242 results match your criteria diaphyseal thickness

Mapping cortical bone stiffness and mineralization from endosteal to periosteal surfaces of bovine mid-diaphyseal femur.

J Bone Miner Metab 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut, 1107 2020, Lebanon.

Introduction: While bone literature abounds with correlations of mechanical stiffness to mineralization, such correlations are reported without relating the findings to specific intracortical locations. This study reports on mapping of stiffness and mineralization distributions in ring-shaped cortical bone samples sliced from mid-diaphyseal bovine femur. Stiffness and mineralization measurements were conducted at points across the intracortical thickness along radial lines emanating from the inner (endosteal) surface to the outer (periosteal) surface. Read More

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Bone structure assessed with pQCT in prepubertal males with delayed puberty or congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

New Children's Hospital, Pediatric Research Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is associated with impaired bone mineral density in adulthood, whereas the estimates on bone structure in adolescents with CHH has not been previously evaluated. This study describes bone structure in CHH patients and compares it to that in boys with constitutional delay of growth and puberty (CDGP).

Design: A cross-sectional study. Read More

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Custom-made polyurethane-based synthetic bones mimic screw cut-through of intramedullary nails in human long bones.

J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2021 05 18;117:104405. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Institute for Biomechanics, BG Unfallklinik Murnau and Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, Prof. Küntscher Str. 8, 82418, Murnau, Germany.

Intramedullary nails are considered the gold standard for the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Thereby, the screw-bone interface is considered the weakest link. For biomechanical evaluation of osteosyntheses synthetic bones are often used to overcome the disadvantages of human specimens. Read More

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Quantifying cortical bone in fragmentary archeological second metacarpals.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Apr 13;174(4):812-821. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Anthropology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: Skeletal variation in cortical bone thickness is an indicator of bone quality and health in archeological populations. Second metacarpal radiogrammetry, which measures cortical thickness at the shaft midpoint, is traditionally used to evaluate bone loss in bioarcheological and some clinical contexts. However fragmentary elements are regularly omitted because the midpoint cannot be determined. Read More

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Osteoblastic Wnt1 regulates periosteal bone formation in adult mice.

Bone 2021 Feb 13;143:115754. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland; Department of Endocrinology, Division of Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Compelling clinical data together with genetically modified mouse models have demonstrated that Wnt1 is a key Wnt ligand in bone metabolism, regulating both osteoblast activity and osteoclast differentiation. We have previously shown that deletion of Wnt1 in limb mesenchymal cells leads to severe ostepenic bone phenotype and spontaneous fractures very early after birth. However, the function of Wnt1 in mature skeleton remained unknown. Read More

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February 2021

Exploring changes in bone mass in individuals with a chronic spinal cord injury.

Osteoporos Int 2021 Apr 21;32(4):759-767. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Deparment of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

People experience rapid bone loss shortly after a spinal cord injury (SCI), but the long-term bone changes are yet to be confirmed. This study showed that trabecular bone may have reached a steady state, whereas cortical bone continued to decline in people with a chronic SCI (mean time post injury: 15.5 ± 10 years). Read More

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Stripping torques in human bone can be reliably predicted prior to screw insertion with optimum tightness being found between 70% and 80% of the maximum.

Bone Joint Res 2020 Aug 3;9(8):493-500. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department for Health, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Aims: To devise a method to quantify and optimize tightness when inserting cortical screws, based on bone characterization and screw geometry.

Methods: Cortical human cadaveric diaphyseal tibiae screw holes (n = 20) underwent destructive testing to firstly establish the relationship between cortical thickness and experimental stripping torque (T), and secondly to calibrate an equation to predict T. Using the equation's predictions, 3. Read More

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Effect of dihydrotestosterone, 17-β-estrogen, genistein and equol on remodeling and morphology of bone in osteoporotic male rats during bone healing.

Bone Rep 2020 Dec 28;13:100300. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Goettingen, Georg-August-University Goettingen, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, D-37099 Goettingen, Germany.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 17-β-estrogen (E2), genistein (GEN) and equol (EQ) on bone remodeling and bone morphology during healing of osteoporotic male rat tibiae.

Materials And Methods: 180 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided in 5 groups of 36 animals. After orchidectomy (ORX) and development of osteoporosis, trepanation of the tibia was performed. Read More

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December 2020

Total urinary polyphenols and longitudinal changes of bone properties. The InCHIANTI study.

Osteoporos Int 2021 Feb 13;32(2):353-362. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Longitudinal Studies Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health USA, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of levels of urinary total polyphenols considered as a proxy measure of polyphenol intake, with longitudinal changes of bone properties, in the InCHIANTI study. Dietary intake of polyphenols appears to be associated with future accelerated deterioration of bone health.

Introduction: Polyphenols, micronutrients ingested through plant-based foods, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and may contribute to osteoporosis prevention. Read More

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February 2021

Cortical and medullary morphology of the tibia.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 03 3;304(3):507-517. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Bone resorption caused by stress shielding and insufficient bone-implant contact continues to be problematic for orthopedic endoprostheses that utilize osseointegration (OI) for skeletal fixation. Morphologic analyses have helped combat this issue by defining anatomic parameters to optimize endoprosthesis loading by maximizing bone-implant contact. These studies have not typically included diaphyseal medullary morphology, as this region is not pertinent to total joint replacement. Read More

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Is the cortical capillary renamed as the transcortical vessel in diaphyseal vascularity?

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2020 11 23;303(11):2774-2784. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Anaesthesiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Patna, Patna, India.

A recent article published in Nature Metabolism, "A network of trans-cortical capillaries as a mainstay for blood circulation in long bones," explained the long bone vascularity. In the mouse model, the authors demonstrated hundreds of transcortical vessels (TCVs) commencing from the bone marrow and traversing the whole cortical thickness. They realized that TCVs were the same as bleeding vessels of periosteal bed observed in the human tibia and femoral epiphysis during surgery. Read More

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November 2020

The association between range usage and tibial quality in commercial free-range laying hens.

Br Poult Sci 2020 Oct 20;61(5):493-501. Epub 2020 May 20.

School of Environmental and Rural Science, Faculty of Science, Agriculture, Business and Law, University of New England , Armidale, Australia.

1. Bone tissue adapts continuously to metabolic calcium demands, as well as to external forces due to physical weight loading subject to hen movement. Limited calcium metabolism and, subsequently, its availability from the medullary bone, is a major factor contributing to reduced eggshell quality in hens in the late laying period (>60 weeks of age). Read More

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October 2020

Effects of supervised high-intensity resistance and impact training or machine-based isometric training on regional bone geometry and strength in middle-aged and older men with low bone mass: The LIFTMOR-M semi-randomised controlled trial.

Bone 2020 07 11;136:115362. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; School of Allied Health Sciences, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; The Bone Clinic, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address:

Introduction: Few data exist on the effects of bone-targeted exercise on geometric and biomechanical indices of bone strength in men. The Lifting Intervention For Training Muscle and Osteoporosis Rehabilitation for Men (LIFTMOR-M) trial was designed to compare the efficacy and safety of two novel, supervised, twice-weekly, high-intensity exercise programs in middle-aged and older men with osteopenia and osteoporosis on musculoskeletal health and risk factors related to falls and fractures. The current report includes secondary outcomes of the LIFTMOR-M exercise intervention trial. Read More

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Acta Clin Croat 2019 Sep;58(3):403-409

1University Children's Hospital, Belgrade, Serbia; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia;3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia; 4Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 5Department of ENT and Head and Neck Surgery, Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb, Croatia; 6Department of Traumatology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia.

Unicameral bone cysts (UBC) are benign bone tumor-like lesions. Mostly they are located in the metaphyseal-diaphyseal region of long bones in children and adolescents. The etiology of UBC is still unclear. Read More

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September 2019

Global and site-specific analysis of bone in a rat model of spinal cord injury-induced osteoporosis.

Bone Rep 2020 Jun 29;12:100233. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wolfson Building, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NW, UK.

Micro-Computed Tomography bone analysis is the gold standard method for assessing trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture in small animal bones. This technique reports morphometric parameters as averages over selected volumes of interest (VOIs). This study proposes the introduction of an additional global 2D morphometric step into the analysis process, that provides a survey of the underlying morphometric variation present throughout both trabecular and cortical bone. Read More

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Is there a significant decrease in the femoral cortical bone around Furlong stems after 18 years of follow-up?

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2020 Jan 29;30(1):117-122. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Hospital General de Granollers, Avinguda Francesc Ribas s/n, 08402, Granollers, Barcelona, Spain.

Introduction: In the context of total hip arthroplasty (THA), there are several reasons that have motivated the development of short stems. It has been postulated that short stems allow a better conservation of the bone stock if compared to conventional stems. As far as we have knowledge, the quantitative loss of diaphyseal bone stock in patients with standard femoral stems has not been fully described. Read More

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January 2020

Protective effects of honey by bees () on decreased cortical thickness and bone impact strength of ovariohysterectomized rats as models for menopause.

Vet World 2019 Jun 22;12(6):868-876. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Kampus C Unair, Mulyorejo, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the potential of honey as anti-osteoporosis by evaluating its effectiveness in increasing bone impact strength and cortical thickness, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination.

Materials And Methods: Forty-five female rats at 3 months of age, weighing 150-200 g were used in the study. They were placed in individual cages and adapted to food and environment for 10 days. Read More

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Impact of Diaphyseal Cortical Thickness on Functional Outcomes After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

Arthroscopy 2019 09 13;35(9):2565-2570. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.

Purpose: To study the influence of combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the proximal humerus on arthroscopic rotator cuff tear repair outcomes.

Methods: The study included 210 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of full-thickness supraspinatus tears. An independent reviewer measured CCT on preoperative radiographs, and patients were evaluated postoperatively at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Read More

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September 2019

Femoral neck and shaft structure in Homo naledi from the Dinaledi Chamber (Rising Star System, South Africa).

J Hum Evol 2019 08 25;133:61-77. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Biology, University of Pisa, vis Derna 1, Pisa, 56126, Italy; Evolutionary Studies Institute and Centre for Excellence in PalaeoSciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits, 2050, South Africa. Electronic address:

The abundant femoral assemblage of Homo naledi found in the Dinaledi Chamber provides a unique opportunity to test hypotheses regarding the taxonomy, locomotion, and loading patterns of this species. Here we describe neck and shaft cross-sectional structure of all the femoral fossils recovered in the Dinaledi Chamber and compare them to a broad sample of fossil hominins, recent humans, and extant apes. Cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties from the femoral neck (base of neck and midneck) and diaphysis (subtrochanteric region and midshaft) were obtained through CT scans for H. Read More

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Sex and Laterality Differences in Medullary Humerus Morphology.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2019 10 1;302(10):1709-1717. Epub 2019 May 1.

Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Percutaneous osseointegrated (OI) prosthetic limb attachment holds promise for transhumeral amputees. Understanding humeral medullary morphology is necessary for informed design of upper extremity OI systems, and is beneficial to the field of megaprosthetic reconstruction of the distal humerus where diaphyseal fixation is desired. The purpose of this study was to quantify the sex and laterality differences in humerus morphology, specifically over the diaphysis. Read More

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October 2019

Extracorporeal Irradiation and Reimplantation of Tumor-bearing Bone Segments Following Diaphyseal Sarcoma Resection at the Tibia.

Anticancer Res 2019 Apr;39(4):2015-2023

Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.

Background/aim: Reconstruction of diaphyseal tibial sarcomas with extracorporeal irradiated autograft is a rarely applied technique and is analyzed in this study.

Patients And Methods: Eight patients with malignant sarcomas received local treatment by means of a wide resection and reimplantation of an extracorporeally-irradiated autograft. The graft was combined with an ipsilateral vascularized fibula when a full-thickness segment of the tibia had to be resected and no cortex could be preserved (n=5). Read More

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Diaphysator: An online application for the exhaustive cartography and user-friendly statistical analysis of long bone diaphyses.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 06 5;169(2):377-384. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Laboratory of 3D Imaging and Analytical Methods, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Charles University, Praha, Czech Republic.

The cross-sectional geometry (CSG) of long bone diaphyses is used in bioanthropology to evaluate their resistance to biomechanical constraints and to infer life-history-related patterns such as mobility, activity specialization or intensity, sexual dimorphism, body mass and proportions. First limited by technical analytical constraints to the analysis of one or two cross sections per bone, it has evolved into the analysis of cross sections of the full length of the diaphyseal part of long bones. More recently, researchers have developed analytical tools to map the cortical thickness of entire diaphyses to evaluate locomotor signatures. Read More

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The effects of resistance training on bone mineral density and bone quality in type 2 diabetic rats.

Physiol Rep 2019 03;7(6):e14046

Division of Integrative Pathophysiology, Proteo-Science Center, Ehime University, Ehime, Japan.

Resistance training (RT) has been known to be effective in maintaining and improving bone strength, which is based on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality. However, it is not clear whether RT is effective in improving bone strength in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who have a high risk of fracture. Therefore, we tested the effects of a 6-week RT regimen using percutaneous electrical stimulation in T2DM model rats, male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF), and its control, Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO). Read More

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The Circle-Fit Method Helps Make Reliable Cortical Thickness Measurements Regardless of Humeral Length.

Geriatr Orthop Surg Rehabil 2018 26;9:2151459318818163. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Although proximal humerus strength/quality can be assessed using cortical thickness measurements (eg, cortical index), there is no agreement where to make them. Tingart and coworkers used measurements where the proximal endosteum becomes parallel, while Mather and coworkers used measurements where the periosteum becomes parallel. The new circle-fit method (CFM) makes 2 metaphyseal (M1-M2) and 6 diaphyseal (D1-D6) measurements referenced from humeral head diameter (HHD). Read More

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December 2018

Cross-sectional properties of the humeral diaphysis of Paranthropus boisei: Implications for upper limb function.

J Hum Evol 2019 01 12;126:51-70. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Germany; Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, USA.

A ∼1.52 Ma adult upper limb skeleton of Paranthropus boisei (KNM-ER 47000) recovered from the Koobi Fora Formation, Kenya (FwJj14E, Area 1A) includes most of the distal half of a right humerus (designated KNM-ER 47000B). Natural transverse fractures through the diaphysis of KNM-ER 470000B provide unobstructed views of cortical bone at two sections typically used for analyzing cross-sectional properties of hominids (i. Read More

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January 2019

Architecture of the femoral and tibial diaphyses in relation to body mass and composition: Research from whole-body CT scans of adult humans.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2018 12 24;167(4):813-826. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Laboratory of 3D Imaging and Analytical Methods, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Anthropology and Human Genetics, Charles University, Praha 2, Czech Republic.

Objectives: Recent investigations have evaluated the influence of body composition on long bones in order to overcome the limits of body mass (BM) estimation methods and eventually lead to studying nutrition in past populations. Knowing how fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) impact the skeleton would also enhance the understanding of mobility, activity, and locomotion derived from bone architecture. We investigated the relationship between BM and composition, and the architecture of the entire tibial and femoral diaphyses in an adult sample representative of a wide range of variation in age, BM, and composition. Read More

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December 2018

The androgen receptor is required for maintenance of bone mass in adult male mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2019 01 9;479:159-169. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

Previous studies evaluating the role of the androgen receptor (AR) for bone mass have used mouse models with global or tissue-specific lifelong inactivation of the AR. However, these mouse models have the AR inactivated already early in life and the relative roles of the AR during development, sexual maturation and in adult mice cannot be evaluated separately. The aim of the present study was to determine the specific roles of the AR in bone during sexual maturation and in adult mice. Read More

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January 2019

Androgen receptor SUMOylation regulates bone mass in male mice.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2019 01 24;479:117-122. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

The crucial effects of androgens on the male skeleton are at least partly mediated via the androgen receptor (AR). In addition to hormone binding, the AR activity is regulated by post-translational modifications, including SUMOylation. SUMOylation is a reversible modification in which Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier proteins (SUMOs) are attached to the AR and thereby regulate the activity of the AR and change its interactions with other proteins. Read More

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January 2019

Finite element analysis of the femoral diaphysis of fresh-frozen cadavers with computed tomography and mechanical testing.

J Orthop Surg Res 2018 Jul 31;13(1):192. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba City, Chiba, 260-8677, Japan.

Background: The purpose of this study was to validate a diaphyseal femoral fracture model using a finite element analysis (FEA) with mechanical testing in fresh-frozen cadavers.

Methods: We used 18 intact femora (9 right and 9 left) from 9 fresh-frozen cadavers. Specimens were obtained from 5 males and 4 females with a mean age of 85. Read More

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Effects of concentrated growth factors (CGF) on the quality of the induced membrane in Masquelet's technique - An experimental study in rabbits.

Injury 2018 Aug 8;49(8):1497-1503. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Turkey.

Aims: The aim of the study was to test if the addition of CGF to the Masquelet technique contributes to the quality of the membrane formed surrounding the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), in terms of inflammation, proliferation and vasculazition in the Masquelet technique in the early and late phases in a rabbit model.

Materials And Methods: A critical bone defect of 15 mm was created in radius diaphysis, leaving 3 cm of intact bone to the joint. To mimic the Masquelet technique and to increase stability, a 6-hole 1. Read More

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