100,331 results match your criteria development lung

Dysiscalarones A-E, scalarane sesterterpenoids with nitric oxide production inhibitory activity from marine sponge Dysidea granulosa.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Mar 5;111:104791. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Research Center for Marine Drugs, State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Department of Pharmacy, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200127, China. Electronic address:

Dysiscalarones A-E (1-5), five new scalarane-type bishomoscalarane sesterterpenoids, were isolated from marine sponge Dysidea granulosa collected from the South China Sea, together with two known ones, honulactone A (6) and phyllofolactone I (7). The new structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis including HR-ESI-MS and 1D and 2D NMR data, and their absolute configurations were assigned by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. The inhibitory activity of all the seven isolates on the production of nitric oxide (NO) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mouse RAW 264. Read More

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In vitro toxicological evaluation of a tobacco heating product THP COO and 3R4F research reference cigarette on human lung cancer cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 Apr 10:105173. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

China National Tobacco Quality Supervision and Test Center, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cigarette smoking increases health risks, such as respiratory diseases and heart diseases. Despite the decline in smoking rates in some countries, millions of adults still choose to smoke cigarettes. The use of next-generation nicotine delivery devices, such as tobacco heating products (THPs), may become a potentially safer alternative to smoking. Read More

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Therapeutic targeting of ATR yields durable regressions in small cell lung cancers with high replication stress.

Cancer Cell 2021 Apr;39(4):566-579.e7

Division of Preclinical Innovation, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institute of Health, Rockville, MD 20850, USA; Lymphoid Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Small cell neuroendocrine cancers (SCNCs) are recalcitrant cancers arising from diverse primary sites that lack effective treatments. Using chemical genetic screens, we identified inhibition of ataxia telangiectasia and rad3 related (ATR), the primary activator of the replication stress response, and topoisomerase I (TOP1), nuclear enzyme that suppresses genomic instability, as synergistically cytotoxic in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In a proof-of-concept study, we combined M6620 (berzosertib), first-in-class ATR inhibitor, and TOP1 inhibitor topotecan in patients with relapsed SCNCs. Read More

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Donor cell memory confers a metastable state of directly converted cells.

Cell Stem Cell 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Münster 48149, Germany; Faculty of Medicine, University of Münster, Münster 48149, Germany. Electronic address:

Generation of induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (iOPCs) from somatic fibroblasts is a strategy for cell-based therapy of myelin diseases. However, iOPC generation is inefficient, and the resulting iOPCs exhibit limited expansion and differentiation competence. Here we overcome these limitations by transducing an optimized transcription factor combination into a permissive donor phenotype, the pericyte. Read More

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Serial intravital imaging captures dynamic and functional endothelial remodeling with single-cell resolution.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, United States of America.

Endothelial cells are important in the maintenance of healthy blood vessels and in the development of vascular diseases. However, the origin and dynamics of endothelial precursors and remodeling at the single-cell level have been difficult to study in vivo due to technical limitations. We aimed to develop a direct visual approach to track the fate and function of single endothelial cells over several days-weeks in the same vascular bed in vivo using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of transgenic Cdh5-Confetti mice and the kidney glomerulus as a model. Read More

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The Natural Alkaloid Berberine Can Reduce the Number of Tolerant Cells.

J Nat Prod 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona 60131, Italy.

The eradication of recurrent (PA) lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may be hampered by the development of persistent bacterial forms, which can tolerate antibiotics through efflux pump overexpression. After demonstrating the efflux pump inhibitory effect of the alkaloid berberine on the PA MexXY-OprM efflux pump, in this study, we tested its ability (80/320 μg/mL) to enhance tobramycin (20xMIC/1000xMIC) activity against PA planktonic/biofilm cultures. Preliminary investigations of the involvement of MexY in PA tolerance to tobramycin treatment, performed on the isogenic pair PA K767 (wild type)/K1525 (Δ) growing in planktonic and biofilm cultures, demonstrated that the Δ mutant K1525 produced a lower (100 and 10 000 times, respectively) amount of tolerant cells than that of the wild type. Read More

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A meta-analysis on the relationship of exosomes and the prognosis of lung cancer.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(15):e25332

Department of Urology, Affiliated Hospital of Guilin Medical University.

Background: A lot of research evidence shows that exosomes play an indelible role in the prognosis of lung cancer, but there are many disputes. Therefore, we conduct a meta-analysis to further demonstrate.

Methods: A literature retrieval was performed through a search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, CKNI, Wanfang, and other databases to locate documents from the literature that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Read More

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Potential antiviral activity of isorhamnetin against SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus in vitro.

Drug Dev Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths are still rising worldwide, there is currently no effective treatment for severe inflammation and acute lung injury caused by new coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) infection. Therapies to prevent or treat COVID-19, including antiviral drug and several vaccines, are still being development. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), expressing in lung, has been confirmed to be a receptor for SARS-COV-2 infection, interventions for attachment of spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to ACE2 may be a potential approach to prevent viral infections and it is considered as a potential target for drug development. Read More

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The clinical characteristics and predictors of severe digital ischemia in patients with anti-aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase antibodies.

J Dermatol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan.

Severe digital ischemia (SDI), which presents with digital ulcers, necrosis, or gangrene, has been reported to be a rare manifestation of anti-aminoacyl transfer RNA synthetase (ARS) antibody-positive polymyositis/dermatomyositis or anti-synthetase syndrome. A retrospective study was conducted between 2009 and 2020 at our department to investigate the clinical features of anti-ARS antibody-positive patients with SDI and identify their predictors. A total of 46 patients who were positive for anti-ARS antibody were included, four of whom (8. Read More

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MicroRNA‑485‑5p suppresses the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by targeting flotillin‑1 and inhibits the epithelial‑mesenchymal transition.

Oncol Rep 2021 Jun 13;45(6). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Research Centre, The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050011, P.R. China.

As esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in Asia, it is crucial to uncover its underlying molecular mechanisms that support its development and progression. Several articles have reported that microRNA (miR)‑485‑5p inhibits the malignant phenotype in a number of cancer types, such as lung, gastric and breast cancer, but to the best of our knowledge, its function in ESCC has not been studied in depth until the present study. It is of great significance to probe the regulatory action and underlying mechanism of miR‑485‑5p in ESCC. Read More

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Lung-selective 25-hydroxycholesterol nanotherapeutics as a suppressor of COVID-19-associated cytokine storm.

Nano Today 2021 Apr 8:101149. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon 34141 Republic of Korea.

In response to the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), global efforts are focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions. For the treatment of COVID-19, selective lung-localizing strategies hold tremendous potential, as SARS-CoV-2 invades the lung ACE2 receptors and causes severe pneumonia. Similarly, recent reports have shown the association of COVID-19 with decreased 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) and increased cytokine levels. Read More

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Evaluating the analytical validity of circulating tumor DNA sequencing assays for precision oncology.

Nat Biotechnol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, US Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, AR, USA.

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) sequencing is being rapidly adopted in precision oncology, but the accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility of ctDNA assays is poorly understood. Here we report the findings of a multi-site, cross-platform evaluation of the analytical performance of five industry-leading ctDNA assays. We evaluated each stage of the ctDNA sequencing workflow with simulations, synthetic DNA spike-in experiments and proficiency testing on standardized, cell-line-derived reference samples. Read More

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An updated analysis of the epidemiologic trends of neuroendocrine tumors in Taiwan.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7881. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, 1F No 367, Sheng-Li Road, Tainan, 70456, Taiwan.

The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has been increasing in recent decades. Previously, we reported the incidence and survival of NETs in Taiwan by analyzing the 1996-2008 data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Here we performed an updated analysis on the incidence and survival of NETs in Taiwan from 1996 to 2015. Read More

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Favourable outcome after a delayed complication secondary to COVID-19.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 12;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Respiratory Medicine, University Hospitals of North Midlands NHS Trust, Stoke-on-Trent, UK

A 41-year-old man was admitted to hospital with 7-day history of fever, cough and having had a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test. The chest radiograph (CXR) showed bilateral peripheral parenchymal infiltrates. He required 4 L/min oxygen via nasal cannula for 72 hours and was discharged after 7 days with appropriate advice. Read More

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Interferon-γ (+874 T/A) and interleukin-10 (-1082 G/A) genes polymorphisms are associated with active tuberculosis in the Algerian population of Oran's city.

Indian J Tuberc 2021 Apr 26;68(2):221-229. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Immunology Department, La Rabta Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia; Laboratory of Immuno-Rheumatology (LR05 SP01), La Rabta Hospital, Tunis, Tunisia.

Background And Aims: Polymorphisms within genes encoding the cytokines involved in anti-tuberculosis immunity have been widely studied and sometimes associated with an increased risk of developing the active form of tuberculosis (TB). This study analyzes for the first time the impact of two polymorphisms, namely IFNG+874 T/A and IL10-1082 G/A, in the Algerian population where tuberculosis is moderately endemic.

Methods: This case-control study included 104 healthy controls and 141 active TB patients: 75 extrapulmonary (EPTB) and 66 pulmonary (PTB). Read More

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The efficacy of N-Acetylcysteine in severe COVID-19 patients: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2021 Apr 12;22(1):271. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Objectives: Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus may cause lung failure and the need for mechanical ventilation. Infection with SARS-COV-2 can lead to activation of inflammatory factors, increased reactive oxygen species, and cell damage. In addition to mucolytic effects, N-Acetylcysteine has antioxidant effects that we believe can help patients recover. Read More

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MicroRNA-200b-3p promotes endothelial cell apoptosis by targeting HDAC4 in atherosclerosis.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Apr 12;21(1):172. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) shares the same microcirculation with coronary arteries through coronary arteries branches, and contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the formation of atherosclerosis. However, the alteration of miRNA profile in EAT during atherosclerosis is still uncovered. Read More

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RNA Nanotechnology to Build a Dodecahedral Genome of Single-Stranded RNA Virus.

RNA Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for RNA Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

The quest for artificial RNA viral complexes with authentic structure while being non-replicative is on its way for the development of viral vaccines. RNA viruses contain capsid proteins that interact with the genome during morphogenesis. The sequence and properties of the protein and genome determine the structure of the virus. Read More

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Recent Findings on Cell-Based Therapies for COVID19-Related Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Cell Transplant 2021 Jan-Dec;30:963689721996217

Bioinnovation Center, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien.

COVID-19 has spread worldwide, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Italy, along with its site of origin in China, since 2020. The virus was first found in the Wuhan seafood market at the end of 2019, with a controversial source. The clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and respiratory tract inflammation, with some severe patients developing an acute and chronic lung injury, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Read More

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Intradermal co-inoculation of codon pair deoptimization (CPD)-attenuated chimeric porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with Toll like receptor (TLR) agonists enhanced the protective effects in pigs against heterologous challenge.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Mar 23;256:109048. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

PRRS Research Laboratory, Viral Diseases Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon, 39660, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The objective of this study was to assess protective efficacy of vaccination using CPD-attenuated chimeric PRRSV and Toll like receptor (TLR) agonists (HSP70 c-terminal domain and HSPX) as adjuvants through different inoculation routes. In this study, a chimeric PRRSV composed of two field isolates was synthesized and attenuated by CPD in NSP1 as described in the previous study. The infection of the CPD-attenuated chimeric PRRSV to pigs of 3 weeks-old showed no clinical signs without pathological lesions in necropsy, while it induced improved cross immunity between its parent strains. Read More

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Avelumab vs docetaxel in patients with platinum-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: 2-year follow-up from the JAVELIN Lung 200 phase 3 trial.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Aix Marseille University, CNRS, INSERM, CRCM, Marseille, France†; Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: In the JAVELIN Lung 200 trial, avelumab (anti-PD-L1 antibody) did not significantly prolong overall survival (OS) vs docetaxel in patients with platinum-treated PD-L1+ NSCLC. We report >2-year follow-up data.

Methods: Patients with stage IIIB/IV or recurrent NSCLC with disease progression following platinum-doublet chemotherapy were randomized 1:1 to avelumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or docetaxel 75 mg/m every 3 weeks. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Clinical Diagnostic Scoring System for the Diagnosis of IPF.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Inova Fairfax Hospital, 23146, Advanced Lung Disease Program, Falls Church, Virginia, United States.

Rationale: Interpreting the radiological data in conjunction with an objective clinical score could help to harmonize IPF diagnostic and improve accuracy.

Objectives: We sought to establish and validate a multivariable objective scoring model based on clinical parameters, by stratifying the risk for patients to be diagnosed as IPF versus other forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD).

Methods: A clinical score was derived from review of patients evaluated at the Inova Fairfax ILD program and validated in three distinct cohorts. Read More

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Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Extract and Its Major Component Andrographolide in Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Cytotoxicity Evaluation in Major Organ Cell Representatives.

J Nat Prod 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Excellent Center for Drug Discovery (ECDD), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

The coronaviruses disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has become a major health problem, affecting more than 50 million people with over one million deaths globally. Effective antivirals are still lacking. Here, we optimized a high-content imaging platform and the plaque assay for viral output study using the legitimate model of human lung epithelial cells, Calu-3, to determine the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of extract and its major component, andrographolide. Read More

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PP7080 expedites the proliferation and migration of lung adenocarcinoma cells via sponging miR-670-3p and regulating UHRF1BP1.

J Gene Med 2021 Apr 12:e3341. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of oncology, the People's Hospital of Tongcheng, Xianning, Hubei, China.

Background: An increasing body of evidence has revealed that lncRNAs play a significant part in a variety of human cancers; lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is included.

Methods: The expression of PP7080, miR-670-3p and UHRF1BP1 in LUAD cells and tissues was detected by using RT-qPCR. The role of PP7080 in LUAD cells was validated by CCK-8, flow cytometry, colony formation, transwell and wound healing assays. Read More

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Physiological and inflammatory consequences of high and low respiratory rate in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Departamento de Medicina Intensiva, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Using protective mechanical ventilation strategies with low tidal volume is usually accompanied by an increment of respiratory rate to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation. However, there is no robust data that support the safety of a high respiratory rate concerning ventilator-induced lung injury. Several experimental animal studies have explored the effects of respiratory rate over lung physiology, using a wide range of frequencies and different models. Read More

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Pitx genes in development and disease.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331, USA.

Homeobox genes encode sequence-specific transcription factors (SSTFs) that recognize specific DNA sequences and regulate organogenesis in all eukaryotes. They are essential in specifying spatial and temporal cell identity and as a result, their mutations often cause severe developmental defects. Pitx genes belong to the PRD class of the highly evolutionary conserved homeobox genes in all animals. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics of 2-phenoxyethanol and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid, after dermal and inhaled routes of exposure: application to development PBPK model in rats.

Arch Toxicol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences Seoul, Nowon-ro 75, Nowon-Gu, Seoul, Korea.

2-Phenoxyethanol (PE), ethylene glycol monophenyl ether, is widely used as a preservative in cosmetic products as well as in non-cosmetics. Since PE has been used in many types of products, it can be absorbed via dermal or inhaled route for systemic exposures. In this study, the pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of PE and its major metabolite, phenoxyacetic acid (PAA), after dermal (30 mg and 100 mg) and inhaled administration (77 mg) of PE in rats were performed. Read More

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Tribolium castaneum defensin 1 kills Moraxella catarrhalisin an in vitro infection model but does not harm commensal bacteria.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1003-1010

Institute for Lung Research, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

is a bacterial pathogen that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains has created a demand for alternative treatment options. We therefore tested 23 insect antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) for their activity against in a human infection model with primary macrophages, and against commensal bacteria. Read More

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December 2021

Roflumilast as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Cecal Ligation and Puncture-Induced Septic Lung Injury.

J Invest Surg 2021 Apr 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Ataturk University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Purpose/aims: This study focused on delineating the possible effects of roflumilast (ROF), a selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, in rats with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial sepsis, and investigated whether ROF can act as a protective agent in sepsis-induced lung damage.

Material And Methods: Four experimental groups were organized, each comprising eight rats: Control, Sepsis, Sepsis + ROF 0.5 mgkg, and Sepsis + ROF 1 mgkg groups. Read More

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Fetal growth, fetal development, and placental features in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: analysis based on fetal and placental magnetic resonance imaging.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2020 Dec.;21(12):977-989

Department of Chinese Integrative Medicine, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006, China.

Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine-metabolic dysfunction in reproductive-aged women, may be involved in compromised pregnancy and offspring outcomes. This study aimed to investigate whether maternal PCOS affects fetal growth, fetal development, and placental features.

Methods: This retrospective case-control study included 60 pregnant women with PCOS (PCOS group) and 120 healthy pregnant women without PCOS (control group). Read More

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