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Development and external validation of a risk calculator to predict internalising symptoms among Ugandan youths affected by HIV.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 28;302:114028. Epub 2021 May 28.

International Center for Child Health and Development, Masaka, Uganda.

The aim of the study was to develop and externally validate a model to predict individualized risk of internalizing symptoms among AIDS-affected youths in low-resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Longitudinal data from 558 Ugandan adolescents orphaned by AIDS was used to develop our predictive model. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator logistic regression was used to select the best subset of predictors using 10-fold cross-validation. Read More

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Children with supracondylar humerus fractures have an increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Acta Orthop Belg 2021 Mar;87(1):159-166

Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have an increased risk of sustaining fractures during their preschool years. Supracondylar humerus fractures (SHFs) comprise the majority of fracture surgeries in the pediatric age range. We hypothesized that ADHD symptoms would be present in children with SHFs, and this characteristic trauma may be associated with an ADHD diagnosis. Read More

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Long-term Continuity of Antipsychotic Treatment for Schizophrenia: A Nationwide Study.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Niuvanniemi Hospital, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Schizophrenia often requires long-term treatment with antipsychotic medication. This study aims to measure the continuity of antipsychotic treatment over the course of illness in schizophrenia, as well as factors involved in the interruption of treatment. For this, we followed up a national cohort of first-episode psychosis patients in Finland for up to 18 years. Read More

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Increased TIGIT expressing NK cells with dysfunctional phenotype in AML patients correlated with poor prognosis.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Allergy & Clinical Immunology; Sino-French Hoffmann Institute, School of Basic Sciences, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

AML is the most common blood cancer in adults with a high relapse and an overall poor survival rate. NK cells have been demonstrated to have the capacity to eradicate AML blast, and an impaired NK cell function is involved in AML development and progression. Immune checkpoints are involved in immune escape in various cancers. Read More

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COVID-19 in a Subset of Hospitalized Children in Israel.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Infectious Disease and Infection Control Unit, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel.

Background: Most pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is mild. We assessed nationally severe COVID-19, including pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome (PIMS), in hospitalized children.

Methods: An ongoing, prospective, national surveillance was conducted from March 2020 through March 2021, at 20 hospitals treating children <18 years across Israel (~75% of Israeli hospitals). Read More

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Mycobacterium avium complex peritonitis in a pediatric patient on peritoneal dialysis: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(24):e26321

Division of Nephrology and Rheumatology.

Introduction: Peritonitis due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a rare but life-threatening complication in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). However, optimal therapeutic regimen, treatment duration, and appropriate timing of kidney transplantation (KT) after treatment are unknown.

Symptoms: We herein report a 4-year-old boy on PD due to end-stage kidney disease resulting from bilateral hypoplastic kidneys. Read More

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Comparative observation on the accuracy of ultrasonography and CT in preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children.

Authors:
Xuefei Lv Yu Zhang

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Ultrasonic Imaging, Hubei NO. 3 People's Hospital of Jianghan University, Wuhan, China -

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Allergen extract- and component-based diagnostics in children of the ALLIANCE asthma cohort.

Clin Exp Allergy 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Pediatric Pneumology, Allergology and Neonatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, BREATH German Center for Lung Research (DZL) ), Germany.

Background: Current in vitro allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) detection assays measure IgE against allergen extracts or molecules in a single- or multiplex approach. Direct comparisons of the performance of such assays among young children with common presentations of allergic diseases regardless of sensitization status are largely missing.

Objectives: The aim of this study was a comparison of the analytical and diagnostic performance for common clinical questions of three commonly used technologies which rely upon different laboratory methodologies among children of the All Age Asthma (ALLIANCE) cohort (clinicaltrials. Read More

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The Toddler Autism Symptom Inventory: Use in diagnostic evaluations of toddlers.

Autism 2021 Jun 15:13623613211021699. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Connecticut, USA.

Lay Abstract: Determining whether a young child has an autism spectrum disorder requires direct observation of the child and caregiver report of the child's everyday behaviors. There are few interviews for parents that are specifically designed for children under 3 years of age. The Toddler Autism Symptom Inventory is a new interview that asks caregivers of children age 12-36 months about symptoms of possible autism spectrum disorder. Read More

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Impact of the model of long-term follow-up care on adherence to guideline-recommended surveillance among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancers.

Cancer Med 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

University of Toronto, Institute of Medical Science, Toronto, Canada.

Purpose: Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors require lifelong healthcare to address the late effects of therapy. We examined the impact of different provider models of long-term follow-up (LTFU) care on adherence to recommended surveillance.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using administrative health databases in Ontario, Canada. Read More

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European guideline on indications, performance and clinical impact of C-breath tests in adult and pediatric patients: An EAGEN, ESNM, and ESPGHAN consensus, supported by EPC.

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Introduction: C-breath tests are valuable, noninvasive diagnostic tests that can be widely applied for the assessment of gastroenterological symptoms and diseases. Currently, the potential of these tests is compromised by a lack of standardization regarding performance and interpretation among expert centers.

Methods: This consensus-based clinical practice guideline defines the clinical indications, performance, and interpretation of C-breath tests in adult and pediatric patients. Read More

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The early course and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in very young children: diagnostic prevalence and predictors in hospital-attending children and a randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial of trauma-focused cognitive therapy, for 3- to 8-year-olds.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: The introduction of developmentally adapted criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has improved the identification of ≤6-year-old children with clinical needs. Across two studies, we assess predictors of the development of PTSD in young children (PTSD-YC), including the adult-led acute stress disorder (ASD) diagnosis, and provide proof of principle for cognitive-focused therapy for this age range, with the aim of increasing treatment options for children diagnosed with PTSD-YC.

Method: Study 1 (N = 105) assessed ASD and PTSD-YC diagnosis in 3- to 8-year-old children within one month and at around three months following attendance at an emergency room. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of an interdisciplinary tertiary center evaluation in children referred for suspected congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract on fetal ultrasound - a retrospective outcome analysis.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: Fetal ultrasound organ screening has become a standard of care in most high-income countries. This has resulted in increased detection of congenital abnormalities, which may lead to major uncertainty and anxiety in expectant parents, even though many of them are of minor relevance. In order to optimize prenatal counselling, we introduced an interdisciplinary approach for all pregnant women referred to our center by private obstetricians for a co-assessment of suspected relevant fetal abnormalities of the kidney or urinary tract, involving both experienced prenatal ultrasound specialists and a pediatric nephrologist or urologist. Read More

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Diabetic ketoacidosis at presentation of type 1 diabetes in children in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Paediatr Child Health 2021 Jul 8;26(4):208-209. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Type 1 diabetes is a common chronic illness in childhood. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes. Early recognition of symptoms of diabetes and immediate initiation of treatment are important factors in preventing DKA at first presentation. Read More

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Pediatric sepsis biomarkers for prognostic and predictive enrichment.

Authors:
Hector R Wong

Pediatr Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Sepsis is a major public health problem in children throughout the world. Given that the treatment guidelines emphasize early recognition, there is interest in developing biomarkers of sepsis, and most attention is focused on diagnostic biomarkers. While there is a need for ongoing discovery and development of diagnostic biomarkers for sepsis, this review will focus on less well-known applications of sepsis biomarkers. Read More

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Risk factors for antibody formation in children with hemophilia: methodological aspects and clinical characteristics of the HEMFIL cohort study.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Medicine, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands Hemocentro de Belo Horizonte, Fundação HEMOMINAS, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Center for Clinical Transfusion Research, Sanquin, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Up to 35% of patients with hemophilia A and 5% with hemophilia B develop neutralizing antibodies which can inhibit the therapeutic activity of factor replacement (inhibitors). Despite the clinical relevance of antifactor VIII and IX neutralizing antibodies, there is still a major gap on the knowledge of risk factors for their development. Furthermore, most of the studies on risk factors for inhibitor development come from Caucasian and Afro-American populations. Read More

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Newborn screening for cystic fibrosis: Role of primary care providers in caring for infants with positive screening results.

Can Fam Physician 2021 Jun;67(6):e144-e152

Clinician scientist in the Division of Pediatric Medicine at the Hospital for Sick Children, Chief Science Officer and Senior Scientist at ICES, and Professor of Pediatrics with a cross appointment at the Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation and the Epidemiology Division of the Dalla Lana School of Public Health at the University of Toronto.

Objective: To explore primary care providers' (PCPs') preferred roles and confidence in caring for infants receiving a positive cystic fibrosis (CF) newborn screening (NBS) result, as well as management of CF family planning issues, given that expanded NBS has resulted in an increase in positive results.

Design: Mailed questionnaire.

Setting: Ontario. Read More

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High-flow Priapism in Pediatric Population: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

Actas Urol Esp 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Sección de Urología Pediátrica Hospital Universitario y Politécnico la Fe de Valencia, Valencia, España.

Introduction: Priapism is a prolonged erection that lasts longer than four hours. It is a rare pathology in the pediatric population, with an estimation of 0.3-1. Read More

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Treating Comorbid Childhood Bipolar Disorder and ADHD.

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):172

Neuropsychology Center of Louisiana, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Objectives: Pediatric mania is difficult to distinguish from childhood hyperactivity. Both share 3 common symptoms: distractibility, motoric hyperactivity, and talkativeness. Oftentimes, children are referred from their pediatrician due to a lack of appropriate response to stimulant medication. Read More

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Can Low Dose Sertraline Cause Serotonin Syndrome in Pediatric Patients? 2 Case Reports.

Authors:
Sultana Jahan

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):155

University of Missouri, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia, MO, USA.

Background: Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition associated with increased serotonergic activity in the central nervous system. Serotonin syndrome is underreported complication of pharmacotherapy. The Hunter Criteria for serotonin syndrome (SS) are fulfilled if the patient has taken a serotonergic agent and has one of the following symptoms: 1) spontaneous clonus, 2) inducible clonus and agitation or diaphoresis, 3) ocular clonus and agitation or diaphoresis, 4) tremor and hyperreflexia, 5) hypertonia, or 6) temperature above 38 C and ocular clonus or inducible clonus. Read More

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The Dilemma, Conversion Disorder or Stiff Person Syndrome, a Case Report.

Authors:
Sultana Jahan

CNS Spectr 2021 Apr;26(2):145-146

University of Missouri, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia, MO, USA.

Study Objectives: The main objectives of this case study are 1. Clinicians facing symptoms that are difficult to interpret should exercise caution in diagnosing conversion disorder. 2. Read More

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Third-wave interventions for eating disorders in adolescence - systematic review with meta-analysis.

Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul 2021 Jun 14;8(1):20. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Margarete-Hoeppel-Platz 1, 97080, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Context: Third-wave therapies have demonstrated efficacy as a treatment option for EDs in adulthood. Data on the suitability for EDs in adolescence are lacking.

Objective: To estimate the efficacy of third-wave interventions to reduce ED symptoms in adolescents in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and uncontrolled studies. Read More

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Clinical application of noninvasive prenatal testing in the detection of fetal chromosomal diseases.

Mol Cytogenet 2021 Jun 14;14(1):31. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Affiliated Maternity and Child Health Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China.

Objective: To assess the detection efficiency of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal autosomal aneuploidy, sex chromosome aneuploidy (SCA), other chromosome aneuploidy, copy number variation (CNV), and to provide further data for clinical application of NIPT.

Materials And Methods: 25,517 pregnant women who underwent NIPT testing in Anhui Province Maternity and Child Health Hospital from September 2019 to September 2020 were selected, and samples with high-risk test results were subjected to karyotype analysis for comparison by using amniotic fluid, with some samples subjected to further validation by chromosomal microarray analysis, and followed up for pregnancy outcome.

Results: A total of 25,517 pregnant women who received NIPT, 25,502 cases were tested successfully, and 294 high-risk samples (1. Read More

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Clinical utility of the ECLECTIC framework in providing culturally-informed autism spectrum disorder evaluations: a pediatric case-based approach.

Clin Neuropsychol 2021 Jun 14:1-24. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Social cognition does not exist within a vacuum. One's culture and surrounding social environment influence 1) development of social skills and behaviors, and 2) society's expectations regarding "normal" behavior versus behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Use of a comprehensive cultural framework such as Fujii's ECLECTIC model undergirds valid ASD testing by enhancing clinician awareness of potential biases during clinical decision-making and by supporting culturally relevant recommendations. Read More

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Dysregulation profile (DP) as a transdiagnostic psychopathological factor in clinically referred children - comparisons between disorders and latent structure.

Nord J Psychiatry 2021 Jun 15:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center of Goettingen, Goettingen, Germany.

Background: Dysregulation Profile (DP) describes the psychopathological construct of concurrent impairments in the ability to regulate emotion, behaviour, and cognition measured by the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Such transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology play an important role in addition to core symptoms of psychiatric diagnosis in clinical practice. Evaluation of DP in children with different mental disorders may improve our understanding and treatment of both contents. Read More

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Vincristine, Irinotecan, and Temozolomide as a Salvage Regimen for Relapsed or Refractory Sarcoma in Children and Young Adults.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Center, Goyang, Korea.

Purpose: No standard salvage regimen is available for relapsed or refractory sarcoma. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of the vincristine, irinotecan, and temozolomide combination (VIT) for relapsed or refractory sarcomas of variable histology in children and young adults.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data from the relapsed or refractory sarcoma patients who were treated with VIT. Read More

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More Than Just Adolescence: Differences in Fatigue Between Youth With Cerebral Palsy and Typically Developing Peers.

Ann Rehabil Med 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objective: To quantify differences in fatigue and disordered sleep between adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and their typically developing peers. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between fatigue and disordered sleep in adolescents with CP.

Methods: A convenience sample of 36 youth with CP aged 10-18 years was matched for age and sex with 36 typically developing peers. Read More

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An alternative electroretinography protocol for children: a study of diagnostic agreement and accuracy relative to ISCEV standard electroretinograms.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Tony Kriss Visual Electrophysiology Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK.

Purpose: To assess the diagnostic accuracy and agreement between a paediatric electroretinography protocol used at Great Ormond Street Hospital (GOSH-ERG) and the 'gold standard' international protocol (ISCEV-ERG) in health and disease.

Methods: Patient databases between 2010 and 2020 were screened to identify children with an ISCEV-ERG recorded within four years of a GOSH-ERG. Electroretinogram (ERG) component peak times and amplitudes were re-measured, and data were analysed in terms of absolute abnormality and proportional deviation from respective reference ranges. Read More

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A National Perspective of Patellar Instability in Children and Adolescents in the United States: MPFL reconstruction is three times higher than the incidence of isolated lateral release.

Arthroscopy 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The objective was to: (1) evaluate any recent changes in the United States in the incidences of medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction and isolated lateral release for patellar instability in children and adolescents, (2) identify concomitant procedures with MPFL, and (3) report national complication rates after MPFL reconstruction with and without concomitant procedures in children and adolescents.

Methods: A national database was queried for patients aged 5 to 18 years who underwent operative treatment for patellar instability from 2010-2018. Inclusion criteria were either an MPFL reconstruction or lateral release for a diagnosis of patellar instability. Read More

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Chronic histiocytic intervillositis: manifestation of placental alloantibody-mediated rejection.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Université de Paris, INSERM UMR 1163, 75015, Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Département de Néphrologie et Transplantation Rénale, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Chronic histiocytic intervillositis (chronic intervillositis) is defined by a diffuse infiltration of monocytes into the intervillous space that often results in poor obstetrical outcomes, including recurrent intrauterine growth restriction, miscarriage and fetal death. The pathogenesis of chronic intervillositis is still poorly defined, and there is an unmet medical need for improved management.

Objective: This study aimed to demonstrate the role of anti-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alloantibodies in the pathogenesis of chronic intervillositis through the application of criteria used in solid-organ transplantation for the diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection. Read More

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