5,333 results match your criteria developmental adhd

Neuropsychological and real-life functioning of adults with ADHD.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, 9712 TS, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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Balanced Growth project: a protocol of a single-centre observational study on the involvement of the vestibular system in a child's motor and cognitive development.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 11;11(6):e049165. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Ghent University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent, Belgium.

Introduction: The involvement of the vestibular system in the motor and higher (cognitive) performances of typically developing or vestibular-impaired children is currently unknown or has only scarcely been explored. Interestingly, arguments for an interaction between vestibular, motor and cognitive functions in children can also be supported by research on children known for their difficulties in motor and/or cognitive processing (eg, children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD)), as they often present with vestibular-like characteristics. Therefore, in order to elucidate this interaction, and to increase the understanding of the pathophysiology and symptomatology of vestibular disorders and NDD in children, the Balanced Growth project was developed. Read More

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Genetic sensitivity analysis: Adjusting for genetic confounding in epidemiological associations.

PLoS Genet 2021 Jun 11;17(6):e1009590. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Associations between exposures and outcomes reported in epidemiological studies are typically unadjusted for genetic confounding. We propose a two-stage approach for estimating the degree to which such observed associations can be explained by genetic confounding. First, we assess attenuation of exposure effects in regressions controlling for increasingly powerful polygenic scores. Read More

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The Effect of Viloxazine Extended-Release Capsules on Functional Impairments Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children and Adolescents in Four Phase 3 Placebo-Controlled Trials.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 3;17:1751-1762. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Supernus Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA.

Purpose: The ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) assesses 18 symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity and has been used in many clinical trials to evaluate the treatment effect of drugs on ADHD. The fifth edition of this scale (ADHD-RS-5) also assesses the impact of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms on six domains of functional impairment (FI): family relationships, peer relationships, completing/returning homework, academic performance at school, controlling behavior at school, and self-esteem. Here, we report the effect of viloxazine extended-release capsules (viloxazine ER), a novel nonstimulant treatment for ADHD in children and adolescents (ages 6-17 years), on FI from a post hoc analysis of four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 clinical trials (N=1354). Read More

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Longitudinal Psychiatric and Developmental Outcomes in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Systematic Review.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jun-Jul 01;42(5):415-427

Department of Psychology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY.

Objective: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common genetic deletion syndrome associated with psychiatric disorders and developmental delays. A significant amount of 22q11DS research literature is published annually; here, we focus exclusively on longitudinal data that have been published in the past 5 years regarding psychiatric disorders and/or cognitive and social development. Read More

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Parent Attitudes Toward Enhancing Cognition and Clinical Research Trials in Down Syndrome: A Mixed Methods Study.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jun-Jul 01;42(5):380-388

Division of Developmental Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Objective: As understanding of the neurobiological basis of cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) advances and new pharmaceutical interventions targeting neurodevelopment become available, an in-depth understanding of the family perspective is essential to inform research efforts. A mixed methods study was conducted with parents of individuals with DS to learn about attitudes toward pharmacological interventions to enhance cognition, participation in clinical research trials in DS, and the relationship between child/family-specific factors and parent attitudes.

Method: Parents completed an online survey (N = 37) assessing family/child sociodemographic factors and to capture thoughts on cognitive enhancement and participation in clinical drug trials. Read More

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Evolutionary conservations, changes of circadian rhythms and their effect on circadian disturbances and therapeutic approaches.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center Rostock, Rostock, Gehlsheimer Str. 20, 18147, Rostock, Germany. Electronic address:

The circadian rhythm is essential for the interaction of all living organisms with their environments. Several processes, such as thermoregulation, metabolism, cognition and memory, are regulated by the internal clock. Disturbances in the circadian rhythm have been shown to lead to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

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A retrospective observational cohort study: Epidemiology and outcomes of pediatric unintentional falls in US emergency departments.

Injury 2021 May 16. Epub 2021 May 16.

Emergency Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: The objective is to determine how outcomes from unintentional falls differ for children with and without developmental disabilities, with a sensitivity analysis specifically examining those with ADHD.

Materials And Methods: This is a retrospective observational cohort study of 2010-2015 data from the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). The NEDS is a sampling of ED visits across 953 hospitals in 36 states. Read More

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Do referral factors predict a probable Autism Spectrum Disorder diagnosis? A DBPNet Study.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: To determine the proportion of children referred to academic medical centers with concerns about Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) who received a probable ASD diagnosis, identify factors predicting ASD diagnosis and describe the children with ASD concerns who were not found to have autism.

Methods: 55 Developmental-Behavioral Pediatricians (DBP) at 12 academic sites in the DBPNet research network recorded data on ≤15 consecutive new patients. They coded presumed diagnoses after their first visit with the child. Read More

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Using e-diaries to investigate ADHD - State-of-the-art and the promising feature of just-in-time-adaptive interventions.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 4;127:884-898. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Mental mhealth Lab, Institute of Sports and Sports Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany.

Attention-deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is characterized by symptoms which are dynamic in nature: states of hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity as core symptoms, and emotion dysregulation as associated feature. Although tremendous work has been done to investigate between-subject differences (how patients with ADHD differ from healthy controls or patients with other disorders), little is known about the relationship between symptoms with triggers and contexts, that may allow us to better understand their causes and consequences. Understanding the temporal associations between symptoms and environmental triggers in an ecologically valid manner may be the basis to developing just-in-time adaptive interventions. Read More

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A novel multidimensional questionnaire for the assessment of emotional dysregulation in adolescents: Reactivity, Intensity, Polarity and Stability questionnaire-youth version (RIPoSt-Y).

J Affect Disord 2021 May 27;291:359-367. Epub 2021 May 27.

Department of Developmental Neuroscience, IRCCS Stella Maris Foundation, Pisa, Italy.

Background: The failure to regulate emotions, namely emotional dysregulation (ED), is a relevant construct in adolescent psychiatry, in terms of prognostic and developmental implications. We developed and validated a novel self-report questionnaire for the assessment of ED, the RIPoSt-Y, both in clinical and non-clinical samples.

Methods: Items selection and subscales construction were conducted on healthy controls (n=374), while test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subsample (n=72); internal consistency was examined both in the control group and in two clinical samples, respectively including patients with Bipolar Spectrum Disorders (BSD; n=44) and ADHD (n=34). Read More

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Assessing Undertreatment and Overtreatment/Misuse of ADHD medications in children and adolescents across continents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

ADHD Outpatient Program, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; National Institute of Developmental Psychiatry for Children and Adolescents, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

A controversy exists on whether there is an over or underuse of medications for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We conducted the first meta-analysis to estimate the rate of ADHD pharmacological treatment in both diagnosed and undiagnosed individuals. Based on a pre-registered protocol (CRD42018085233), we searched a broad set of electronic databases and grey literature. Read More

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Group 1 Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases: Mechanisms and Prospective.

Neuroscientist 2021 Jun 4:10738584211021018. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Physiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are G-protein coupled receptors that are activated by glutamate in the central nervous system (CNS). Basically, mGluRs contribute to fine-tuning of synaptic efficacy and control the accuracy and sharpness of neurotransmission. Among eight subtypes, mGluR1 and mGluR5 belong to group 1 (Gp1) family, and are implicated in multiple CNS disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism, Parkinson's disease, and so on. Read More

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Comorbid Psychiatric Aspects of Bainbridge-Ropers Syndrome.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2021 Jun 3;23(3). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome (BRPS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with mutations in the additional sex combs-like gene on chromosome 18q12.1. The objective of this study is to describe the comorbid psychiatric aspects of BRPS. Read More

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Polygenic scores differentially predict developmental trajectories of subtypes of social withdrawal in childhood.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

École de psychologie, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC, Canada.

Background: Children who consistently withdraw from social situations face increased risk for later socioemotional difficulties. Twin studies indicate that genetic factors substantially account for the persistence of social withdrawal over time. However, the molecular genetic etiology of chronic courses of social wariness and preference for solitude, two dimensions of social withdrawal, remains undocumented. Read More

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Recognition memory for pictures in children with ADHD: An event-related potential study.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Jun 4:1-16. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Children's Health Research Center, Changzhou Children's Hospital of Nantong University, Yanling Road No. 468, Changzhou, Jiangsu, China.

Children with ADHD are reported to accompany by various degrees of recognition memory cognitive deficits. We aimed to investigate age-related changes of the amplitude in event-related potential recordings on recognition memory in Chinese children with ADHD and to provide theoretical basis of neuro-electrophysiology for the cognition development of children. ERP and behavioral data of 6-to-10-year-old children with ADHD (n = 94) and typically developing controls (TD, n = 96) were collected while the children performed a classical visual study-test paradigm task. Read More

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Association between Polygenic Risk Scores for ADHD and Asthma: A Birth Cohort Investigation.

J Atten Disord 2021 Jun 2:10870547211020111. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil.

Objective: Shared genetic mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the comorbidity between ADHD and asthma. To evaluate their genetic overlap, we relied on data from the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort to test the association between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for ADHD (ADHD-PRSs) and asthma, and PRSs for asthma (asthma-PRSs) and ADHD.

Method: We analyzed data collected at birth, 2, 22, and 30 years from 3,574 individuals. Read More

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A retrospective analysis of memantine use in a pediatric neurology clinic.

Brain Dev 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist, approved for dementia, but also studied in pediatric autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Methods: We reviewed children treated with memantine in a single-centre pediatric neurology clinic. Clinical data extracted included age, sex, weight, clinical history, reason for memantine prescription, period of treatment trial and dosage, treatment response, side effects, and concomitant medications. Read More

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ADHD Symptomatology, Executive Function and Cognitive Performance Differences between Family Foster Care and Control Group in ADHD-Diagnosed Children.

Children (Basel) 2021 May 17;8(5). Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Psychology, Universidad Loyola Andalucía, Avda. de las Universidades s/n, Dos Hermanas, 41704 Seville, Spain.

Children in foster care have a high prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, together with other difficulties in inattentive/hyperactive behaviors, executive and cognitive processes. Early exposure to adversity is a risk factor for developing ADHD via neurodevelopmental pathways. The goal of this research is (a) to study the cognitive and executive performance and inattentive/hyperactive behavior of ADHD-diagnosed children living in foster families in Spain, and (b) to analyze the role of placement variables in their performance. Read More

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Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids in ADHD and in Other Neuropsychiatric Conditions: A Multiple Case Presentation.

Matteo Chiappedi

Pediatr Rep 2021 May 6;13(2):234-240. Epub 2021 May 6.

Developmental Psychopathology Research Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Neurodevelopmental disorders are seen quite commonly by general pediatricians. They should be managed with a multi-professional approach. The potential beneficial effect of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been reported in recent literature, but guidelines describing their use in everyday practice are still lacking. Read More

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Young Adulthood Outcomes of Joint Mental Health Trajectories: A Group-Based Trajectory Model Analysis of a 13-Year Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Jacobs Center for Productive Youth Development, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Developmental trajectories of common mental health issues such as ADHD symptoms, internalising problems, and externalising problems can often be usefully summarised in terms of a small number of 'developmental subtypes' (e.g., 'childhood onset', 'adolescent onset') that may differ in their profiles or levels of clinically meaningful variables such as etiological risk factors. Read More

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Clinical and electrophysiological predictors of behavioral disorders in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 28;121(Pt A):108037. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child Neurology, Kocaeli University Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli, Turkey.

Purpose: Long-term seizure and developmental outcomes of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) are thought to be good. Studies have shown that behavioral disorders may accompany BECTS. We aimed to investigate the frequency of behavioral disorders in patients with BECTS and evaluate their relationship to epilepsy features. Read More

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Atypical sulcal pattern in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Chongqing Post-doctoral Research Station of Medical Electronics and Information Technology, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, China.

Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are often accompanied by disrupted cortical folding. We applied a quantitative sulcal pattern analysis technique using graph structures to study the atypical cortical folding at the lobar level in ADHD brains in this study. A total of 183 ADHD patients and 167 typical developmental controls matched according to age and gender were enrolled. Read More

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Prenatal IgE as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

Front Pediatr 2021 14;9:601092. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, United States.

Few studies have examined if maternal allergic disease is associated with an offspring's neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that Th-2 biased maternal immune function assessed as total serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Data are from the Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy, and Asthma Longitudinal Study (WHEALS), a racially and socioeconomically diverse birth cohort in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan. Read More

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Chronic Irritability in Youth: A Reprise on Challenges and Opportunities Toward Meeting Unmet Clinical Needs.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2021 Jul;30(3):667-683

Section on Mood Dysregulation and Neuroscience, Intramural Research Program, National Institute of Mental Health, Building 15K, MSC 2670, Bethesda, MD 20892-2670, USA.

This commentary focuses on irritability, one subtype of emotion dysregulation. We review literature demonstrating that irritability is not a developmental phenotype of bipolar disorder, but is longitudinally associated with unipolar depression and anxiety and genetically associated with unipolar depression, anxiety, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. We describe how irritability is amenable to translational research, in part because of the relevance of frustrative nonreward, a model developed in rodents, to human irritability. Read More

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Underlying Thinking Pattern Profiles Predict Parent-Reported Distress Responses in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Mental Health and Learning Disability, University of Chester, Chester, UK.

Appreciating autistic neurodiversity is important when supporting autistic people who experience distress. Specifically, use of a profiling model can reveal less visible autistic differences, including strengths and abilities. Binary logistic regressions showed that the likelihood of extreme distress responses could be interpreted based on parent-reported autistic thinking pattern profiles for 140 young people. Read More

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Exposure to general anaesthesia in childhood and the subsequent risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of cohort studies.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 May 25;62:102708. Epub 2021 May 25.

Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: The evidence for a relationship between general anaesthesia induced in childhood and the risk of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in later life is inconsistent. We systematically assessed whether such an association existed.

Methods: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for relevant cohort studies. Read More

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A study on the relationship between non-epileptic fast (40 - 200 Hz) oscillations in scalp EEG and development in children.

Brain Dev 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Child Neurology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan.

Objective: Physiological gamma and ripple activities may be linked to neurocognitive functions. This study investigated the relationship between development and non-epileptic, probably physiological, fast (40-200 Hz) oscillations (FOs) including gamma (40 - 80 Hz) and ripple (80 - 200 Hz) oscillations in scalp EEG in children with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Methods: Participants were 124 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Read More

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Genetic links between narcolepsy and ADHD.

Drake D Duane

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 28;11(1):333. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute for Developmental Behavioral Neurology/Biological Psychiatry, 8585 East Bell Road, Suite 101, Scottsdale, AZ, 85260, USA.

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Motor cortex modulation and reward in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Brain Commun 2021 4;3(2):fcab093. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the most prevalent developmental disorder in childhood, is a biologically heterogenous condition characterized by impaired attention and impulse control as well as motoric hyperactivity and anomalous motor skill development. Neuropsychological testing often demonstrates impairments in motivation and reward-related decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, believed to indicate dysfunction of the dopamine reward pathway. Development of reliable, non-invasive, easily obtained and quantitative biomarkers correlating with the presence and severity of clinical symptoms and impaired domains of function could aid in identifying meaningful attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subgroups and targeting appropriate treatments. Read More

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