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A generalized framework for analytic regularization of uniform cubic b-spline displacement fields.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Dept of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, 100 Blossom Street, Cox Building, 302, Boston, Massachusetts, 02114, UNITED STATES.

Image registration is an inherently ill-posed problem that lacks the constraints needed for a unique mapping between voxels of the two images being registered. As such, one must regularize the registration to achieve physically meaningful transforms. The regularization penalty is usually a function of derivatives of the displacement-vector field, and can be calculated either analytically or numerically. Read More

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Effect of sample thinning on strains and lattice rotations measured from Transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the SEM.

Ultramicroscopy 2021 Apr 9;225:113267. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, United Kingdom.

Cross correlation based high angular resolution EBSD (or HR-EBSD) has been developed for measurement of elastic strains, lattice rotations (and estimating GND density). Recent advances in Transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), especially the on-axis geometry allows the possibility of acquiring patterns at higher spatial resolution. However, some controversy remains as to whether stresses/strains measured after the sample thinning process are still representative of the bulk sample. Read More

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A procedure for method development and protein binding ratio as the indicator of sensitivity with anticancer agents on MALDI mass spectrometry imaging.

Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2021 Jan 30;38:100385. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Division of Molecular Pharmacology, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan; Department of Medical Oncology and Translational Research, Graduate School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan. Electronic address:

The concentration and distribution of a drug and its metabolites in tissues are key factors for elucidating both drug efficacy and toxicity in drug development. In this study we developed a pharamaco-imaging procedure for 12 agents and investigated the relationship between the properties of target compounds and the sensitivities of detection in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometer imaging (MALDI-MSI). We prepared mock samples with mouse liver homogenates diluted with gelatin solution, limit of detection concentrations of each compound was confirmed. Read More

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January 2021

Drivers of successful implementation of integrated care for multi-morbidity: Mechanisms identified in 17 case studies from 8 European countries.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Feb 3;277:113728. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

This paper provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying implementation strategies for integrated care. As part of the SELFIE project, 17 integrated care programmes addressing multi-morbidity from eight European countries were selected and studied. Data was extracted from 'thick descriptions' of the 17 programmes and analysed both inductively and deductively using implementation theory. Read More

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February 2021

Adverse childhood experiences in New Zealand and subsequent victimization in adulthood: Findings from a population-based study.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 17;117:105067. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Māori Studies and School of Pacific Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are widespread and are associated with adverse outcomes in later life, yet few studies have explored their prevalence and consequences in New Zealand.

Objectives: To provide prevalence estimates of ACEs in New Zealand using a large sample of adults, and to explore the associations between ACEs and experience of violence by intimate partners and non-partners in adulthood.

Participants And Setting: 2,887 participants (1464 female, 1423 male) from the 2019 New Zealand Family Violence Survey, a population based study conducted in New Zealand between March 2017-March 2019. Read More

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Residue analytical method for the determination of trifluoroacetic acid and difluoroacetic acid in plant matrices by capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS).

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 22;1646:462096. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Sciex, Darmstadt, Germany; Horváth Csaba Memorial Laboratory, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. Electronic address:

In the past years, the technology for trace residue analysis of plant protection compounds in plant and animal matrices, soil, and water has gradually changed to meet changing regulatory demands. Generally, from the '70s to the '90s of the last century, the active compounds and only a few major metabolites had to be determined in a typical "residue definition". Step by step and within the framework of product safety assessments of the enforcement of residues in dietary matrices and in the environment, further metabolites have come into the authorities focus. Read More

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A "Co-CREATES" framework to foster a positive learning environment for nursing students' professional development in Rwanda.

Nurse Educ Pract 2021 Apr 7;53:103053. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Western University, Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Western University, London, ON N6A 5B9, Canada. Electronic address:

Aim: The future of the nursing profession in Rwanda in large part depends on the students who join the workforce and the education they have received. Preparing students with the necessary knowledge, values and judgement requires practice settings to be learner-centered. This study aimed at exploring strategies that might improve the current practice-based learning environment. Read More

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Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score Calculation Using the Deep Learning-Based Brain Hemisphere Comparison Algorithm.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Apr 17;30(7):105791. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Neurology, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, Chikami 5-3-1, Minami-ku, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Objectives: The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score (ASPECTS) is a promising tool for the evaluation of stroke expansion to determine suitability for reperfusion therapy. The aim of this study was to validate deep learning-based ASPECTS calculation software that utilizes a three-dimensional fully convolutional network-based brain hemisphere comparison algorithm (3D-BHCA).

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively collected head non-contrast computed tomography (CT) data from 71 patients with acute ischemic stroke and 80 non-stroke patients. Read More

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Highly interconnected inverse opal extracellular matrix scaffolds enhance stem cell therapy in limb ischemia.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials (Ministry of Education), State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China. Electronic address:

The therapeutic effectiveness of cell transplantation in treatment of diseases and injuries is often limited by low cell retention, survivability, and engraftment. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived scaffolds are capable of controlling cell responses, thereby offering potential solutions to current challenges associated with cell therapy. However, it remains a technical challenge to produce ECM scaffolds with highly interconnected porous structure specifically required for cell transplantation. Read More

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Adverse associations of sedentary behavior with cancer incidence and all-cause mortality: A prospective cohort study: Sedentary behavior, cancer and mortality.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100037, China; Department of Epidemiology, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China; School of Medicine, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inconsistent results have been reported in developed countries for relationships between sedentary behavior and cancer incidence and mortality, but evidence from the Chinese population is scarce. This study aimed to investigate such relationships in large Chinese population-based prospective cohorts and to explore the joint effect and interaction of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on these relationships.

Methods: We included 95,319 Chinese adults without cancer from 3 large cohorts and assessed their sedentary behavior and physical activity with a unified questionnaire. Read More

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Eradication of large established tumors by drug-loaded bacterial particles via a neutrophil-mediated mechanism.

J Control Release 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University and Collaborative Innovation Center, Chengdu 610041, China; Experimental and Research Animal Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

The treatment of large established tumors remains a significant challenge and is generally hampered by poor drug penetration and intrinsic drug resistance of tumor cells in the central tumor region. In the present study, we developed bacterial particles (BactPs) to deliver chemotherapeutics into the tumor mass by hijacking neutrophils as natural cell-based carriers. BactPs loaded with doxorubicin, 5-fluorosuracil, or paclitaxel induced significantly greater tumor regression than unconjugated drugs. Read More

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Germline and somatic mutation profile in Cancer patients revealed by a medium-sized pan-Cancer panel.

Genomics 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

First Dimension Biosciences (Suzhou) Co., Ltd., Building B8, Floor 5, BioBay, 218 Xinghu Street, Industrial Park District, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215126, China. Electronic address:

Gene mutation detection and the resulted precision-medicine therapy is transforming clinical practice. Here, we report the use of a custom-developed, medium-sized, pan-cancer probe panel for the detection of somatic and germline mutations. We used a hybridization capture-based NGS assay for targeted deep sequencing of all exons and selected introns of 181 key cancer driver genes, covering both inherited risks and somatic mutations. Read More

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Development and characterization of chitosan and acrylic acid-based novel biodegradable polymeric films for soil conditioning.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China. Electronic address:

In this study, biodegradable polymeric films (BPFs) based on chitosan and acrylic acid cross-linked with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES) were developed for water retention and soil-conditioning applications in areas sufferings from water scarcity. A series of BPFs were prepared by varying the amount of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) (0.67% to 2. Read More

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Multifaceted strategies for the control of COVID-19 outbreaks in long-term care facilities in Ontario, Canada.

Prev Med 2021 Apr 17:106564. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Agent-Based Modelling Laboratory, York University, Toronto, Ontario M3J 1P3, Canada. Electronic address:

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused severe outbreaks in Canadian long-term care facilities (LTCFs). In Canada, over 80% of COVID-19 deaths during the first pandemic wave occurred in LTCFs. We sought to evaluate the effect of mitigation measures in LTCFs including frequent testing of staff, and vaccination of staff and residents. Read More

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Natural immunoglobulin M-based delivery of a complement alternative pathway inhibitor in mouse models of retinal degeneration.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Apr 17:108583. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Departments of Ophthalmology, USA; Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Division of Research, Charleston, SC, USA; Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Age-related macular degeneration is a slowly progressing disease. Studies have tied disease risk to an overactive complement system. We have previously demonstrated that pathology in two mouse models, the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) model and the smoke-induced ocular pathology (SIOP) model, can be reduced by specifically inhibiting the alternative complement pathway (AP). Read More

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Evaluating the impact of physiological properties of the gastrointestinal tract on drug in vivo performance using Physiologically Based Biopharmaceutics Modeling and virtual clinical trials.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Lek Pharmaceuticals d.d., a Sandoz Company, Verovškova ulica 57, 1526 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

The physiological properties of the gastrointestinal tract, such as pH, fluid volume, bile salt concentration, and gastrointestinal transit time, are highly variable in vivo. These properties can affect the dissolution and absorption of a drug, depending on its properties and formulation. The effect of gastrointestinal physiology on the bioperformance of a drug was studiedin silico for a delayed-release pantoprazole tablet and an immediate-release dolutegravir tablet. Read More

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Tailoring Disorder and Quality of Photonic Glass Templates for Structural Coloration by Particle Charge Interactions.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Advanced Ceramics, Hamburg University of Technology, Denickestraße 15, 21073 Hamburg, Germany.

To obtain high-quality homogeneous photonic glass-based structural color films over large areas, it is essential to precisely control the degree of disorder of the spherical particles used and reduce the crack density within the films as much as possible. To tailor the disorder and quality of photonic glasses, a heteroaggregation-based process was developed by employing two oppositely charged equal-sized polystyrene (PS) particle types. The influence of the particle size ratio on the extent of heteroaggregation in the suspension mixes is investigated and correlated with both the morphology and the resultant optical properties of the films. Read More

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Kirkwood-Buff-Derived Force Field for Peptides and Proteins: Applications of KBFF20.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, 213 CBC Building, 1212 Mid-Campus Drive North, Manhattan, Kansas 66506, United States.

Here, we perform structural, thermodynamic, and kinetics tests of the Kirkwood-Buff-derived force field, KBFF20, for peptides and proteins developed in the previous article. The physical/structural tests measure the ability of KBFF20 to capture the experimental -couplings for small peptides, to keep globular monomeric and oligomeric proteins folded, and to produce the experimentally relevant expanded conformational ensembles of intrinsically disordered proteins. The thermodynamic-based tests probe KBFF20's ability to quantify the preferential interactions of sodium chloride around native β-lactoglobulin and urea around native lysozyme, to reproduce the melting curves for small helix- and sheet-based peptides, and to fold the small proteins Trp-cage and Villin. Read More

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Copper(II) Pyridyl Amino-Phenolates: Hypoxia-Selective, Nucleus Targeting Cytotoxins, and Magnetic Resonance Probes.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

The University of Texas at Austin, Chemistry, UNITED STATES.

Targeting of low-oxygen (hypoxic) environments found in many tumors using redox-active metal complexes is a strategy that can enhance efficacy and reduce side effects of chemotherapies. We have developed a series of Cu(II) complexes with tridentate pyridine aminophenolate-based ligands for preferential activation in the reduction window provided by hypoxic tissues. Furthermore, ligand functionalization with a CF3 pendant group provides a 19F spectroscopic handle for magnetic resonance studies of redox processes at the metal centre and behaviour in cellular environments. Read More

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Compression stockings for preventing deep vein thrombosis in airline passengers.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 20;4:CD004002. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

UK Cochrane Centre, Oxford, UK.

Background: Air travel might increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It has been suggested that wearing compression stockings might reduce this risk. This is an update of the review first published in 2006. Read More

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Thyroid immune-related adverse events following immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Thyroid dysfunction occurs commonly following immune checkpoint inhibition. The etiology of thyroid immune-related adverse events (irAEs) remains unclear and clinical presentation can be variable. This study sought to define thyroid irAEs following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment and describe their clinical and biochemical associations. Read More

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Development of an integrated, holistic care package for people with lymphoedema for use at the level of the Primary Health Care Unit in Ethiopia.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 20;15(4):e0009332. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Brighton and Sussex Centre for Global Health Research, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

Background: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of several communicable and non-communicable diseases prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas. The co-endemicity of these diseases, the similarity of their clinical signs, and the need to maximize limited financial and human resources suggest the importance of adoptingan integratedapproach to their prevention and treatment.

Aims: This study describes the development of a comprehensive package of physical, mental health and psychosocial care for people with lower-limb lymphoedema caused bypodoconiosis, lymphatic filariasis (LF)or leprosy as part of the EnDPoINT program in Ethiopia. Read More

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Characterization and Comparison of Public, Medical Professionals and Technical Communities Utilization of Facebook Groups to Facilitate Idea Sharing and Crowdsourcing During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 733 N Broadway, Baltimore, US.

Background: Strict social distancing measures resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic have led people to rely more heavily on social media, such as Facebook Groups, as a means of communication and information sharing. Multiple Facebook Groups have been developed by medical professionals, lay people, and engineering or technical groups to discuss current issues and possible solutions to the medical crisis.

Objective: To characterize Facebook groups created by laypersons, medical professionals, and technical professionals, with specific focus on information dissemination and requests for crowdsourcing. Read More

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Robust Estimation of Upscaling Factor on Double JPEG Compressed Images.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

As one of the most important topics in image forensics, resampling detection has developed rapidly in recent years. However, the robustness to JPEG compression is still challenging for most classical spectrum-based methods, since JPEG compression severely degrades the image contents and introduces block artifacts in the boundary of the compression grid. In this article, we propose a method to estimate the upscaling factors on double JPEG compressed images in the presence of image upscaling between the two compressions. Read More

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Distributed Bipartite Adaptive Event-Triggered Fault-Tolerant Consensus Tracking for Linear Multiagent Systems Under Actuator Faults.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

This article considers the distributed bipartite adaptive event-triggered fault-tolerant consensus tracking issue for linear multiagent systems in the presence of actuator faults based on the output feedback control protocol. Both time-varying additive and multiplicative actuator faults are taken into account in the meantime. And the upper/lower bounds of actuator faults are not required to be known. Read More

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Graph-Based Bayesian Optimization for Large-Scale Objective-Based Experimental Design.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Design is an inseparable part of most scientific and engineering tasks, including real and simulation-based experimental design processes and parameter/hyperparameter tuning/optimization. Several model-based experimental design techniques have been developed for design in domains with partial available knowledge about the underlying process. This article focuses on a powerful class of model-based experimental design called the mean objective cost of uncertainty (MOCU). Read More

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Learning Methodologies to Generate Kernel-learning-based Image Downscaler for Arbitrary Scaling Factors.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 Apr 20;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Displays and content have various resolutions and aspect ratios, requiring an image downscaler to adaptively reduce the image resolution. However, research on downscaling has garnered less attention than upscaling, including super-resolution. In practical display systems, simple interpolation, such as a bicubic filter that cannot preserve image details well, is still widely used for image downscaling rather than frame optimization-based or learning-based methods because of following reasons: frame optimization-based methods can effectively preserve image details after downscaling but are difficult to implement due to hardware costs. Read More

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Integrating theory-based and data-driven methods to case conceptualization: A functional analysis approach with ecological momentary assessment.

Psychother Res 2021 Apr 20:1-13. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Pain and Psychotherapy Research Lab, Universität Koblenz-Landau, Landau in der Pfalz, Germany.

Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and network analysis are promising empirical developments for psychotherapy research and practice, but they lack a therapeutic rationale that could guide case conceptualization and treatment planning. We developed an assessment strategy that aims to assess functional analysis with EMA. The assessment strategy was applied to a series of three N-of-1 assessments in a proof-of-concept study. Read More

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Design and Retrospective Application of a Spine Trauma DVT Prophylaxis Protocol on Level 1 Trauma Center Patient Database.

Global Spine J 2021 Apr 20:2192568220979139. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

22683Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Study Design: Systematic literature review.

Objectives: The impact of thromboembolic disease on the morbidity and mortality of patients with acute spinal cord injury is well documented, with rates as high as 67%-100% among untreated patients. The efficacy of mechanical prophylaxis as a stand-alone measure has been questioned, so we sought to determine a safe perioperative window for chemical anticoagulation use after spine surgery. Read More

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Dried Blood Spot Screening System for Spinal Muscular Atrophy with Allele-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction and Melting Peak Analysis.

Genet Test Mol Biomarkers 2021 Apr;25(4):293-301

Department of Community Medicine and Social Healthcare Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a lower motor neuron disease with autosomal recessive inheritance caused by homozygous deletions. Although SMA has been considered as incurable, newly developed drugs improve life prognoses and motor functions of patients. To maximize the efficacy of the drugs, SMA patients should be treated before symptoms become apparent. Read More

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