nutrition Survey [CNNS]) offered an opportunity for this re-examination. Read More

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Overexpression of retinoid X receptor beta provides protection against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammation via regulating PGC1α-dependent mitochondrial homeostasis in endothelial cells.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 16:114559. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Nantong University Pharmacy College, Nantong, 226001, China. Electronic address:

Retinoid X receptor beta (RXRβ) has been poorly studied in atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study is to explore the function of RXRβ in oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and the underlying mechanism. The protein expression of RXRβ in the aorta of atherosclerotic mice was detected. Read More

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Discovery of a AHR pelargonidin agonist that counter-regulates Ace2 expression and attenuates ACE2-SARS-CoV-2 interaction.

Biochem Pharmacol 2021 Apr 16:114564. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Dipartimento di Medicina e Chirurgia, Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 is the pathogenetic agent of Corona Virus Induced Disease (COVID)19. The virus enters the human cells after binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 receptor in target tissues. ACE2 expression is induced in response to inflammation. Read More

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Sulforaphane inhibits PRMT5 and MEP50 function to suppress the mesothelioma cancer cell phenotype.

Mol Carcinog 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Mesothelioma is a highly aggressive cancer of the mesothelial lining that is caused by exposure to asbestos. Surgical resection followed by chemotherapy is the current treatment strategy, but this is marginally successful and leads to drug-resistant disease. We are interested in factors that maintain the aggressive mesothelioma cancer phenotype as therapy targets. Read More

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Effect of dietary treatment and fluid intake on the prevention of recurrent calcium stones and changes in urine composition: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0250257. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Urology, Institute of Urology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for investigating the effect of dietary treatment and fluid intake on the prevention of recurrent calcium stones and changes in urine composition. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases (updated November 2020) were searched for studies with the following keywords: diet, fluid, recurrent, prevention, randomized controlled trials, and nephrolithiasis. The search strategy and study selection process was conducted by following the PRISMA statement. Read More

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Immunomodulation in Children: the Role of the Diet.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Ospedale dei bambini V. Buzzi, Milan, Italy Department of Health Science, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract: Immune maturation and response to inflammation depend on good nutritional status. Protein and amino acid deficiencies can compromise innate and adaptive immune functions, particularly following injury or during illness. Dietary omega-3 long chain fatty acids, prebiotics and micronutrients are beneficial to the immune system. Read More

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The Efficacy of Zemedy, a Mobile Digital Therapeutic for the Self-Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a Cross-Over, Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Population Health Research Institute, St George's University of London, London, GB.

Background: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) experience abdominal pain, altered bowel habits, and defecation-related anxiety which can result in reduced productivity and impaired health related quality of life (HRQL). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce symptoms of IBS and to improve HRQL, but access to qualified therapists is limited. Smartphone-based digital therapeutic interventions have the potential to increase access to guided CBT at scale but require careful study to assess their benefits and risks. Read More

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Ameliorative Effect of Dietary Tryptophan on Neurodegeneration and Inflammation in d-Galactose-Induced Aging Mice with the Potential Mechanism Relying on AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α Pathway and Gut Microbiota.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Food Science and Health, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Dietary tryptophan affects intestinal homeostasis and neurogenesis, whereas the underlying mechanism and the reciprocal interaction between tryptophan and gut microbiota in aging are unclear. This investigation was performed to determine the effect and mechanism of tryptophan on intestinal- and neuro- health in aging. In present study, the 0. Read More

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Growth performance, tissue precipitation, metallothionein and cytokine transcript expression and economics in response to different dietary zinc sources in growing rabbits.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

The impact of different dietary zinc sources on the growth, serum metabolites, tissue zinc content, economics and relative expression of cytokine and metallothionein genes was evaluated in this study. A total of 120 35-day-old male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were randomly distributed into four dietary experimental groups with 10 replicates per group and 3 animals per replicate. The control group was fed basal diet with a Zn-free vitamin-mineral premix; the other three groups received control basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg level with zinc oxide (ZnO; as inorganic source), Zn-methionine (Zn-Met; as organic source) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO). Read More

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Efficacy and safety of corpus callosotomy and ketogenic diet in children with Lennox Gastaut syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Background: Both corpus callosotomy (CC) and the ketogenic diet (KD) are commonly used in patients with Lennox Gastaut syndrome (LGS), as a significant proportion of these patients develop pharmacoresistant epilepsy. But no systematic review has yet compared the efficacy and safety of these two measures.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search on various databases to collating all available literature until 30th November 2020 with a primary objective to compare the efficacy of KD and CC in terms of the proportion of patients with complete seizure freedom, at least 75% and 50% reduction in seizure frequency at various time points after the institution of these modalities. Read More

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Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency and post-COVID vaccination rhabdomyolysis.

QJM 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Warrington and Halton Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom.

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder affecting fatty acid oxidation. The myopathic form of the condition is the most common among adults and manifests itself with a high serum creatine kinase (CK) concentration. Triggers of very high CK concentrations include periods of fasting, infection, exercise, stress, and exposure to extreme temperatures. Read More

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Dietary fiber in a low-protein diet during gestation affects nitrogen excretion in primiparous gilts, with possible influences from the gut microbiota.

J Anim Sci 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Key Laboratory for Animal Disease-Resistant Nutrition of the Ministry of Education of China, and Animal Nutrition Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu, People's Republic of China.

We investigated the effects of dietary fiber (DF) supplementation in normal or low crude protein (CP) diets on reproductive performance and nitrogen (N) utilization in primiparous gilts. In total, 77 Landrace × Yorkshire (LY) pregnant gilts were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design. The groups comprised 1) equal intake of normal CP (12. Read More

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Improved diet quality is associated with decreased concentrations of inflammatory markers in adults with uncontrolled asthma.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Asthma has become one of the major public health challenges, and recent studies show promising clinical benefits of dietary interventions, such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine whether changes in diet quality are associated with changes in inflammatory markers important in asthma pathophysiology.

Methods: In this exploratory study in patients with poorly controlled asthma participating in a randomized controlled trial of a DASH intervention study, changes in concentrations of a broad panel of serum proteins (51-plex Luminex assay, Affymetrix) were determined, and their relation to diet quality (DASH score) assessed by combining data of both intervention and usual-care control groups. Read More

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Pathways to "5-a-day": modeling the health impacts and environmental footprints of meeting the target for fruit and vegetable intake in the United Kingdom.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Centre on Climate Change and Planetary Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption in the United Kingdom is currently well below recommended levels, with a significant associated public health burden. The United Kingdom has committed to reducing its carbon emissions to net zero by 2050, and this transition will require shifts towards plant-based diets.

Objective: The aim was to quantify the health effects, environmental footprints, and cost associated with 4 different pathways to meeting the United Kingdom's "5-a-day" recommendation for fruit and vegetable consumption. Read More

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Diet quality, gut microbiota, and microRNAs associated with mild cognitive impairment in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Diet, the gut microbiota, and microRNAs (miRNAs) have been recognized as factors possibly influencing the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the combined role of diet, the gut microbiota, and miRNAs in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has not been extensively investigated.

Objectives: To examine the associations among diet quality, the gut microbiota, miRNAs, and risks of MCI in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Read More

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A combination of single nucleotide polymorphisms is associated with the interindividual variability in the blood lipid response to dietary fatty acid consumption in a randomized clinical trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

C2VN, Aix Marseille Univ, INRAE, INSERM, Marseille, France.

Background: Blood lipid concentrations display high interindividual variability in response to dietary interventions, partly due to genetic factors. Existing studies have focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analyzed individually, which only explain a limited fraction of the variability of these complex phenotypes.

Objective: We aimed to identify combinations of SNPs associated with the variability in LDL cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) concentration changes following 5 dietary interventions. Read More

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Dietary quality and bisphenols: trends in bisphenol A, F, and S exposure in relation to the Healthy Eating Index using representative data from the NHANES 2007-2016.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Background: Given policy regulations restricting bisphenol A (BPA) in food-related products, and consumer concerns about adverse health effects, newer bisphenols such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been developed. Exposure to BPA has been linked to dietary behaviors and poor health outcomes.

Objectives: We sought to examine how the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and its 13 subgroups, the healthy American diet, the Mediterranean diet, the vegetarian diet, and other dietary quality behaviors are related to BPA and the newer substitutes in a representative sample of US adults. Read More

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Diets benefiting health and climate relate to longevity in northern Sweden.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Diets combining adequate nutritional quality and low climate impact are highly needed for human and planet health.

Objectives: We aimed to 1) evaluate nutrient density indexes' ability to predict mortality, and 2) assess the effects of diets varying in nutrient density and climate impact on total mortality.

Methods: Dietary data from 49,124 women and 47,651 men aged 35-65 y in the population-based prospective study Västerbotten Intervention Programme (Sweden) were used. Read More

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Analysis of Liver Microenvironment during Early Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Zebrafish.

J Vis Exp 2021 Apr 1(170). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Department of Medicine (Hepatology), Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Einstein-Mount Sinai Diabetes Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine;

Liver cancer is currently the third leading cause of cancer related death worldwide, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75-90% of all liver cancer cases. With the introduction of effective treatments to prevent and treat hepatitis B/C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and the more aggressive form know as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are quickly becoming the number one risk factors to develop HCC in modern societies. To better understand the role NASH has on the development of HCC we designed a NASH-associated HCC zebrafish. Read More

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