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Solvent Choice Influences Final Toxicity Results in Thamnocephalus platyurus Bioassay when Exposed to Microcystin -LR.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Civil, Environmental & Geodetic Engineering, The Ohio State University, 470 Hitchcock Hall, 2070 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210.

Cyanobacterial blooms present a threat to many waterbodies around the world used for drinking water and recreational purposes. Toxicology tests, such as the Thamnotoxkit-F which uses the cladoceran T. platyurus, have been employed to assess the health hazards that these blooms may pose to the public. Read More

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Radiolabeling Optimization and Preclinical Evaluation of the New PSMA Imaging Agent [F]AlF-P16-093.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Five Eleven Pharma Inc., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States.

Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligands have played an increasing role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. [Ga]Ga-P16-093 is a PSMA-targeting agent for positron emission tomography imaging, currently under a Phase 2 clinical trial. In the present study, P16-093 was labeled with F via [F]AlF complex formation, and the biological properties of [F]AlF-P16-093 were evaluated. Read More

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Model-based reconstruction algorithm in the detection of acute trauma-related lesions in brain CT examinations.

Neuroradiol J 2021 Apr 19:19714009211008751. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

School of Medicine, University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.

Background And Purpose: To evaluate the added value of a model-based reconstruction algorithm in the assessment of acute traumatic brain lesions in emergency non-enhanced computed tomography, in comparison with a standard hybrid iterative reconstruction approach.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively evaluated a total of 350 patients who underwent a 256-row non-enhanced computed tomography scan at the emergency department for brain trauma. Images were reconstructed both with hybrid and model-based iterative algorithm. Read More

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Mortality in acute pancreatitis with persistent organ failure is determined by the number, type, and sequence of organ systems affected.

United European Gastroenterol J 2021 Mar;9(2):139-149

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Persistent organ failure (POF) is the strongest determinant of mortality in acute pancreatitis (AP). There is a paucity of data regarding the impact of different POF attributes on mortality and the role of different characteristics of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the risk of developing POF.

Objective: We aimed to assess the association of POF dynamic features with mortality and SIRS characteristics with POF. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of corpus callosotomy and ketogenic diet in children with Lennox Gastaut syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, 160012, India.

Background: Both corpus callosotomy (CC) and the ketogenic diet (KD) are commonly used in patients with Lennox Gastaut syndrome (LGS), as a significant proportion of these patients develop pharmacoresistant epilepsy. But no systematic review has yet compared the efficacy and safety of these two measures.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search on various databases to collating all available literature until 30th November 2020 with a primary objective to compare the efficacy of KD and CC in terms of the proportion of patients with complete seizure freedom, at least 75% and 50% reduction in seizure frequency at various time points after the institution of these modalities. Read More

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Polymer-Protein Hybrid Network Involving Mucin: A Mineralized Biomimetic Template for Bone Tissue Engineering.

Macromol Biosci 2021 Apr 19:e2000381. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Life Sciences, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, 751023, India.

Biomimetic matrices offer a great advantage to understand several biological processes including regeneration. The study involves the development of a hybrid biomimetic scaffold and the uniqueness lies in the use of mucin, as a constituent protein. Through this study, the role of the protein in bone regeneration is deciphered through its development as a 3D model. Read More

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Unraveling the Guest-induced Switchability in the Metal-organic Framework DUT-13(Zn).

Chemistry 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Technische Universität Dresden: Technische Universitat Dresden, Inorganic Chemistry, GERMANY.

The switching mechanism of the flexible framework Zn 4 O(benztb) 1.5 (benztb - N,N,N',N'-benzidine tetrabenzoate), also known as DUT-13, was studied by advanced powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and gas physisorption techniques. In situ synchrotron PXRD experiments upon physisorption of nitrogen (77 K) and n-butane (273 K) shed light on the hitherto unnoticed guest-induced breathing in the mesoporous MOF. Read More

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High-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of citrate in serum and plasma in the clinical laboratory.

Pract Lab Med 2021 May 18;25:e00213. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings (Labcorp), Morrisville, NC, USA.

Objectives: Despite reports highlighting citrate association with different diseases, serum citrate is scarcely used for diagnosis. Existing methods to quantify citrate are limited by their complexity and practicality of implementation. A simple and rapid NMR-based method to measure circulating citrate is described here, and its analytical performance evaluated. Read More

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New Bioactive Sesquiterpeniods From the Plant Endophytic Fungus .

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:641504. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Three new secondary metabolites pestalothenins A-C (-), including two new humulane-derived sesquiterpeniods ( and ) and one new caryophyllene-derived sesquiterpeniod (), together with five known compounds (-) were isolated from the crude extract of the plant endophytic fungus (N635). Their structures were elucidated by the extensive analyses of HRESIMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of - were determined by comparison of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Read More

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Small Conductance Ca-Activated K (SK) Channel mRNA Expression in Human Atrial and Ventricular Tissue: Comparison Between Donor, Atrial Fibrillation and Heart Failure Tissue.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:650964. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute for Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine, University Heart Center Freiburg-Bad Krozingen, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.

In search of more efficacious and safe pharmacological treatments for atrial fibrillation (AF), atria-selective antiarrhythmic agents have been promoted that target ion channels principally expressed in the atria. This concept allows one to engage antiarrhythmic effects in atria, but spares the ventricles from potentially proarrhythmic side effects. It has been suggested that cardiac small conductance Ca-activated K (SK) channels may represent an atria-selective target in mammals including humans. Read More

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RNA-seq reveals plant virus composition and diversity in alfalfa, thrips, and aphids in Beijing, China.

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Viruses are widespread in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), representing a key limitation to the production of this important forage plant. Understanding the diversity of plant viruses in alfalfa and their potential vectors will play an important role in management to minimize the emergence, transmission, and impact of viruses. Read More

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Comparison of different fixation techniques for periprosthetic fractures: a biomechanical study of a new implant.

Int Orthop 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

Introduction: The ideal treatment method for periprosthetic fractures is controversial due to the risks of current methods. Single-cortex screw fixation in prosthesis may lead to implant failure. Therefore, we aimed to develop an implant that lowers the risk for complications. Read More

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Correlations of Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the initial staging of prostate cancer patients.

Hell J Nucl Med 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Nuclear medicine, Prof Dr Cemil Taşcıoğlu City Hospital, Şişli, İstanbul, 34000, Turkey.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the different risk groups of prostate cancer (PCa) regarding the presence of metastasis and the gallium-68 prostate specific membrane antigen (Ga-PSMA) uptake patterns in the prostate gland.

Materials And Methods: One hundred thirty nine patients with newly diagnosed, untreated PCa who underwent Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging for staging between July 2017 and March 2019 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were determined by manually placing the region of interest to the primary tumor in the prostate gland. Read More

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Nuclear localisation of West Nile virus NS5 protein modulates host gene expression.

Virology 2021 Apr 9;559:131-144. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

The involvement of the nucleus during flavivirus infection has been observed in only a small number of cases and can be limited to primarily two viral proteins; the structural protein C and the RNA polymerase NS5. Previously we observed that by blocking nuclear transport, WNV strain Kunjin (WNV) replication is severely affected and through mutation of the identified NLS in WNV NS5 protein. In this study, we interrogated the potential nuclear functions of WNV NS5 has on the host transcriptome, by means of RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Read More

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An orthodontic acrylic resin containing seaweed Ulva lactuca as a photoactive phytocompound in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: Assessment of anti-biofilm activities and mechanical properties.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Apr 15:102295. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Fellowship in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Uncontrolled accumulation of microbial plaque and formation of biofilm on the surface orthodontic acrylic removable appliances increases the risk of enamel decalcification and periodontal diseases. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate antimicrobial activities, anti-virulence potencies, and mechanical properties of orthodontic acrylic resin containing different concentrations of Ulva lactuca (a green marine macroalga) following photo-activation against streptococcus mutans.

Materials And Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of U. Read More

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A Method to Pre-Screen Rat Mammary Gland Whole-Mounts Prior To RNAscope.

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA.

RNAscope is a quantitative in situ gene expression measurement technique that preserves the spatial aspect of intact tissue; thus, allowing for comparison of specific cell populations and morphologies. Reliable and accurate measurement of gene expression in tissue is dependent on preserving RNA integrity and the quantitative nature of RNAscope. The purpose of this study was to determine if the quantitative nature of RNAscope was retained following processing and carmine staining of mammary gland whole-mounts, which are commonly used to identify lesions, such as hyperplasia and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Read More

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Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes from liquid to solid state: Performance and environ-economic comparison.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 30;332:125080. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Farmland Soil Pollution Prevention and Remediation, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100093, China; Organic Recycling Institute (Suzhou) of China Agricultural University, Wuzhong District, 215128 Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Performance and environ-economic impacts were compared for anaerobic digestion (AD) of dairy manure and cucumber residues from liquid to solid state. Environ-economic evaluation of the overall AD process at different total solids (TS) was performed with the estimated treatment capacity of 9600 tons/year and service life of 20 years. Results showed that TS increase from 6% to 22% enhanced both cumulative and volumetric methane (CH) production. Read More

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The Asthma Toolkit Bootcamp to Improve Rural Primary Care for Pediatric Asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Breathing Institute, Section of Pediatric Pulmonary & Sleep Medicine, Children's Hospital Colorado, National Jewish Health, University of Colorado School of Medicine.

Background: Children with asthma living in rural areas receive most of their care from primary care providers (PCPs) who have variable knowledge of evidence-based guideline management.

Objective: To test the capacity of The Asthma Toolkit Bootcamp (ATB) program to improve PCP guidelines adherence and reduce healthcare utilization in rural children with asthma.

Methods: The ATB program provided intensive training in NHLBI guidelines-based asthma care, evaluated within a RE-AIM implementation science framework. Read More

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Inferring Metal Binding Sites in Flexible Regions of Proteins.

Proteins 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Computational and Data Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Metal ions are central to the molecular function of many proteins. Thus their knowledge in experimentally determined structure is important; however, such structures often lose bound metal ions during sample preparation. Identification of these metal-binding site(s) becomes difficult when the receptor is novel and/or their conformations differ in the bound/unbound states. Read More

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Parsimony versus predictive and functional performance of three stomatal optimization principles in a big-leaf framework.

New Phytol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

Stomatal optimization models can improve estimates of water and carbon fluxes with relatively low complexity, yet there is no consensus on which formulations are most appropriate for ecosystem-scale applications. We implemented three existing analytical equations for stomatal conductance, based on different water penalty functions, in a big-leaf comparison framework, and determined which optimization principles were most consistent with flux tower observations from different biomes. We used information theory to dissect controls of soil water supply and atmospheric demand on evapotranspiration in wet to dry conditions and to quantify missing or inadequate information in model variants. Read More

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Ecotoxicity testing of airborne particulate matter-comparison of sample preparation techniques for the Vibrio fischeri assay.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

ELGOSCAR-2000 Environmental Technology and Water Management Ltd., Balatonfuzfo, 8184, Hungary.

The bioassay based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri has been the most widely used test for the assessment of airborne particulate matter ecotoxicity. Most studies available use an extract of the solid sample, either made with water or organic solvents. As an alternative, a whole-aerosol test is also available where test bacteria are in actual contact with contaminated particles. Read More

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Direct comparison of the tau PET tracers [F]flortaucipir and [F]MK-6240 in human subjects.

J Nucl Med 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

University of Pittsburgh, United States.

Tau PET tracers exhibit varying levels of specific signal and distinct off-target binding patterns that are more diverse than amyloid PET tracers. This study compares two frequently used tau PET tracers, [F]flortaucipir (FTP) and [F]MK-6240, in the same subjects. [F]flortaucipir and [F]MK-6240 scans were collected within two months in 15 elderly subjects varying in terms of clinical diagnosis and cognition. Read More

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Co-spray dried hydrophobic drug formulations with crystalline lactose for inhalation aerosol delivery.

Int J Pharm 2021 Apr 13:120608. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Advanced Drug Delivery Group, School of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Spray drying is a rapid method for converting a liquid feed into dried particles for inhalation aerosols. Lactose is a major inhalation excipient used in spray-dried (SD) formulations. However, SD powders produced from solutions are usually amorphous hence unstable to moisture. Read More

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A comparison of the release of phosphorus by a phytase enzyme in pigs fed diets deficient or adequate in phosphorus content.

J Anim Sci 2021 Apr;99(4)

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1178.

Previous research indicated that phytase may release less phosphorus (P) from phytate when it is evaluated using diets with P levels above requirement as compared with diets below requirement. The objectives of this experiment were to further test the hypothesis that the P release values determined for phytase are higher when pigs are fed diets that are deficient (DE) in P compared with when they are fed diets that are adequate (AD) in P, and that phytase will increase the digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), nitrogen (N), and calcium (Ca) independent of dietary P status. Twenty-four barrows (body weight: 23. Read More

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Salience of spatiochromatic patterns.

J Vis 2021 Apr;21(4)

School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

We investigated the dependence of perceived contrast on cone-opponent stimulus content and its spatial distribution. Participants matched a comparison patch to a light gray standard of fixed contrast. The first experiment determined the point of iso-salience for gratings, Gabors and Gaussians along cardinal directions in cone-opponent color space for two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) and adjustment tasks. Read More

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Medialization of the Hip's Center with Periacetabular Osteotomy: Validation of Assessment with Plain Radiographs.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 May;479(5):1040-1049

L. M. Fowler, J. J. Nepple, C. Devries, J. C. Clohisy, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Background: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) increases acetabular coverage of the femoral head and medializes the hip's center, restoring normal joint biomechanics. Past studies have reported data regarding the degree of medialization achieved by PAO, but measurement of medialization has never been validated through a comparison of imaging modalities or measurement techniques. The ilioischial line appears to be altered by PAO and may be better visualized at the level of the inferior one-third of the femoral head, thus, an alternative method of measuring medialization that begins at the inferior one-third of the femoral head may be beneficial. Read More

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Comparison of the anticancer effect of microalgal oils and microalgal oil-loaded electrosprayed nanoparticles against PC-3, SHSY-5Y and AGS cell lines.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2021 Dec;49(1):381-389

Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Yıldız Technical University, Esenler-Istanbul, Turkey.

Many of the bioactive substances used in pharmaceutical industry are easily affected by temperature, light and oxygen, and are easily degraded during storage and processing, and exhibit poor adsorption properties during digestion, which limits their direct use. Microalgae are rich in oils which have antimicrobial properties and antioxidants that attract attention in both food and pharmaceutical sectors in recent years. Studies to encapsulate bioactive compound-rich microalgae oils with nanotechnological approaches to improve the physical and chemical stability are relatively new, and it is promising to apply these approaches for pharmaceutical purposes. Read More

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December 2021

Central sensitization and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndromes, and inflammatory bowel disease.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Apr 16:e14156. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Central sensitization has been suggested as an explanation of the wide range of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms commonly seen in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this study, the presence and level of central sensitization, and its association to gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms were explored in IBS in comparison with control groups.

Methods: We investigated patients with IBS (n = 215), chronic pain disorders (n = 36), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n = 40) and volunteers without chronic diseases (n = 112). Read More

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Isotope tracing reveals glycolysis and oxidative metabolism in childhood tumors of multiple histologies.

Med (N Y) 2021 Apr 23;2(4):395-410. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.

Background: Survival among children with high-risk solid tumors remains poor. Reprogrammed metabolism promotes tumor growth and may contain therapeutic liabilities. Tumor metabolism has been assessed in adults using intra-operative C-glucose infusions. Read More

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Evaluation of Wet Mount and Concentration Techniques of Stool Examination for Intestinal Parasites Identification at Debre Markos Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 9;14:1357-1362. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Health Science College, Debre Markos University, Debre Markos, Ethiopia.

Background: Intestinal parasitic infection has serious medical and public health impacts in developing countries. Intestinal parasites were under reported via direct wet mount method due to its poor sensitivity. So, the selection of a more sensitive and reliable diagnostic method is essential. Read More

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