19,381 results match your criteria developmental toxicity


Computational study on novel natural inhibitors targeting c-MET.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(38):e27171

Department of Oncology, First People's Hospital of Xinxiang, Xinxiang, China.

Abstract: This study was designed to select ideal lead compounds and preclinical drug candidates http://dict.youdao.com/w/eng/preclinical_drug_candidate/javascript:void (0); with inhibitory effect on c-MET from the drug library (ZINC database). Read More

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September 2021

Chlorpyrifos and other pesticide exposure and suspected developmental delay in children aged under 5 years: a case-control study in Phitsanulok, Thailand.

F1000Res 2020 23;9:1501. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, 65000, Thailand.

: Developmental delay among children under 5 years of age is a serious global public health problem and much research has been carried out to find potential causes. Pesticides - especially organophosphates - are suspected to be one of the main causes of the problem.  This study aimed to investigate the association between pesticide use by the mother during pregnancy and preschool children development using a case-control study. Read More

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December 2020

Sexually dimorphic expression of sexual differentiation genes in the internal genital organs of Japanese quail embryos.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Sep 20:113917. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Research Office for Environmental Risk Science, Health and Environmental Risk Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba 305-8506, Japan.

Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is an avian model used to evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of chemicals. The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan established a strain of Japanese quail, NIES-L, which may be a better model because of its highly inbred characteristics. To understand sexual differentiation of the reproductive organs and the value of using NIES-L quails for avian toxicity assessment, we profiled estradiol and androgen plasma levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; the mRNA levels of estrogen receptor-α (ERα), ERβ, and androgen receptor (AR) in the gonads, Müllerian ducts, Wolffian ducts; and the mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes, cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450), 17α-hydroxylase/C lyase (P450), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and aromatase (P450), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), and AMH receptor type 2 (AMHR2) in the gonads of NIES-L Japanese quails on embryonic days 9, 12, and 15 using a real-time quantitative PCR method. Read More

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September 2021

Di(isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) alters transcriptional profiles, lipid metabolism and behavior in zebrafish larvae.

Heliyon 2021 Sep 8;7(9):e07951. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Biology, The Life Science Center, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, SE-701 82, Örebro, Sweden.

Plasticizers are commonly used in different consumer goods and personal care products to provide flexibility, durability and elasticity to polymers. Due to their reported toxicity, the use of several plasticizers, including phthalates has been regulated and/or banned from the market. Di(isononyl) cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH) is an alternative plasticizer that was introduced to replace toxic plasticizers. Read More

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September 2021

Zebrafish research in Greece: swimming against the current.

Authors:
Dimitris Beis

Int J Dev Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Developmental Biology, Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Zebrafish is a vertebrate model extensively used in Developmental Biology and Human Disease modeling as it shares high genetic and physiological similarities with humans. It has become the second most popular animal model, following mice, with several advantages: zebrafish are easily housed and cared for, the cost of installing and maintaining a zebrafish facility is significantly lower than mice, they reproduce often and develop quickly. Using zebrafish complies with the 3Rs principles of laboratory animal use. Read More

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September 2021

Reproductive toxicity assessment of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride in CD® rats.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

SafeBridge® Regulatory & Life Sciences Group (formerly Toxicology Regulatory Services), Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Aim: To determine the potential of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) to induce reproductive toxicity in CD® rats in two independent 2-generation reproduction studies conducted according to Good Laboratory Practices and standardized testing guidelines.

Materials And Methods: Male and female rats (parents and offspring) were allowed continual free access to diets containing concentrations of ADBAC (0, 300, 1,000, or 2,000 ppm) or DDAC (0, 300, 750, or 1,500 ppm), beginning with F generation adults at 10 weeks prior to breeding.

Results: No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in parental rats or their offspring in either study. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether on the development of mouse embryonic stem cells.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China; Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, China. Electronic address:

2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) poses potential risks to reproduction and development, but the mechanism of its toxicity has not yet been elucidated. To explore the developmental toxicity of BDE47, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), which are ideal models for testing the developmental toxicity of environmental contaminants in vitro, were exposed to BDE47 (0.04 μM, 1 μM, 25 μM, or 100 μM) for 24 h or 48 h in this study. Read More

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September 2021

Neuroligin-1 is a mediator of methylmercury neuromuscular toxicity.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA.

Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental toxicant capable of eliciting neurocognitive and neuromuscular deficits in children with in utero exposure. Previous research in Drosophila melanogaster uncovered that developmental MeHg exposure simultaneously targets the developing musculature and innervating motor neuron in the embryo, along with identifying Drosophila neuroligin 1 (nlg1) as a gene associated with developmental MeHg sensitivity. Nlg1 and its transsynaptic partner neurexin 1 (Nrx1) are critical for axonal arborization and NMJ maturation. Read More

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September 2021

Knockdown of Uridine Diphosphate Glucosyltransferase 86Dg Enhances Susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to Artemisia vulgaris (Asterales: Asteraceae) Essential Oil.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

College of Biology and Food Engineering, Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang, Henan, China.

Uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferases (UGTs), which are phase II detoxification enzymes, are found in various organisms. These enzymes play an important role in the detoxification mechanisms of plant allelopathy and in insects. Artemisia vulgaris L. Read More

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September 2021

Improving Targeted Delivery and Antitumor Efficacy with Engineered Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis Ligand-Affibody Fusion Protein.

Mol Pharm 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, People's Republic of China.

Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) is a promising protein candidate for selective apoptosis of a variety of cancer cells. However, the short half-life and a lack of targeted delivery are major obstacles for its application in cancer therapy. Here, we propose a simple strategy to solve the targeting problem by genetically fusing an anti-HER2 affibody to the C-terminus of the TRAIL. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of In Vivo Toxicity of Biological Nanoparticles.

Curr Protoc 2021 Sep;1(9):e249

Department of Transplantation, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Biologically derived nanoparticles such as extracellular vesicles are promising candidates for therapeutic applications. In vivo toxicity of biological nanoparticles can result in tissue or organ damage, immunological perturbations, or developmental effects but cannot be readily predicted from in vitro studies. Therefore, an essential component of the preclinical assessment of these particles for their use as therapeutics requires screening for adverse effects and detailed characterization of their toxicity in vivo. Read More

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September 2021

Combined effects of maternal exposure to fungicides on behavioral development in F -generation mice: 3. Fixed-dose study of imazalil.

Birth Defects Res 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Public Health, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Few published studies are reported for the neurobehavioral toxicity of combined exposure to fungicides in mammals. This study was aimed to re-evaluate the reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of maternal exposure to combined imazalil (IMZ) and thiabendazole (TBZ) with fixed-dose of IMZ in mice.

Methods: IMZ/TBZ was given in the diet to provide levels of 0%/0% (control), 0. Read More

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September 2021

Determination of the Effects of Local and Systemic Iron Excess onLateral Root Initiation in .

Bio Protoc 2017 Jul 5;7(13):e2387. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Root system architecture depends on nutrient availability. A symptom of iron (Fe) toxicity in plants is stunted root growth, yet little is known about the effects of excess Fe on lateral root (LR) development. To better understand how nutrient signals are integrated into root developmental programs, we investigated the morphological response of root systems to Fe by testing homogeneous supply and localized Fe supply treatment. Read More

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Cell differentiation in the cardiac embryonic stem cell test (ESTc) is influenced by the oxygen tension in its underlying embryonic stem cell culture.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Sep 17;77:105247. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Oxygen (O) levels in the mammalian embryo range between 2.4% and 8%. The cardiac embryonic stem cell test (ESTc) is a model for developmental toxicity predictions, which is usually performed under atmospheric O levels of 20%. Read More

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September 2021

Identification and validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in fetal rat pancreas.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 Sep 16;105:211-220. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Pharmacology, Wuhan University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China; Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory of Developmentally Originated Disease, Wuhan, 430071, Hubei Province, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The choice of reference gene is crucial for quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay. To screen and determine the suitable reference genes in fetal rat pancreas, we selected eight candidate reference genes (Gapdh, Actb, Rn18 s, B2m, Rpl13a, Tbp, Ywhaz and Ubc), and evaluated the constancy of gene expression from fetal rat pancreases in non-pathological situation and prenatal dexamethasone exposure (PDE) model, using four algorithms: GeNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and Comparative ΔCt method. In addition, the alteration of mRNA levels of pancreatic insulin was compared between control and PDE groups to validate the reliability of selected reference genes for data normalization of RT-qPCR. Read More

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September 2021

Second Paediatric Strategy Forum for anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibition in paediatric malignancies: ACCELERATE in collaboration with the European Medicines Agency with the participation of the Food and Drug Administration.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 15;157:198-213. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

The first (2017) and sixth (2021) multistakeholder Paediatric Strategy Forums focused on anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibition in paediatric malignancies. ALK is an important oncogene and target in several paediatric tumours (anaplastic large cell lymphoma [ALCL], inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour [IMT], neuroblastoma and hemispheric gliomas in infants and young children) with unmet therapeutic needs. ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been demonstrated to be active both in ALK fusion-kinase positive ALCL and IMT. Read More

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September 2021

Microplastics from miscellaneous plastic wastes: Physico-chemical characterization and impact on fish and amphibian development.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 15;225:112775. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Research Centre POLARIS, University of Milano - Bicocca, Milano, Italy. Electronic address:

Microplastic pollution represents a global problem with negative impacts on aquatic environment and organisms' health. To date, most of the laboratory toxicological studies on microplastics (MPs) have made use of single commercial micro and nano-polymers, which do not reflect the heterogeneity of environmental MPs. To improve the relevance of the hazard assessment, micrometer-sized plastic particles of miscellaneous non-reusable waste plastics, with size <100 µm and <50 µm (waste microplastics, wMPs), were characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques and tested on developing zebrafish and Xenopus laevis by FET and FETAX assays respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Developmental alterations, teratogenic effects, and oxidative disruption induced by ibuprofen, aluminum, and their binary mixture on Danio rerio.

Environ Pollut 2021 Sep 9;291:118078. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA, CSIC), Jordi Girona 18, 08017, Barcelona, Spain.

Several studies highlighted the ubiquitous presence of ibuprofen and aluminum in the aquatic environment around the world and demonstrated their potential to induce embryotoxic and teratogenic defects on aquatic species individually. Although studies that evaluate developmental alterations induced by mixtures of these pollutants are scarce; and, since environmental contamination presented in the form of a mixture of toxicants with different chemical properties and toxicity mechanisms capable of generating interactions; the objective of this study was to evaluate the developmental defects, teratogenic alterations, and oxidative stress induced by individual forms and the mixture of ibuprofen (IBU) and aluminum (Al) on zebrafish embryos. Oocytes exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of IBU (0. Read More

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September 2021

Lenvatinib exposure induces hepatotoxicity in zebrafish via inhibiting Wnt signaling.

Toxicology 2021 Sep 15;462:152951. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Jiangxi Engineering Laboratory of Zebrafish Modeling and Drug Screening for Human Diseases, Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Organs, College of Life Sciences, Jinggangshan University, Ji'an, 343009, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Lenvatinib is a multi-kinase inhibitor for widely treating thyroid cancer. However, little studies have been done about it or its toxicity on embryonic development of vertebrate. In this study, we used zebrafish to assess the effect of lenvatinib on early embryonic development. Read More

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September 2021

Nitazoxanide induced myocardial injury in zebrafish embryos by activating oxidative stress response.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for drug screening and research, School of Geography and Environmental Engineering, Gannan Normal University, Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China.

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and antiviral drug (thiazole). However, although NTZ has been extensively used, there are no reports concerning its toxicology in vertebrates. This study used the zebrafish as a vertebrate model to evaluate the safety of NTZ and to analyse the related molecular mechanisms. Read More

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September 2021

Progress in using zebrafish as a toxicological model for traditional Chinese medicine.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 13;282:114638. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan, China; Engineering Research Center of Zebrafish Models for Human Diseases and Drug Screening of Shandong Province, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been applied for more than 2000 years. However, modern basic research on the safety of TCMs is limited. Establishing safety evaluation technology in line with the characteristics of TCM and conducting large-scale basic toxicity research are keys to comprehensively understand the toxicity of TCMs. Read More

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September 2021

Adverse Drug Reactions with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Treatment: An Analysis from the Italian Pharmacovigilance Database.

Drugs Real World Outcomes 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina, Messina, Italy.

Background: Anti-HER2 therapy has evolved in the last years and an important role in this transformation was that of monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Considering their extended use in clinical practice, some toxicity problems have been highlighted around these drugs.

Objective: To analyze the onset of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to the use of HER2-positive breast cancer treatments through a spontaneous reporting system (SRS) database. Read More

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September 2021

Orally administered branaplam does not impact neurogenesis in juvenile mice, rats, and dogs.

Biol Open 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Branaplam is a therapeutic agent currently in clinical development for the treatment of infants with type 1 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Since preclinical studies showed that branaplam had cell-cycle arrest effects; we sought to determine whether branaplam may affect postnatal cerebellar development and brain neurogenesis. Here, we describe a novel approach for developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) of a central nervous system (CNS) active drug. Read More

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September 2021

Concomitant and decoupled effects of cigarette smoke and SCAL1 upregulation on oncogenic phenotypes and ROS detoxification in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18345. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Disease Molecular Biology and Epigenetics Laboratory, National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of the Philippines Diliman, 1101, Quezon City, Philippines.

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with smoking as its primary predisposing factor. Although carcinogens in cigarettes are known to cause oncogenic DNA alterations, analyses of patient cohorts revealed heterogeneous genetic aberrations with no clear driver mutations. The contribution of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the pathogenesis of lung cancer has since been demonstrated. Read More

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September 2021

NaCT/SLC13A5 facilitates citrate import and metabolism under nutrient-limited conditions.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(11):109701

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Electronic address:

Citrate lies at a critical node of metabolism, linking tricarboxylic acid metabolism and lipogenesis via acetyl-coenzyme A. Recent studies have observed that deficiency of the sodium-dependent citrate transporter (NaCT), encoded by SLC13A5, dysregulates hepatic metabolism and drives pediatric epilepsy. To examine how NaCT contributes to citrate metabolism in cells relevant to the pathophysiology of these diseases, we apply C isotope tracing to SLC13A5-deficient hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and primary rat cortical neurons. Read More

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September 2021

Durability of Dolutegravir-Based Regimens: A 5-Year Prospective Observational Study.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2021 Sep;35(9):342-353

Unit of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

This study evaluates the frequency and causes of dolutegravir (DTG) discontinuation along 5 years of follow-up, in both antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive and experienced people living with HIV (PLWH). This is a prospective multi-center cohort study enrolling PLWH on DTG from July 2014 until November 2020. DTG-durability was investigated using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Read More

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September 2021

Detection and toxicity modeling of anthraquinone dyes and chlorinated side products from a colored smoke pyrotechnic reaction.

Chemosphere 2021 Aug 19;287(Pt 1):131845. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, 1900 N. Knox Road, China Lake, CA, 93555, USA.

"Green" pyrotechnics seek to remove known environmental pollutants and health hazards from their formulations. This chemical engineering approach often focuses on maintaining performance effects upon replacement of objectionable ingredients, yet neglects the chemical products formed by the exothermic reaction. In this work, milligram quantities of a lab-scale pyrotechnic red smoke composition were functioned within a thermal probe for product identification by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Read More

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Influence of dispersant application on the toxicity to sea urchin embryos of crude and bunker oils representative of prospective oil spill threats in Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Sep 9;172:112922. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

BCTA Research Group. Department of Zoology and Animal Cell Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Sarriena z/g, E-48940 Leioa-Bizkaia, Basque Country, Spain; BCTA Research Group. Research Centre for Experimental Marine Biology and Biotechnology (PiE-UPV/EHU), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Areatza z/g, 48620 Plentzia-Bizkaia, Basque Country, Spain. Electronic address:

This study deals with the toxicity assessment of crude and bunker oils representative of prospective oil spill threats in Arctic and Sub-Arctic seas (NNA: Naphthenic North-Atlantic crude oil; MGO: Marine Gas Oil; IFO: Intermediate Fuel Oil 180), alone or in combination with a third-generation dispersant (Finasol OSR52®). Early life stages of sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus, were selected for toxicity testing of oil low-energy water accommodated fractions. A multi-index approach, including larval size increase and malformation, and developmental disruption as endpoints, was sensitive to discriminate from slight to severe toxicity caused by the tested aqueous fractions. Read More

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September 2021

analysis of novel dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory peptides released from antimicrobial protein 2 (MiAMP2) and the possible pathways involved in diabetes protection.

Curr Res Food Sci 2021 2;4:603-611. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Faculty of Agriculture and Food, Yunnan Institute of Food Safety, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500, Yunnan, China.

The aim of the present study was to screen novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides from antimicrobial protein 2 (MiAMP2) and evaluate the potential antidiabetic targets and involved signaling pathways using approaches. digestion of MiAMP2 with pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin was performed with ExPASy PeptideCutter and the generated peptides were subjected to BIOPEP-UWM, iDrug, INNOVAGEN and Autodock Vina for further analyses. Six novel peptides EQVR, EQVK, AESE, EEDNK, EECK, and EVEE were predicted to possess good DPP-IV inhibitory potentials, water solubility, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Read More

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September 2021

Therapeutic inhibition of USP9x-mediated Notch signaling in triple-negative breast cancer.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(38)

Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M1C 1A4, Canada;

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a breast cancer subtype that lacks targeted treatment options. The activation of the Notch developmental signaling pathway, which is a feature of TNBC, results in the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and the recruitment of protumoral macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. While the Notch pathway is an obvious therapeutic target, its activity is ubiquitous, and predictably, anti-Notch therapies are burdened with significant on-target side effects. Read More

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September 2021