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Temporary Threshold Shifts among Iron and Steel Factory Workers in Tanzania: A Pre-Interventional Study.

Ann Glob Health 2021 Apr 6;87(1):35. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Centre for International Health, Department of Global Public and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Årstadveien 21, 5020 Bergen, Norway.

Background: Workers in iron and steel factories in Tanzania are exposed to noise levels above recommended limit values, without using hearing protection devices. Exposure to noise levels above 85 dB(A) is associated with temporary threshold shifts (TTS) of human hearing. Nevertheless, there are few studies of noise and hearing from African countries. Read More

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Sinus Node Dysfunction due to Occlusion of the Sinus Node Artery during Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Interv Cardiol 2021 30;2021:8810484. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Heart Institute, Emek Medical Center, Afula, Israel.

Background: Sinus node artery occlusion (SNO) is a rare complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We analyze both the short- and long-term consequences of SNO.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1379 consecutive PCI's involving RCA and Cx arteries performed in our heart institute from 2016 to 2019. Read More

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Three factors to characterize plastic potential transitions in the visual system.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 Apr 13;126:444-446. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Molecular Mind Lab, IMT School for Advanced Studies Lucca, Italy.

A comprehensive understanding of brain-environment interactions is elusive even at the sensory level as neural plasticity waxes and wanes across the lifespan. Temporary and permanent visual deprivations remain pivotal approaches for studying the degree of experience-dependent plasticity of sensory functions. Natural models and experimental manipulations of visual experiences have contributed to uncovering some of the guiding principles that characterize transitions of plastic potentials in the human visual system. Read More

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Pulmonary tuberculosis as a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):390

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease & National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Health, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: Prior pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can cause permanent changes in lung anatomy and is associated with lung function loss. However, it remains unclear whether pulmonary function impairment owing to TB is associated with airflow obstruction, the hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the association and quantify the magnitudes of association between pulmonary TB and COPD, and to evaluate the prevalence of COPD in patients with prior pulmonary TB. Read More

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Histone Deacetylases in the Inflamed Intestinal Epithelium-Promises of New Therapeutic Strategies.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 26;8:655956. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Gastroenterology, Infectious Diseases and Rheumatology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

The intestinal epithelium is a complex, dynamic barrier that separates luminal contents from the immune compartment while mediating nutrient absorption and controlled passage of antigens to convey oral tolerance. A compromised epithelial barrier often leads to inflammation because immune cells in the lamina propria come into direct contact with luminal antigens. Defects in epithelial cell function were also shown to be involved in the etiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. Read More

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Effects of intranasal guanosine administration on brain function in a rat model of ischemic stroke.

Purinergic Signal 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Graduate Program in Biological Science: Biochemistry, Department of Biochemistry, ICBS, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and only few affected patients are able to receive treatment, especially in developing countries. Detailed pathophysiology of brain ischemia has been extensively studied in order to discover new treatments with a broad therapeutic window and that are accessible to patients worldwide. The nucleoside guanosine (Guo) has been shown to have neuroprotective effects in animal models of brain diseases, including ischemic stroke. Read More

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Stroke and Immunotherapy: Potential Mechanisms and its implications as immune-therapeutics.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Gandak Hospital, Birgunj, Nepal.

Ischemia or brain injuries are mostly associated with emergency admissions and huge mortality rates. Stroke is a fatal cerebrovascular malady and second top root of disability and death in both developing and developed countries with a projected rise of 24.9% (from 2010) by 2030. Read More

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Occupational Noise Exposure and Diabetes Risk.

J Environ Public Health 2021 19;2021:1804616. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Université de Sousse, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia.

Introduction: Noise is one of the most common worldwide environmental pollutants, especially in occupational fields. As a stressor, it affects not only the ear but also the entire body. Its physiological and psychological impacts have been well established in many conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. Read More

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Microdont Developing Outside the Alveolar Process and Within Oral Diffuse and Plexiform Neurofibroma in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

Anticancer Res 2021 Apr;41(4):2083-2092

Private Practice in Orthodontics, Hamburg-Lokstedt, Germany.

Background/aim: Numerical aberrations of permanent dentition and dystopic tooth eruption are part of the phenotype of the tumor predisposition syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In these cases, surplus tooth germs usually develop in the alveolar processes of the jaw. This report attests to the dystopic development of a dysplastic supernumerary tooth in NF1 arising outside the jaw. Read More

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Visual Side Effects Linked to Sildenafil Consumption: An Update.

Biomedicines 2021 Mar 12;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Optics, Pharmacology and Anatomy, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain.

Phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors such as Viagra (sildenafil citrate) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) by inducing cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) elevation followed by vasodilation and increased blood flow. It also exerts minor inhibitory action against PDE6, which is present exclusively in rod and cone photoreceptors. The effects of sildenafil on the visual system have been investigated in a wide variety of clinical and preclinical studies due to the fact that a high dose of sildenafil may cause mild and transient visual symptoms in some patients. Read More

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Timing of Mouse Molar Formation Is Independent of Jaw Length Including Retromolar Space.

J Dev Biol 2021 Mar 12;9(1). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Anatomy, Physiology & Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5, Canada.

For humans and other mammals to eat effectively, teeth must develop properly inside the jaw. Deciphering craniodental integration is central to explaining the timely formation of permanent molars, including third molars which are often impacted in humans, and to clarifying how teeth and jaws fit, function and evolve together. A factor long-posited to influence molar onset time is the jaw space available for each molar organ to form within. Read More

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Generalizability of Deep Learning Models for Caries Detection in Near-Infrared Light Transillumination Images.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 1;10(5). Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Oral Diagnostics, Digital Health and Health Services Research, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 14197 Berlin, Germany.

Objectives: The present study aimed to train deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to detect caries lesions on Near-Infrared Light Transillumination (NILT) imagery obtained either in vitro or in vivo and to assess the models' generalizability.

Methods: In vitro, 226 extracted posterior permanent human teeth were mounted in a diagnostic model in a dummy head. Then, NILT images were generated (DIAGNOcam, KaVo, Biberach), and images were segmented tooth-wise. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Animals: Reservoirs for Reverse Zoonosis and Models for Study.

Viruses 2021 03 17;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease, Departments of Vector Biology and Tropical Disease Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK.

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought many questions over the origin of the virus, the threat it poses to animals both in the wild and captivity, and the risks of a permanent viral reservoir developing in animals. Animal experiments have shown that a variety of animals can become infected with the virus. While coronaviruses have been known to infect animals for decades, the true intermediate host of the virus has not been identified, with no cases of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animals. Read More

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Heart Disease, Now What? Improving Quality of Life through Education.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 17;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

SALBIS Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain.

Introduction: The management of chronic illness assumes a level of demand for permanent care and reaches a priority dimension in the health context. Given the importance of nursing care to post-acute coronary syndrome patients, the objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of an educational intervention program on quality of life in patients after acute coronary syndrome.

Method: Quasi-experimental study with two groups: an experimental group exposed to the educational intervention program and the control group without exposure to the educational intervention program. Read More

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Early environmental enrichment rescues memory impairments provoked by mild neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in adolescent mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Mar 31;407:113237. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience Lab (DCNL), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; Brain Institute (InsCer), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a consequence of a lack of oxygen and glucose support to the developing brain, which causes several neurodevelopmental impairments. Environmental enrichment (EE) is considered an option to recover the alterations observed in rodents exposed to HI. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early EE on memory, hippocampal volume and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bbnf) and glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1) gene expression of mice exposed to HI. Read More

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Design Strategies for Enhanced Conductivity in Metal-Organic Frameworks.

ACS Cent Sci 2021 Mar 11;7(3):445-453. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061-0131, United States.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of materials which exhibit permanent porosity, high surface area, and crystallinity. As a highly tunable middle ground between heterogeneous and homogeneous species, MOFs have the potential to suit a wide variety of applications, many of which require conductive materials. The continued development of conductive MOFs has provided an ever-growing library of materials with both intrinsic and guest-promoted conductivity, and factors which limit or enhance conductivity in MOFs have become more apparent. Read More

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Associations of Vascular Risk Factors, and Polymorphisms With Cognitive Function in Dementia-Free Chinese Older Adults: A Community-Based Study.

Front Psychiatry 2021 15;12:617773. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Center on Aging Psychology, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The associations of vascular risk factors (VRFs), apolipoprotein E (), and translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 () with cognitive function have been investigated mostly in western societies. In the present study, we sought to examine the associations of VRFs [i.e. Read More

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The Strategies and Challenges of CCR5 Gene Editing in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells for the Treatment of HIV.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre for Stem Cell Research (A unit of inStem, Bengaluru), Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

HIV infection continues to be a serious health issue with an alarming global spread, owing to the fact that attempts at developing an effective vaccine or a permanent cure remains futile. So far, the only available treatment for the clinical management of HIV is the combined Anti-Retroviral Therapy (cART), but the long-term cART is associated with metabolic changes, organ damages, and development and transmission of drug resistant HIV strains. Thus, there is a need for the development of one-time curative treatment for HIV infection. Read More

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Role of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2) in Neurodegenerative Dementias.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Damman, 31441, Saudi Arabia.

Neurodegeneration is a debilitating condition that causes nerve cell degeneration or death. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDD) such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Lewy body dementia (LBD) are posing a larger population burden of dementia worldwide. Neurodegenerative dementia is one of the main challenges in public health with the main characteristics being permanent loss of memory, impairment in cognition, and impaired daily functions. Read More

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Case of slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus with drastically reduced insulin secretory capacity after immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma.

Diabetol Int 2021 Apr 24;12(2):234-240. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Osaka Police Hospital, 10-31 Kitayama-cho Tennoujiku, Osaka, 543-0035 Japan.

We encountered a 55-year-old Japanese man with advanced renal cell carcinoma and slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPT1DM), whose insulin secretory capacity was drastically reduced for a brief period after only one cycle of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment. The patient had been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at the age of 53 years and was treated using oral hypoglycemic agents. However, 2 years later, he was diagnosed with SPT1DM and autoimmune thyroiditis, based on the presence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA) and thyroid autoantibodies, which was accompanied by advanced renal cell carcinoma. Read More

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Risk Factors of Persistent Hydrocephalus in Children with Brain Tumor: A Retrospective Analysis.

Pediatr Neurosurg 2021 Mar 30:1-8. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Pediatric Clinic, DAME, University of Udine, Udine, Italy.

Object: Hydrocephalus is one of the main complications of brain tumors in children, being present in about 50% of cases at the time of the tumor diagnosis and persisting up to 10-40% of cases after surgical resection. This is a single-institution retrospective study on the variables that may predict the need for treatment of persistent hydrocephalus in pediatric patients presenting with a brain tumor.

Methods: Retrospective case note review of 43 newly diagnosed brain tumors in children referred between April 2012 and January 2018 to our regional pediatric neuro-oncology service was carried out. Read More

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Do Women Require Less Permanent Pacemaker After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation? A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Apr 27;10(7):e019429. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery Heart and Vascular Centre Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC) Maastricht The Netherlands.

Background Limited clinical evidence and literature are available about the potential impact of sex on permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between sexes and atrioventricular conduction disturbances requiring PPI after TAVI. Methods and Results Data were obtained from 46 studies from PubMed reporting information about the impact of patient sex on PPI after TAVI. Read More

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Acoustically Enriched Environment during the Critical Period of Postnatal Development Positively Modulates Gap Detection and Frequency Discrimination Abilities in Adult Rats.

Neural Plast 2021 12;2021:6611922. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Auditory Neuroscience, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.

Throughout life, sensory systems adapt to the sensory environment to provide optimal responses to relevant tasks. In the case of a developing system, sensory inputs induce changes that are permanent and detectable up to adulthood. Previously, we have shown that rearing rat pups in a complex acoustic environment (spectrally and temporally modulated sound) from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P28 permanently improves the response characteristics of neurons in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex, influencing tonotopical arrangement, response thresholds and strength, and frequency selectivity, along with stochasticity and the reproducibility of neuronal spiking patterns. Read More

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A Prospective Study of Vitamin D Supplement in Thyroidectomy Patients Based on Relative Decline of Parathyroid Hormone.

Front Pharmacol 2021 8;12:626614. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery, Laboratory of thyroid and parathyroid disease, Frontiers Science Center for Disease-related Molecular Network, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

In postthyroidectomy patients, hypocalcemia is the most common complication to prolong hospital stay and decrease patients' satisfaction. Based on current evidence, it is recommended to supply vitamin D to patients with high risk of developing hypocalcemia. However, how to stratify the risk of patients remains challenging. Read More

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Empathy among medical students: A cross-sectional survey.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2020 Oct-Dec;32(Suppl 1)(4):S681-S685

Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Background: Empathy is regarded as one of the leading elements of good physician-patient relationships, having a strong association with improved patient outcomes. It is an aspect of personality, which is considered to be an essential component in the development of interpersonal understanding and in assisting proficiency in communication. Developing empathy among medical students who are going to become tomorrow's physicians is an important part of medical education. Read More

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Social categorization based on permanent versus transient visual traits in neurotypical children and children with autism spectrum disorder.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 22;11(1):6549. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience and Psychology, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, 2 Magyar Tudósok krt, Budapest, Hungary.

The present study was designed to test the relative weight of different types of category markers in children's representations of social and biological kinds. We reasoned that in order to efficiently navigate through the mesh network of overlapping social categories, the representational system dedicated to processing information about social groups should be prepared to flexibly switch between potential ways of categorizing fellow humans. Thus, we hypothesized that children would assign more relevance to transient but symbolic features, such as shirt colour, when categorizing humans than other animal species. Read More

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How Effectively Safety Incentives Work? A Randomized Experimental Investigation.

Saf Health Work 2021 Mar 18;12(1):20-27. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

College of Business Administration, Imam Abdul Rehman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Background: Incentive and penalty (I/P) programs are commonly used to increase employees' safety outcomes, but its influence on employees' safety outcomes is under-investigated. Moreover, under developed economies lack safety culture and there is dearth of literature focusing on empirical studies over there [1]. Based on these gaps, this study attempts to see the impact of I/P programs on safety outcomes in a developing country. Read More

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[Dental Health of Children and Adolescents in the Rhine-Erft District attending Secondary General and Special Needs Schools: A 5-year comparison].

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Abteilung für Behindertenorientierte Zahnmedizin, Department ZMK-Heilkunde, Fakultät für Gesundheit, Universität Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Deutschland.

Background: Nationally there is a lack of data on the prevalence and experience of caries among 10- to 14-year-old schoolchildren with increased caries risk, and in the second period of mixed dentition/early period of permanent dentition.

Aim: To compare caries prevalence and experience and prevalence of fissure sealant (FV) among schoolchildren with disability attending special needs schools (FS) with children with lower level of educational attainment attending secondary general schools (HS).

Methods: Dental health of schoolchildren aged 10 to 14 years attending FS or HS was determined according to WHO standards in two study periods (UP1=school year 2010/2011; UP2=school year 2015/2016). Read More

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Assessment of Extrapyramidal Symptoms Associated with Psychotropics Pharmacological Treatments, and Associated Risk Factors.

Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health 2021 16;17:1-7. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.

Background: Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS) are unwanted symptoms commonly originating from the use of certain medications. The symptoms can range from minimal discomfort to permanent involuntary muscular movements. The aims of the study were to examine the incidence of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms (di-EPS), associated risk factors, and clinical characteristics. Read More

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February 2021