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Failure of the Ottawa Score to Predict the Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer Patients: The Prospective PREDICARE Cohort Study.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Georges Pompidou European Hosp, Paris, France.

Introduction: Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) despite curative anticoagulation is frequent in patients with cancer. Identifying patients with a high risk of recurrence could have therapeutic implications. A prospective study was designed to validate the Ottawa risk score of recurrent VTE in cancer patients. Read More

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Distinct Prognostic Factors in Sporadic and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1-Related Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Horm Metab Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Sheba Medical Center at Tel Hashomer, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) may develop sporadically or in the context of hereditary syndromes. In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), PNET is the leading cause of death. Our aim was to compare the mortality risk in sporadic and MEN1-related PNETs and identify high-risk populations. Read More

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Tranexamic Acid Treatment for Trauma Victims.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Worldwide, traumatic injury is responsible for over 5 million deaths per year, the majority due to exsanguination and head injury. The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is the only drug proven to reduce deaths after traumatic injury. Several large randomized controlled trials have provided high-quality evidence of its effectiveness and safety in trauma patients. Read More

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Twin Vaginal Deliveries in Labor Rooms: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective:  Twin vaginal deliveries (VDs) are often performed in the operating room (OR) given the theoretical risk of conversion to cesarean delivery (CD) for the aftercoming twin. We aim to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of performing VDs for twin gestations in the labor and delivery room (LDR) versus OR.

Study Design:  We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-analysis model that compared the costs and effectiveness of two strategies of twin deliveries undergoing a trial of labor: (1) intended delivery in the LDR and 2) delivery in the OR. Read More

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Interpregnancy Body Mass Index Change and Offspring Mortality Risk following the Second Pregnancy.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Medicine, University Diabetes and Endocrinology Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective:  The aim of the study is to examine the impact of maternal interpregnancy body mass index (BMI) change on subsequent offspring mortality risk.

Study Design:  This is a retrospective cohort study of women who had two consecutive live singleton deliveries of at least 20 weeks' gestation from the Utah Population Database. Our exposure was defined as interpregnancy BMI change from the date of first delivery to the conception date of subsequent pregnancy. Read More

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Early and Midtreatment Mortality in Palliative Radiotherapy: Emphasizing Patient Selection in High-Quality End-of-Life Care.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Apr 20:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

1Department of Radiation Oncology, and.

Background: Palliative radiotherapy (RT) is effective, but some patients die during treatment or too soon afterward to experience benefit. This study investigates end-of-life RT patterns to inform shared decision-making and facilitate treatment consistent with palliative goals.

Materials And Methods: All patients who died ≤6 months after initiating palliative RT at an academic cancer center between 2015 and 2018 were identified. Read More

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Bone Metastases, Skeletal-Related Events, and Survival in Patients With Metastatic Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Apr 20:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

3Division of Medical Oncology, and.

Background: Bone metastases and skeletal-related events (SREs) are a frequent cause of morbidity in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC). Data are limited on bone metastases and SREs in patients with mNSCLC treated using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), and on the efficacy of bone-modifying agents (BMAs) in this setting. Here we report the incidence, impact on survival, risk factors for bone metastases and SREs, and impact of BMAs in patients with mNSCLC treated with ICIs in a multi-institutional cohort. Read More

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Dioscin induces ferroptosis and synergistic cytotoxicity with chemotherapeutics in melanoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 17;557:213-220. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Dermatology, The Affiliated People's Hospital of Ningbo University, 315100, Ningbo, Zhejiang, China.

In this study, we evaluated the anti-tumor effects of dioscin, a steroidal saponin, on melanoma cells. Dioscin significantly inhibited cell viability and induced cell death of melanoma cells in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Furthermore, dioscin increased the concentration of intracellular ferrous irons, MDA and ROS. Read More

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The socio-economic status of families experiencing the sudden unexpected death of an infant - Is it possibly related to a higher rate of non-natural deaths among them.

J Forensic Leg Med 2021 Apr 15;80:102168. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Clinical Center of Montenegro, Institute of Children's Disease, 81000, Podgorica, Montenegro. Electronic address:

Low socio-economic status is recognized as one of the risk factors for SIDS. In this study we have pointed out the similarities between families that have SIDS cases and families in which infant non-accidental injury has been proven, as well as the differences between them and the general population. This study was conducted in Montenegro, comparing 30 cases of SIDS with 25 cases of known infanticides and with a control group (60 cases) consisting of live newborns and their mothers from the general population, randomly selected from hospital-born newborns without exclusion criteria. Read More

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Shifting trends in modes of death in the Intensive Care Unit.

J Crit Care 2021 Apr 17;64:131-138. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Health Research Institute of Santiago de Compostela (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain; Paediatric Critical, Intermediate and Palliative Care Section, Paediatric Area, University Clinic Hospital of Santiago de Compostela (CHUS), Galician Public Health System (SERGAS), Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Purpose: To describe the way patients die in a Spanish ICU, and how the modes of death have changed in the last 10 years.

Materials And Methods: Retrospective observational study evaluating all patients who died in a Spanish tertiary ICU over a 10-year period. Modes of death were classified as death despite maximal support (D-MS), brain death (BD), and death following life-sustaining treatment limitation (D-LSTL). Read More

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Continuous renal replacement therapy in intensive care patients with COVID-19; survival and renal recovery.

J Crit Care 2021 Apr 16;64:125-130. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Dept of Perioperative Medicine and Intensive Care, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Background: Outcome for critically ill patients with COVID-19 treated with continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is largely unknown. We describe mortality and renal outcome in this group.

Methods: This observational study was conducted at a university hospital in Sweden. Read More

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CUDC-101 enhances the chemosensitivity of gemcitabine-treated lymphoma cells.

Leuk Res 2021 Mar 31;106:106575. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Hematology, Yanbian University Hospital, Jilin, Yanji, 133000, China; Research center of Yanbian University Hospital, Jilin, Yanji, 133000, China. Electronic address:

Background: The metastasis and recurrence of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Recent work suggests that drugs capable of targeting epigenetic regulatory mechanisms may be well suited to the treatment of such disease progression.

Methods: This study was thus designed to evaluate the ability of the novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor CUDC-101 to synergize with gemcitabine in order to kill human HUT78 and Pfeiffer NHL cells. Read More

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Association of Adenoma Detection Rate and Adenoma Characteristics with Colorectal Cancer Mortality after screening colonoscopy.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Dept. of Internal Medicine, Div. of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria; Quality Assurance Working Group, Austrian Society for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Austria. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The adenoma detection rate (ADR) and characteristics of previously resected adenomas are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. However, the combined effect of both factors on CRC mortality is unknown.

Patients And Methods: Using data of the Austrian quality assurance program for screening colonoscopy, we evaluated the combined effect of ADR and lesion characteristics on subsequent risk for CRC mortality. Read More

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Genome-based local dynamics of canine rabies virus epidemiology, transmission, and evolution in Davao City, Philippines, 2018-2019.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Apr 17:104868. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biological Sciences and Environmental Studies, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Tugbok District, Mintal, Davao City, Philippines; Philippine Genome Center Mindanao, University of the Philippines Mindanao, Tugbok District, Mintal, Davao City, Philippines. Electronic address:

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic and neglected tropical disease caused by the rabies virus (RABV) and is associated with neuronal dysfunction and death, with dogs as the predominant carrier. The Philippines plans to eradicate rabies by 2022, but this is challenged with sub-optimal coverage of vaccination programs coupled with sustained transmission chains, making it unable to eradicate the disease. We investigated the dynamics of canine rabies in the highly urbanized Davao City of the Philippines and its neighboring localities by assessing genetic relationships, transmission patterns, selection pressure, and recombination events using the whole genome sequence of 49 RABV cases from June 2018 to May 2019, majority of which (46%) were from the district of Talomo, Davao City. Read More

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Epidemiological and Clinical Presentations of Hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Libya: an initial report from Africa.

Travel Med Infect Dis 2021 Apr 17:102064. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya. Electronic address:

Background: The first case of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Libya was diagnosed in March 2020. We aimed to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of COVID-19 in Libya.

Method: In this retrospective descriptive study, we analyzed the demographics, initial clinical presentation, history, comorbidities, laboratory findings, complications, and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 at several centers in the Western part of Libya between March 24, 2020, and December 3, 2020. Read More

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Adverse associations of sedentary behavior with cancer incidence and all-cause mortality: A prospective cohort study: Sedentary behavior, cancer and mortality.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037, China; Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China; School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inconsistent results have been reported in developed countries for relationships between sedentary behavior and cancer incidence and mortality, but evidence from the Chinese population is scarce. This study aimed to investigate such relationships in large Chinese population-based prospective cohorts and to explore the joint effect and interaction of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on these relationships.

Methods: We included 95,319 Chinese adults without cancer from 3 large cohorts and assessed their sedentary behavior and physical activity with a unified questionnaire. Read More

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Bacillus subtilis BSH has a protective effect on Salmonella infection by regulating the intestinal flora structure in chickens.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 17:104898. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Animal Science and Technology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Jilin Provincial Engineering Research Center of Animal Probiotics, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Production and Product Quality Safety of Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China. Electronic address:

Salmonellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease that poses a serious threat to the reproduction of livestock and poultry and the health of young animals. Probiotics including Bacillus species, have received increasing attention as a substitute for antibiotics. In this study, chicks infected with Salmonella were fed feed supplemented with the BSH to observe the pathological changes in the liver, detect the number of viable bacteria in the liver and spleen, and record the death of the chicks. Read More

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Eradication of large established tumors by drug-loaded bacterial particles via a neutrophil-mediated mechanism.

J Control Release 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center, Chengdu 610041, China; Experimental and Research Animal Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

The treatment of large established tumors remains a significant challenge and is generally hampered by poor drug penetration and intrinsic drug resistance of tumor cells in the central tumor region. In the present study, we developed bacterial particles (BactPs) to deliver chemotherapeutics into the tumor mass by hijacking neutrophils as natural cell-based carriers. BactPs loaded with doxorubicin, 5-fluorosuracil, or paclitaxel induced significantly greater tumor regression than unconjugated drugs. Read More

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Survival and lung transplant outcomes for individuals with advanced cystic fibrosis lung disease in the United States and Canada: an analysis of national registries.

Chest 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Div. of Respirology, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada; Keenan Research Centre, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Understanding how health outcomes differ for cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with advanced lung disease in the United States (US) compared to Canada has health policy implications.

Research Question: What are rates of lung transplant (LTx) and rates of death without LTx in the US and Canada among individuals with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV) <40% predicted?

Study Design: and Methods: Retrospective population-based cohort study, 2005-2016, using the US CF Foundation, United Network for Organ Sharing, and Canadian CF registries. Individuals with CF and ≥2 FEV measurements <40% predicted within a 5-year period, age ≥6 years, without prior LTx were included. Read More

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A pre-specified analysis of the DAPA-CKD trial indicates effects of dapagliflozin on major adverse kidney events in patients with IgA nephropathy.

Kidney Int 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a common form of glomerulonephritis, which despite use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system blockers and immunosuppressants, often progresses to kidney failure. In the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease trial, dapagliflozin reduced risk of kidney failure and prolonged survival in participants with chronic kidney disease with and without type 2 diabetes, including those with IgA nephropathy. Here we randomized participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1. Read More

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β-elemonic acid inhibits growth and triggers apoptosis in human castration-resistant prostate cancer cells through the suppression of JAK2/STAT3/MCL-1 and NF-ĸB signal pathways.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 Apr 17:109477. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has become a significant problem in the current treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) with the characteristics of high metastatic potential, resistance and easy recurrence. The abnormal activation of JAK2/STAT3/MCL-1 and NF-κB has been confirmed as the main reason for the development of CRPC. We previously found that β-elemonic acid (β-EA) as a natural triterpene has potential anti-inflammatory and anti-osteosarcoma effects with lower toxicity. Read More

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Is Compliance with Guideline Recommended Follow-Up after Aortic Dissection associated with Survival?

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Minneapolis Heart Institute Foundation at Abbott Northwestern Hospital, Minneapolis, MN. Electronic address:

Background: Patients with acute aortic dissection remain at risk for long-term complications and thus are recommended to closely adhere to ACC/AHA aorta guideline-based follow-up imaging and clinic visits. The long term outcomes of compliance with such a model is not well understood.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients at a regional aortic dissection center surviving hospital discharge for AD were analyzed by compliance with initial follow-up at 3 months and long term after aortic dissection. Read More

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Assessing medical students' knowledge in differentiating the diagnosis and treatment of unipolar vs bipolar depression.

Ann Clin Psychiatry 2021 May;33(2):108-115

Office of Academic Affairs, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Background: Depression is one of the leading causes of premature death and disability. However, both unipolar and bipolar depression are underdiagnosed and undertreated. The aims of this study were to assess medical students' level of confidence in and knowledge of diagnosing and treating depression before and after completing a psychiatry clerkship, and their knowledge of differentiating unipolar vs bipolar depression. Read More

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Cases of Q fever detected in residents of the novosibirsk region hospitalized with suspection of infections transmitted by ticks.

Klin Lab Diagn 2021 Apr;66(4):229-236

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS.

Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever (coxiellosis), which, in addition to acute manifestations, often occurs in a latent form, is prone to chronic course and, in the absence of antibiotic therapy, has a high risk of disability or death. As a result of the presence of a wide range of clinical manifestations specific to other infectious diseases, the use of laboratory test methods (LTM) is required to make a diagnosis. The presence of Q fever anthropurgic foci in the Novosibirsk region was described in the 90s of the last century, but due attention to its laboratory diagnostics is not paid in this region. Read More

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Clinical profile of cutaneous adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors in a single tertiary center.

J Dermatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Dermatology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Programmed death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors have demonstrated their efficacy in the treatment of various malignancies. Despite their benefits, their immunomodulatory activities can cause unpredictable cutaneous adverse events (CAE). This study aimed to identify characteristics of CAE in patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors through the medical records, photographs, and pathology reports. Read More

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The association of vitamin D and vitamin E levels at birth with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Newborn Department, Shijiazhuang Fourth Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China.

Background: Despite improvements made in neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is still the most common respiratory disease in preterm infants. The relationship between the blood contents of vitamin D/E in premature infants and BPD is still controversial.

Methods: Preterm infants were recruited as the research subjects. Read More

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Compression stockings for preventing deep vein thrombosis in airline passengers.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 20;4:CD004002. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

UK Cochrane Centre, Oxford, UK.

Background: Air travel might increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It has been suggested that wearing compression stockings might reduce this risk. This is an update of the review first published in 2006. Read More

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Extracellular histones are a target in myocardial ischaemia reperfusion injury.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, WC1E 6HX, United Kingdom.

Acute myocardial infarction causes lethal cardiomyocyte injury during ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R). Histones have been described as important Danger Associated Molecular Proteins (DAMPs) in sepsis. Aims The objective of this study was to establish whether extracellular histone release contributes to myocardial infarction. Read More

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Community knowledge, attitude and practices to SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19): A cross-sectional study in Woldia town, Northeast Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(4):e0250465. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Natural and Computational Sciences Faculty, Department of Biology, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia.

SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pandemic and currently becomes a serious cause of death worldwide. It is caused by a SARS-CoV-2 belonging to a family known as corona virus. The aim of this study is to assess the community knowledge, attitude and practice strategy implementation on SARS-CoV-2 disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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