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Perspective: Framework for Developing Recommended Intakes of Bioactive Dietary Substances.

Adv Nutr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Weaver & Associates Consulting, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

Dietary bioactives are food substances that promote health but are not essential to prevent typical deficiency conditions. Examples include lutein and zeaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acids, and flavonoids. When quality evidence is available, quantified intake recommendations linking dietary bioactives with specific health benefits will enable health professionals to provide evidence-based information to consumers. Read More

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Microplastic and artificial cellulose microfibers ingestion by reef fishes in the Guarapari Islands, southwestern Atlantic.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 May 4;167:112371. Epub 2021 May 4.

Núcleo de Ecologia Aquática e Pesca da Amazônia (NEAP), Universidade Federal do Pará, Av. Perimetral 2651, Terra Firme, Belém, Pará 66.077-830, Brazil.

This study investigated the ingestion of microplastics and artificial cellulose particles by 103 specimens belonging to 21 reef fish species from the southwestern Atlantic. Specimens of six species had ingested microplastics and artificial cellulose particles, while those of another three species had ingested only one type of material. In our samples, man-made cellulose fibers were more common than microplastics. Read More

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Psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS).

Body Image 2021 May 4;38:210-218. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Centre for Psychological Medicine, Perdana University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The Functionality Appreciation Scale (FAS; Alleva et al., 2017) is a widely used instrument for the measurement of individual's appreciation of their body for what it can do and is capable of doing (i.e. Read More

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Acute necrotizing encephalopathy-linked mutations in Nup358 impair interaction of Nup358 with TNRC6/GW182 and miRNA function.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 4;559:230-237. Epub 2021 May 4.

National Centre for Cell Science, S.P. Pune University Campus, Pune, 411007, India. Electronic address:

MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated translational suppression of mRNAs is involved in the regulation of multiple cellular processes. A recent study showed that Nup358, a protein mutated in a neurological disorder called acute necrotizing encephalopathy 1 (ANE1), helps in the coupling of miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) - consisting of miRNA, AGO and GW182/TNRC6 proteins - with the target mRNA. Here we provide a detailed characterization of the interaction between Nup358 and GW182. Read More

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Expression and localization of FGFR1, FGFR2 and CTGF during normal human lung development.

Acta Histochem 2021 May 4;123(5):151719. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, University of Mostar, Bijeli Brijeg bb, 88000, Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Aim of our study was to provide insight into the temporal and spatial expression of FGFR1, FGFR2 and CTGF during normal human lung development which may have an important impact on understanding occurrence of developmental lung anomalies. Morphological parameters were analysed using double immunofluorescence on human embryonal (6th and 7th developmental week-dw) and foetal (8th, 9th and 16th developmental week) human lung samples. FGFR1 and FGFR2 was positive during all the dw in both the epithelium and mesenchyme. Read More

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Use of automated patch clamp in cardiac safety assessment: Past, present and future perspectives.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2021 May 4:107072. Epub 2021 May 4.

North Stonington, CT, USA.

There is no doubt that automated patch clamp (APC) technology has revolutionized research in biomedical science. High throughput ion channel screening is now an integral part of the development and safety profiling of the majority of new chemical entities currently developed to address unmet medical needs. The increased throughput it provides has significantly improved the ability to overcome the time-consuming, low throughput bottlenecks resulting from the more conventional manual patch clamp method, considered the 'gold standard', for studying ion channel function and pharmacology. Read More

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Translational evidence for the Inflammatory Response System (IRS)/Compensatory Immune Response System (CIRS) and neuroprogression theory of major depression.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 4:110343. Epub 2021 May 4.

Deakin University, School of Medicine, IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, severe and disabling neuropsychiatric disorder with a heterogenous aetiology. Among the most widely recognized etiological models, immunopathogenesis is a predominant one. Numerous studies have demonstrated aberrant levels of inflammatory markers in the peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain of patients with MDD. Read More

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Development and optimization of hot-melt extruded moxifloxacin hydrochloride inserts, for ocular applications, using the design of experiments.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 4:120676. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS - 38677, USA; Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677, USA. Electronic address:

The current study sought to formulate sustained-release hot-melt extruded (HME) ocular inserts of moxifloxacin hydrochloride (MOX; MOX-HME) for the treatment of bacterial keratitis. The concentration of Eudragit™ FS-100 (FS) and propylene glycol (PG) used as polymer and plasticizer, respectively, in the inserts were optimized using the central composite design (CCD) to achieve sustained release. The inserts were characterized for weight, thickness, surface characteristics, pH, and in vitro release profile. Read More

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Effect of pH adjustment and ratio of oppositely charged polymers on the mechanistic performance and sustained release of volatile perfume in interpolyelectrolyte complex microcapsules.

Int J Pharm 2021 May 4:120672. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon 16499, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, volatile perfume was encapsulated in microcapsules (MCs) via interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPECs) of oppositely charged polymers, with high encapsulation efficiency, to be delivered in a sustained manner. Positively charged chitosan (CTS) and negatively charged Eudragit® S100 (ES100) were used as eco-friendly biopolymers. Limonene (LMN) was selected as the model perfume. Read More

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Adenosine Kinase: An Epigenetic Modulator in Development and Disease.

Neurochem Int 2021 May 4:105054. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854; Department of Neurosurgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ 07102; Brain Health Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854. Electronic address:

Adenosine kinase (ADK) is the key regulator of adenosine and catalyzes the metabolism of adenosine to 5'-adenosine monophosphate. The enzyme exists in two isoforms: a long isoform (ADK-long, ADK-L) and a short isoform (ADK-short, ADK-S). The two isoforms are developmentally regulated and are differentially expressed in distinct subcellular compartments with ADK-L localized in the nucleus and ADK-S localized in the cytoplasm. Read More

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Conjugates of Human Serum Butyrylcholinesterase and Nerve Agents are Behaviorally Safe in Rhesus Macaques.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 4:109499. Epub 2021 May 4.

US Army War College, Carlisle, PA 17013, USA.

Exogenously administered human serum butyrylcholinesterase (Hu BChE) affords protection by binding to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents and pesticides in circulation. The resulting Hu BChE-OP conjugate undergoes 'aging' and the conjugate circulates until cleared from the body. Thus, we evaluated the effects of Hu BChE-OP conjugates on the general health and operant behavior of macaques. Read More

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Single-cell dissection of cellular components and interactions shaping the tumor immune phenotypes in ovarian cancer.

Cancer Cell 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Distinct T cell infiltration patterns, i.e., immune infiltrated, excluded, and desert, result in different responses to cancer immunotherapies. Read More

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Rapid progression is associated with lymphoid follicle dysfunction in SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 7;17(5):e1009575. Epub 2021 May 7.

Center for Global Infectious Disease Research, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

HIV-infected infants are at an increased risk of progressing rapidly to AIDS in the first weeks of life. Here, we evaluated immunological and virological parameters in 25 SIV-infected infant rhesus macaques to understand the factors influencing a rapid disease outcome. Infant macaques were infected with SIVmac251 and monitored for 10 to 17 weeks post-infection. Read More

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Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury affects inflammation and excitotoxic mRNA expression at acute and chronic time-points.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0251315. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia.

The cumulative effect of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) can result in chronic neurological damage, however the molecular mechanisms underpinning this detriment require further investigation. A closed head weight drop model that replicates the biomechanics and head acceleration forces of human mTBI was used to provide an exploration of the acute and chronic outcomes following single and repeated impacts. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into one of four impact groups (control; one, five and 15 impacts) which were delivered over 23 days. Read More

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Genome-wide analysis of gibberellin-dioxygenases gene family and their responses to GA applications in maize.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(5):e0250349. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Agronomy, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China.

Gibberellin-dioxygenases genes plays important roles in the regulating plant development. However, Gibberellin-dioxygenases genes are rarely reported in maize, especially response to gibberellin (GA). In present study, 27 Gibberellin-dioxygenases genes were identified in the maize and they were classified into seven subfamilies (I-VII) based on phylogenetic analysis. Read More

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Lower-limb medical and rehabilitation exoskeletons: A review of the current designs.

IEEE Rev Biomed Eng 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

Medical and rehabilitation exoskeletons are being increasingly considered by therapists when choosing a treatment for individuals affected by lower limb impairments. Although all such exoskeletons seem to provide similar features and performance, there are, in practice, significant differences among them in terms of maximum walking speed, maximum torque, weight, autonomy, interaction with the user, or even the way to use it. In this review, the state of the art of the main commercial exoskeletons is described, while analyzing their properties, advantages, and disadvantages. Read More

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Visual Analytics of Smartphone-Sensed Human Behavior and Health.

IEEE Comput Graph Appl 2021 May-Jun;41(3):96-104

Smartphone health sensing tools, which analyze passively gathered human behavior data, can provide clinicians with a longitudinal view of their patients' ailments in natural settings. In this Visualization Viewpoints article, we postulate that interactive visual analytics (IVA) can assist data scientists during the development of such tools by facilitating the discovery and correction of wrong or missing user-provided ground-truth health annotations. IVA can also assist clinicians in making sense of their patients' behaviors by providing additional contextual and semantic information. Read More

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Characterization and Management of Noise in HDX-MS Data Modeling.

Anal Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Chemistry, Britannia House, King's College, London SE1 1DB, UK.

Quantification of hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX) kinetics can provide information on the stability of individual amino acids in proteins by finding the degree to which the local backbone environment corresponds to that of a random coil. When characterized by mass spectrometry, extraction of HDX kinetics is not possible because different residue exchange rates become merged depending on the peptides that are formed during proteolytic digestion. We have recently developed an advanced programming tool called HDXmodeller, which enables the exchange rates of individual amino acids to be understood by optimization of low-resolution HDX-mass spectrometry (MS) data. Read More

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Preceptor Practice: Initial Results of a National Association for Nursing Professional Development Study.

J Nurses Prof Dev 2021 May-Jun 01;37(3):154-162

In 2020, the Association for Nursing Professional Development commissioned a national preceptor practice analysis study using the Ulrich Precepting Model to identify the roles, knowledge, and activities essential to preceptor practice. In a survey of 3,623 preceptors, the model's seven preceptor roles and their associated domains of knowledge and practice were validated. Findings indicate that nursing professional development practitioners should provide preceptors with initial role preparation in addition to ongoing education. Read More

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Development of Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyles for Diabetes (HEAL-D), a culturally-tailored diabetes self-management education and support programme for black-British adults: a participatory research approach.

Diabet Med 2021 May 7:e14594. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Social Science, University College London.

Aims: To develop an evidence-based, culturally-tailored, diabetes self-management education and support programme for black-British adults, called Healthy Eating and Active Lifestyles for Diabetes (HEAL-D), using participatory methods to engage key stakeholders in the intervention design process.

Methods: Black-British adults living with type 2 diabetes, healthcare professionals and community leaders were engaged in an intervention development study. The intervention structure, format, content and delivery were developed through three phases of participatory research: phase 1, formative research, involved focus groups and interviews; interactive co-development workshops were conducted in phase 2; and phase 3 focused on materials development. Read More

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Improving Caregiver Self-Efficacy and Children's Behavioral Outcomes via a Brief Strength-Based Video Coaching Intervention: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Prev Sci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Psychology and Center for Translational Neuroscience, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

Many existing preventive intervention programs focus on promoting responsive parenting practices. However, these parenting programs are often long in duration and expensive, and meta-analytic evidence indicates that families facing high levels of adversity typically benefit less. Moreover, due to a lack of specification and evaluation of conceptual models, the mechanisms underlying program-related changes in caregivers and their children often remain unclear. Read More

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Current management of melanoma patients with nodal metastases.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, Morsani School of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

The management of melanoma patients with nodal metastases has undergone dramatic changes over the last decade. In the past, the standard of care for patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was a completion lymph node dissection (CLND), while patients with palpable macroscopic nodal disease underwent a therapeutic lymphadenectomy in cases with no evidence of systemic spread. However, studies have shown that SLN metastases present as a spectrum of disease, with certain SLN-based factors being prognostic of and correlated with outcomes. Read More

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Drug Repurposing: Claiming the Full Benefit from Drug Development.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 May 7;23(6):62. Epub 2021 May 7.

DeVos Cardiovascular Research Program, Van Andel Institute/Spectrum Health, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Drug development has evolved over the years from being one-at-a-time to be massive screens in an industrial manner. Bringing a new therapeutic agent from concept to bedside can take a decade and cost billions of dollars-with most concepts failing along the way. Of the few compounds that make it to clinical testing, less than one out of eight make it to approval. Read More

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Myocarditis: Which Role for Genetics?

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 May 7;23(6):58. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cardiothoracovascular Department, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina (ASUGI) and University of Trieste, Via Valdoni 7, 34129, Trieste, Italy.

Purpose Of Review: Myocarditis is a polymorphic disease, both in its presentation and clinical course. Recent data suggests that the genetic background, interacting with environmental factors, could be diriment both in the susceptibility and evolution of myocarditis in different clinical presentations. The aim of this paper is to expose the current available evidences and the evolving concepts on this topic, in order to provide insight for improving the clinical management of those patients. Read More

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Rapid identification of pathogens by using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and multi-scale convolutional neural network.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Bor S. Luh Food Safety Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

Salmonella is a prevalent pathogen causing serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are over 2600 serovars of Salmonella. Among them, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Paratyphi were reported to be the most common foodborne pathogenic serovars in the EU and China. Read More

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Emergency surgery workforce and its inverse relationship with multidimensional poverty in Colombia.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Surgery, Fundacion Valle del Lili, Cali, Colombia.

Purpose: General surgeons, anesthesiologists, obstetricians and gynecologists (ob-gyns), and orthopedic surgeons are the vital disciplines to provide emergency surgery within a healthcare system. This paper aims to examine the relationship (if any) between multidimensional poverty (MDP) and GDP per-capita with the emergency surgery workforce density in Colombia.

Methods: We performed an ecological study, where the observation units were the 32 Colombian departments. Read More

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VisuaLife: Library for interactive visualization in rich web applications.

Bioinformatics 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Faculty of Chemistry, Biological and Chemical Research Center, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, 02-093, Warsaw, Poland.

Motivation: Visualization is a powerful tool to analyze, understand and present big data. Computational biology, bioinformatics, and molecular modeling require dedicated tools, tailored to very complex, highly multidimensional data. Over the recent years, numerous tools have been developed for online presentation, but new challenges like the COVID-19 pandemic require new libraries which will guarantee fast development of online tools for a better understanding of biomedical data/results. Read More

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Design and Evaluation of User-Centered Exergames for Patients With Multiple Sclerosis: Multilevel Usability and Feasibility Studies.

JMIR Serious Games 2021 May 7;9(2):e22826. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Design, Subject Area in Game Design, Zurich University of the Arts, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Patients with MS experience a wide range of physical and cognitive dysfunctions that affect their quality of life. A promising training approach that concurrently trains physical and cognitive functions is video game-based physical exercising (ie, exergaming). Read More

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Psychological Trauma in the Context of Intimate Partner Violence: A Concept Analysis.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2021 May 7:1-33. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Nursing and Health Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA.

A comprehensive understanding of psychological trauma in the context of intimate partner violence (IPV) is relevant for nurses and other healthcare providers to provide better care for individuals and families confronting this issue. A concept analysis based on Walker and Avant was conducted to fully understand this concept and its impact on physical and mental health. This concept analysis demonstrates that psychological trauma in the IPV context is an intricate multi-faceted concept that can have a significant long-term effect on individuals who have experienced IPV. Read More

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Variant Re-interpretation in Survivors of Cardiac Arrest with Preserved Ejection Fraction (CASPER Registry) by Clinicians and Clinical Commercial Laboratories.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

- Following an unexplained cardiac arrest, clinical genetic testing is increasingly becoming standard of care. Periodic review of variant classification is required, as re-interpretation can change the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of patients and their relatives. - This study aimed to develop and validate a standardized algorithm to facilitate clinical application of the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines for the interpretation of genetic variants. Read More

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