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Estimated proportion of an urban academic emergency department patient population eligible for HIV preexposure prophylaxis.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 May 4;48:198-202. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Cincinnati, Department of Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; Center for Addiction Research, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a highly effective but underutilized method of HIV prevention. Emergency departments (EDs) have access to at-risk populations meeting CDC eligibility criteria for PrEP. Characterizing this population could help motivate, develop, and implement ED interventions to promote PrEP uptake. Read More

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Specialty knowledge and competency standards for pharmacotherapy for adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Psychiatry Res 2021 Mar 4;300:113853. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Menninger Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, United States.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects approximately one person in 40 and causes substantial suffering. Evidence-based treatments can benefit many; however, optimal treatment can be difficult to access. Diagnosis is frequently delayed, and pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions often fail to follow evidence-based guidelines. Read More

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Rhabdomyolysis in Severe COVID-19: Male Sex, High BMI, and Prone Positioning Confer High Risk.

J Surg Res 2021 Apr 6;266:35-43. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Bedside experience and studies of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicate COVID-19 to be a devastating multisystem disease. We aim to describe the incidence, associated variables, and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Materials And Methods: Data for all critically ill adult patients (≥18 years old) admitted to the ICU at a large academic medical center with confirmed COVID-19 between March 13, 2020 and April 18, 2020 were prospectively collected. Read More

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2020 List of human papillomavirus assays Suitable for primary cervical cancer screening.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Only clinically validated HPV assays can be accepted in cervical cancer screening.

Objectives: To update the list of high-risk HPV assays that fulfil the 2009 international validation criteria (Meijer-2009).

Data Sources: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, references from selected studies; published in January 2014-August 2020. Read More

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Pregnancy: Early Lessons From Our Sleep Pregnancy Clinic.

WMJ 2021 Apr;120(1):34-40

Department of Neurology, Wisconsin Sleep, Wisconsin Institute for Sleep and Consciousness, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin.

Problem Considered: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is underdiagnosed during pregnancy, but there is strong theoretical and some empiric evidence that treatment may improve obstetric outcomes. Barriers to screening, testing, and treatment are common during pregnancy. The goal of this described intervention was to reduce these barriers and improve detection of OSA in pregnancy. Read More

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Idiopathic and secondary restless legs syndrome during pregnancy in Japan: Prevalence, clinical features and delivery-related outcomes.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251298. Epub 2021 May 11.

Sleep Apnea Center, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of idiopathic and secondary restless legs syndrome (RLS) according to pregnancy trimester, and its effects on delivery-related outcomes among pregnant women in Japan.

Methods: This was a single-center, prospective observational study. One hundred eighty-two consecutive pregnant women participated in the study from June 2014 to March 2016. Read More

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Is minor surgery safe during the COVID-19 pandemic? A multi-disciplinary study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(5):e0251122. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Urology and Kidney Transplantation, Aix-Marseille University, APHM, Conception University Hospital, Marseilles, France.

Background: To assess the risk of postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The CONCEPTION study was a cohort, multidisciplinary study conducted at Conception University Hospital, in France, from March 17th to May 11th, 2020. Our study included all adult patients who underwent minor surgery in one of the seven surgical departments of our hospital: urology, digestive, plastic, gynecological, otolaryngology, gynecology or maxillofacial surgery. Read More

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[Experience and lessons on guiding and governing clinical applications of chromosome microarray analysis in the United States].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;38(5):419-424

Prenatal Diagnosis Center, Qingyuan People's Hospital, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Qingyuan, Guangdong 511500, China.

Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) has become the first-tier testing for chromosomal abnormalities and copy number variations (CNV). This review described the clinical validation of CMA, the development and updating of technical standards and guidelines and their diagnostic impacts. The main focuses were on the development and updating of expert consensus, practice resources, and a series of technical standards and guidelines through systematic review of case series with CMA application in the literature. Read More

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[Guidelines for the interpretation of fetal chromosomal karyotyping analysis].

Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2021 May;38(5):409-413

Center of Prenatal Diagnosis, Department of Medical Genetics, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China.

Karyotyping analysis is a classical cytogenetic method for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aberrations. In order to standardize fetal chromosomal karyotyping analysis and adapt to the development of medical genetics technology, the Committee for the Prevention and Control of Birth Defect, Chinese Association of Preventive Medicine has organized the formulation of this guideline. The content has covered general requirements and standards for the analysis of fetal chromosomal karyotypes, analysis of chromosomal mosaicisms, and methods for determining the resolution of G-banding, etc. Read More

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Significance of Sjögren's syndrome and anti-cN1A antibody in myositis patients.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Service de Physiologie, Explorations Fonctionnelles Musculaires, CHU de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Objective: We recently recorded a high prevalence of inclusion body myositis (IBM) in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Whether myositis patients with SS differ from myositis patients without SS in terms of the characteristics of the myositis is currently unknown. Anti-cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase 1 A (cN1A) has recently been proposed as a biomarker for IBM but is also frequent in SS. Read More

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Infantile orbital abscess: clinical presentation, microbiological profile, and management outcomes.

Orbit 2021 May 11:1-7. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Orbit, Oculoplasty, Reconstructive and Aesthetics, Chennai, India.

: Orbital abscesses in children are not uncommon. Unless managed in a timely fashion, they can potentially lead to vision-threatening as well as life-threatening complications. The objective of this study is to report the clinical and microbiological profile and management outcomes in infants presenting with orbital abscesses. Read More

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Quantification of JAK2V617F mutation load by droplet digital PCR can aid in diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Hematology, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

Introduction: This study developed a method for quantifying the JAK2V617F mutation load in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), which provides a new laboratory method for diagnosing polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and pre-primary myelofibrosis (pre-PMF).

Methods: Patients with MPN who had JAK2V617F mutations from March 2013 to August 2019 were enrolled in this study. JAK2V617F mutation loads were quantified using ddPCR technology. Read More

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Outcome of atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance in thyroid fine-needle aspirations: A six-year institutional experience.

Diagn Cytopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

Background: Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) is one of six diagnostic categories of The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). The goal of our study is to assess the outcome of cases classified as AUS/FLUS at our institution.

Methods: AUS/FLUS cases were identified by computer searching of the thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases performed between 2010 and 2016. Read More

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Evaluation of systemic estrogen for preventing urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women.

Menopause 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Medical School, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Global Health, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern, Dallas, TX.

Importance: Current guidelines for postmenopausal recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) prevention recommend the use of vaginal topical estrogen products but not systemic estrogens. Studies show that vaginal estrogen decreases the risk of rUTI, but evidence against use of systemic estrogen is less convincing.

Objective: We performed a comprehensive literature review to evaluate the effect of systemic estrogen on UTI occurrence among postmenopausal women. Read More

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Symptomatic Treatment of Pain-Related Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in a Biopsychosocial Construct, and a Validity Study of Rome III Criteria.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2021 Jun;60(6-7):304-313

Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA.

Our study aims to assess improvement with symptomatic treatment of pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in a biopsychosocial construct and evaluate validity of Rome III criteria. Children with chronic abdominal pain diagnosed with an FGID or organic disease were followed for 1 year: 256/334 were diagnosed with an FGID and 78/334 were diagnosed with a possible organic disease due to alarm signs or not meeting Rome III criteria. After 1 year, 251 had true FGID and 46 had organic diseases. Read More

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Pregnancy Outcomes in Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease Compared to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Single Academic Center's Experience.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, United States.

Objective: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients have more pregnancy complications than healthy patients. Data regarding pregnancy outcomes in women with undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) are more limited, and existing studies are concentrated in Italy and predominantly in patients with a new diagnosis. We compared pregnancy outcomes for UCTD and SLE patients with established disease. Read More

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Breast cancer in Zimbabwe: patterns of care and correlates of adherence in a national referral hospital radiotherapy center cohort from 2014 to 2018.

Cancer Med 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Parirenyatwa Hospital Radiotherapy and Oncology Center, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Background: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Zimbabwe. Patients face socioeconomic barriers to accessing oncology care, including radiotherapy. We sought to understand patterns of care and adherence for women with breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with radiotherapy access. Read More

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Diagnostic performances of ultrasound evaluation of major salivary glands according to the 2019 OMERACT US scoring system.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology department, University Hospital Center of Rennes, France.

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound examination of the major salivary glands (US-SG) according to the 2019 OMERACT US scoring system for Sjogren's syndrome (SS).

Methods: This was a retrospective study based on a multicentric cohort of SS/sicca syndrome. ACR/EULAR 2016 (≥ 4 without OSS), AECG 2002 and clinician experts were considered as reference standards for SS diagnosis. Read More

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Evidence-based research on effectiveness of periodontal treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Section for Biostatistics and Evidence-Based Research, the Parker Institute, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: To gauge the evidence of periodontal therapy's impact on measures of disease activity and systemic inflammatory burden in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: A search for randomised trials and controlled cohort studies of RA patients with Periodontitis was conducted on 7 April 2019, with an update on 17 December 2020, in PubMed, Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Embase, http://clinicaltrials.gov/, and WHO-ICTRP portal (PROSPERO: CRD42018103359). Read More

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Stressful life events and psychosis gender differences.

Stress Health 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

There is evidence that stressful events are associated with psychosis. This study aimed to explore sex differences in the association between stressful life events occurring during childhood and adulthood and psychosis. 78 psychotic patients and 156 controls were enrolled. Read More

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Role of pre-transplant chest high resolution computed tomography and serum galactomannan index in predicting post-transplant invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.

Transpl Infect Dis 2021 May 10:e13632. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chandigarh, India.

Introduction: The role of pre-HCT chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and serum galactomannan index (GMI) in predicting the post-allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is debatable.

Methods: This was a single-center, prospective study from 2014-2019. The primary objective was to study if pre-HCT chest HRCT and serum GMI predicted IPA post-HCT. Read More

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Models of support to family members during the trajectory of cancer: A scoping review.

J Clin Nurs 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Health and Society, Department of Care Science, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.

Aims And Objectives: To map the existing literature on support models provided to family members during the cancer trajectory.

Background: Cancer diagnosis, treatment and survivorship have a profound influence on the surrounding family members. This scoping review is part of the development of a support model for family members of persons diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Read More

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An independent indicator of erectile dysfunction is C-reactive protein/albumin ratio.

Andrologia 2021 May 10:e14073. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Urology, Van Training and Research Hospital, Edremit, Turkey.

Research has found that, instead of passive lipid-accumulated vascular damage, atherosclerosis which is the primary cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) can be seen as an active inflammatory cycle and that inflammation has a central role in the entire atherosclerotic process. As an inflammatory marker, serum C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio (CAR) may link to ED and ED severity. The CAR, demographic features and other criteria of 198 patients with ED who visited our outpatient clinic during March 2019-April 2020 were prospectively evaluated. Read More

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Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior: A Longitudinal Study.

Monogr Soc Res Child Dev 2021 Jun;86(2):7-103

School of Psychology, Cardiff University.

Developmental theorists have made strong claims about the fundamental prosocial or aggressive nature of the human infant. However, only rarely have prosocial behavior and aggression been studied together in the same sample. We charted the parallel development of both behaviors from infancy to childhood in a British community sample, using a two-construct, multimethod longitudinal design. Read More

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Application of the conventional and novel methods in testing EGFR variants for NSCLC patients in the last 10 years through different regions: a systematic review.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, 34000, Kragujevac, Serbia.

Variants in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are recognized as predictors of therapy response and are correlated with progression-free and overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Molecularly guided therapy needs precise and cost-effective molecular tests. This review focused primarily on screening or target methods for the EGFR variants detection with diagnostic and prognostic potential in the clinical research published papers. Read More

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Apnoea-hypopnoea indices determined via continuous positive airway pressure (AHI-CPAP) versus those determined by polysomnography (AHI-PSG): a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 May 10;11(5):e044499. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Respiratory Diseases, Univ Montpellier, CHU Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Introduction: To date, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) remains the cornerstone of obstructive sleep apnoea treatment. CPAP data describing residual sleep-disordered breathing events (ie, the CPAP-measured apnoea-hypopnoea indices (AHI-CPAP)) is difficult to interpret because it is an entirely different metric than the polysomnography (PSG) measured AHI gold standard (AHI-PSG). Moreover, manufacturer definitions for apnoea and hypopnoea are not only different from those recommended for PSG scoring, but also different between manufacturers. Read More

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Paradigm Shifts in the Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: The Importance of Type 2 Diabetes and Early Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy: The 2020 Norbert Freinkel Award Lecture.

Authors:
David Simmons

Diabetes Care 2021 May;44(5):1075-1081

Macarthur Clinical School, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, New South Wales, Australia

For over 50 years, the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been based upon an oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks' gestation. This is the time during pregnancy when insulin resistance is increasing and hyperglycemia develops among those with insufficient insulin secretory capacity to maintain euglycemia. The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study and the two major randomized controlled trials of treating GDM are based upon recruitment of women at this time during pregnancy. Read More

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Accuracy of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Depression subscale (HADS-D) to screen for major depression: systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis.

BMJ 2021 05 10;373:n972. Epub 2021 May 10.

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of the depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) to screen for major depression among people with physical health problems.

Design: Systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis.

Data Sources: Medline, Medline In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycInfo, and Web of Science (from inception to 25 October 2018). Read More

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