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Investigation of the baseline tetanus antibody level and its persistence in a military unit.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Northern Theater Command, No. 6 Longshan Road, Huanggu District Shenyang, Liaoning 110034, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine tetanus antibody levels in army recruits and evaluate the persistence of immunity following tetanus booster immunization in adults.

Methods: A total of 680 recruits were selected for observation of their tetanus antibody levels. From 2005 to 2015, 691 peacekeepers with tetanus vaccination were included in the questionnaire-based and serological survey based on cluster stratification. Read More

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HSV-1 UL34 mutants that affect membrane budding regulation and nuclear lamina disruption.

J Virol 2021 Jun 16:JVI0087321. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.

Nuclear envelope budding in herpesvirus nuclear egress may be negatively regulated, since the pUL31/pUL34 nuclear egress complex heterodimer can induce membrane budding without capsids when expressed ectopically or on artificial membranes in vitro, but not in the infected cell. We have previously described a pUL34 mutant that contained alanine substitutions at R158 and R161, and that showed impaired growth, impaired pUL31/pUL34 interaction, and unregulated budding. Here we determine the phenotypic contributions of the individual substitutions to these phenotypes. Read More

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Structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein recognition of human cell junction protein PALS1.

Nat Commun 2021 06 8;12(1):3433. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, USA.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has created global health and economic emergencies. SARS-CoV-2 viruses promote their own spread and virulence by hijacking human proteins, which occurs through viral protein recognition of human targets. To understand the structural basis for SARS-CoV-2 viral-host protein recognition, here we use cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to determine a complex structure of the human cell junction protein PALS1 and SARS-CoV-2 viral envelope (E) protein. Read More

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Photobiomodulation as an Adjunctive Treatment to Physiotherapy for Reduction of Anterior Knee Pain in Combat Soldiers: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized, Pragmatic, Sham-Controlled Trial.

Lasers Surg Med 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, 9103102, Israel.

Background And Objectives: Anterior knee pain (AKP) is the most common knee pathology in athletes and occurs in 15% of army recruits of elite units during basic training. Of these, 50% are symptomatic 6 years later. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a nonthermal red-to-near-infrared irradiation used for pain reduction of a variety of etiologies. Read More

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Despite an improved aerobic endurance, still high attrition rates in initially low-fit recruits-results of a randomised controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Dec 28;20:100679. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Epidemiology and Data Science, Master Evidence Based Practice in Health Care, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Low baseline fitness of recruits entering basic military training (BMT) is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) and attrition from training.

Objective: To determine the effects of a pre-training conditioning program (PCP) on aerobic endurance, incidence of musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs), and attrition rates in BMT of a special infantry unit of the Netherlands Armed Forces.

Participants: Recruits were considered eligible for this study when they were 'low-fit' at the start of BMT (time to complete a 2. Read More

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December 2020

Increased Production of Outer Membrane Vesicles by Salmonella Interferes with Complement-Mediated Innate Immune Attack.

mBio 2021 Jun 1:e0086921. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) enriched with bioactive proteins, toxins, and virulence factors play a critical role in host-pathogen and microbial interactions. The two-component system PhoP-PhoQ (PhoPQ) of Salmonella enterica orchestrates the remodeling of outer membrane lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules and concomitantly upregulates OMV production. In this study, we document a novel use of nanoparticle tracking analysis to determine bacterial OMV size and number. Read More

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LncRNA LEF1-AS1/LEF1/FUT8 Axis Mediates Colorectal Cancer Progression by Regulating α1, 6-Fucosylationvia Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Laboratory Medicine, Dalian Medical University, 9 Lvshunnan Road Xiduan, DalianLiaoning Province, 116044, China.

Background: Fucosylation alteration is involved in several steps of human cancer pathogenesis. Dysregulated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) often leads to malignancy in colorectal cancer (CRC).

Methods: Differential levels of LEF1-AS1, LEF1 and FUT8 are analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot. Read More

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Prediction of military combat clothing size using decision trees and 3D body scan data.

Appl Ergon 2021 Sep 28;95:103435. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Education, Health and Behavior Studies, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND, USA; Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Electronic address:

Aim: To determine how well decision tree models can predict tailor-assigned uniform sizes using anthropometry data from the New Zealand Defence Force Anthropometry Survey (NZDFAS). This information may inform automatic sizing systems for military personnel.

Methods: Anthropometric data from two separate samples of the New Zealand Defence Force military were used. Read More

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September 2021

With great power comes great ability: Extending research on fitness characteristics that influence work sample test battery performance in law enforcement recruits.

Work 2021 ;68(4):1069-1080

School of Kinesiology, Applied Health and Recreation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.

Background: Fitness could influence task performance in police officers. Limited research details relationships between different fitness characteristics and police-specific tasks.

Objective: Determine relationships between anaerobic and aerobic capacity with police-specific task performance. Read More

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January 2021

The feasibility of implementing an evidence-based physical training program during a Canadian Armed Forces basic infantry course.

J Sci Med Sport 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Human Performance Research, Directorate of Fitness, Canadian Forces Morale & Welfare Services, Canada.

Objectives: Determine the feasibility of implementing an evidence-based training program compared to a control during a basic infantry training course, and compare their effectiveness on measures of injuries and associated burdens.

Design: Prospective, cohort, feasibility study.

Methods: Infantry candidates awaiting course between 01-April-2019 and 31-March-2020 were invited to participate while those releasing from the military, awaiting occupational transfer or having >5 medical employment limitation days were excluded. Read More

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The effectiveness of PROLOTHERAPY for recalcitrant Medial TIBIAL Stress Syndrome: a prospective consecutive CASE series.

J Foot Ankle Res 2021 Apr 16;14(1):32. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK.

Background: Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common lower leg injuries in sporting populations. It accounts for between 6 and 16% of all running injuries, and up to 53% of lower leg injuries in military recruits. Various treatment modalities are available with varying degrees of success. Read More

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Physical fitness: Differences between initial hiring to academy in law enforcement recruits who graduate or separate from academy.

Work 2021 ;68(4):1081-1090

Tactical Research Unit, Bond University, Robina, Qld, Australia.

Background: Law enforcement agencies often include fitness testing as part of the hiring process. However, it can be months from this testing to when a recruit starts academy.

Objective: To determine fitness changes from hiring to academy in recruits who graduate (GRAD) or separate (SEP; do not complete) from academy. Read More

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January 2021

Borealin directs recruitment of the CPC to oocyte chromosomes and movement to the microtubules.

J Cell Biol 2021 Jun;220(6)

Waksman Institute and Department of Genetics, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ.

The chromosomes in the oocytes of many animals appear to promote bipolar spindle assembly. In Drosophila oocytes, spindle assembly requires the chromosome passenger complex (CPC), which consists of INCENP, Borealin, Survivin, and Aurora B. To determine what recruits the CPC to the chromosomes and its role in spindle assembly, we developed a strategy to manipulate the function and localization of INCENP, which is critical for recruiting the Aurora B kinase. Read More

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Physical Activity, Menstrual History, and Bone Microarchitecture in Female Athletes with Multiple Bone Stress Injuries.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick MA Harvard Medical School, Boston MA Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Cambridge MA Boston Children's Hospital, Boston MA Center for Advanced Orthopedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

Bone stress injuries (BSIs) occur in up to 20% of runners and military recruits and those with a history of BSI have a 5-fold higher risk for a subsequent BSI. Yet, little is known about prior training, menstrual status and bone structure in runners who experience multiple BSIs.

Purpose: To determine differences in health and physical activity history, bone density, microarchitecture, and strength among female athletes with a history of multiple BSI, athletes with ≤1 BSI, and non-athletes. Read More

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The Food, Feelings, and Family Study: comparison of the efficacy of traditional methods, social media, and broadcast email to recruit pregnant women to an observational, longitudinal nutrition study.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 Mar 12;21(1):203. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Nutrition and Foods Program, School of Family and Consumer Sciences, Texas State University, 601 University Dr., San Marcos, TX, 78666, USA.

Background: It is well known that recruitment is a challenging aspect of any study involving human subjects. This challenge is exacerbated when the population sought is reticent to participate in research as is the case with pregnant women and individuals with depression. This paper compares recruitment methods used for the Food, Feelings, and Family Study, an observational, longitudinal pilot study concerning how diet and bisphenol A exposure affect maternal mood and cognitive function during and after pregnancy. Read More

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Long non-coding RNA ROR recruits histone transmethylase MLL1 to up-regulate TIMP3 expression and promote breast cancer progression.

J Transl Med 2021 03 2;19(1):95. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, No. 7, Weiwu Road, Zhengzhou, 450003, Henan, People's Republic of China.

Background: As a significant cause of cancer deaths worldwide, breast cancer continues to be a troublesome malignancy. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in the development of breast cancer. Abnormal methylation has been associated with unfavorable breast cancer prognosis. Read More

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RhoGAP19D inhibits Cdc42 laterally to control epithelial cell shape and prevent invasion.

J Cell Biol 2021 Apr;220(4)

Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Cdc42-GTP is required for apical domain formation in epithelial cells, where it recruits and activates the Par-6-aPKC polarity complex, but how the activity of Cdc42 itself is restricted apically is unclear. We used sequence analysis and 3D structural modeling to determine which Drosophila GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are likely to interact with Cdc42 and identified RhoGAP19D as the only high-probability Cdc42GAP required for polarity in the follicular epithelium. RhoGAP19D is recruited by α-catenin to lateral E-cadherin adhesion complexes, resulting in exclusion of active Cdc42 from the lateral domain. Read More

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Auditory cortex is susceptible to lexical influence as revealed by informational vs. energetic masking of speech categorization.

Brain Res 2021 May 23;1759:147385. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; School of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA; University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Memphis, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Speech perception requires the grouping of acoustic information into meaningful phonetic units via the process of categorical perception (CP). Environmental masking influences speech perception and CP. However, it remains unclear at which stage of processing (encoding, decision, or both) masking affects listeners' categorization of speech signals. Read More

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Human-specific polymorphic pseudogenization of protects against advanced cancer progression.

FASEB Bioadv 2021 Feb 8;3(2):69-82. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Departments of Medicine, Cellular and Molecular Medicine, and Pathology, Glycobiology Research and Training Cente and Center for Academic Research and Training in Anthropogeny University of California San Diego CA USA.

Compared with our closest living evolutionary cousins, humans appear unusually prone to develop carcinomas (cancers arising from epithelia). The gene, which encodes the Siglec-XII protein expressed on epithelial cells, has several uniquely human features: a fixed homozygous missense mutation inactivating its natural ligand recognition property; a polymorphic frameshift mutation eliminating full-length protein expression in ~60%-70% of worldwide human populations; and, genomic features suggesting a negative selective sweep favoring the pseudogene state. Despite the loss of canonical sialic acid binding, Siglec-XII still recruits Shp2 and accelerates tumor growth in a mouse model. Read More

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February 2021

Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Iranian military trainees with acute respiratory symptoms in 2017.

Iran J Microbiol 2020 Oct;12(5):495-502

Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection in many populations, including military recruits receiving basic training. Therefore, this study was set out to determine the molecular epidemiology, genotype and phylogenetic features of RSVs in patients with respiratory infection as a case study.

Materials And Methods: In this study, military barracks of Tehran, Iran, between January to March 2017 exposed to respiratory diseases were used for sampling. Read More

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October 2020

Longitudinal evaluation of whole blood miRNA expression in firefighters.

J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Community, Environment and Policy, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA.

Background: Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression could provide a mechanism linking firefighter exposure to increased cancer risk.

Objective: To determine if changes in longitudinal miRNA expression in firefighters are associated with occupational exposures.

Methods: Whole blood MiRNA was evaluated in 52 new recruits prior to live-fire training and 20-37 months later. Read More

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February 2021

Suppression of optineurin impairs the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma through regulating mitophagy.

Cancer Med 2021 03 18;10(5):1501-1514. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Autophagy removes damaged organelles to inhibit malignant transformation during tumor initiation. Once a cancer matures, it uses the autophagic pathway as an energy source. Optineurin (OPTN) is an autophagy adaptor protein that recruits microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, an autophagosome marker, to the autophagosome. Read More

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Accuracy of the Tuning Fork Test for Determination of Presence and Location of Tibial Stress Fractures in a Military Training Population.

Mil Med 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

SMART (Sports Medicine and Reconditioning Team), Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton, Oceanside, CA 92055, USA.

Introduction: Stress fractures or bone stress injuries arise from trauma or overuse, often as a result of rapid increase in training. This rapid increase in training occurs frequently as military recruits begin their entry-level training, as many individuals are not accustomed to the level of activity required during boot camp. Tibial stress fractures are the most common bone stress injuries in the military setting. Read More

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February 2021

Interleukin-11 (IL-11) receptor cleavage by the rhomboid protease RHBDL2 induces IL-11 trans-signaling.

FASEB J 2021 Mar;35(3):e21380

Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a pleiotropic cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. It activates its target cells via binding to the membrane-bound IL-11 receptor (IL-11R), which then recruits a homodimer of the ubiquitously expressed, signal-transducing receptor gp130. Besides this classic signaling pathway, IL-11 can also bind to soluble forms of the IL-11R (sIL-11R), and IL-11/sIL-11R complexes activate cells via the induction of gp130 homodimerization (trans-signaling). Read More

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Influence of Vitamin D Supplementation by Simulated Sunlight or Oral D3 on Respiratory Infection during Military Training.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Jul;53(7):1505-1516

Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UNITED KINGDOM.

Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relationship between vitamin D status and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) of physically active men and women across seasons (study 1) and then to investigate the effects on URTI and mucosal immunity of achieving vitamin D sufficiency (25(OH)D ≥50 nmol·L-1) by a unique comparison of safe, simulated sunlight or oral D3 supplementation in winter (study 2).

Methods: In study 1, 1644 military recruits were observed across basic military training. In study 2, a randomized controlled trial, 250 men undertaking military training received placebo, simulated sunlight (1. Read More

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Mitochondrial sorting and assembly machinery operates by β-barrel switching.

Nature 2021 02 6;590(7844):163-169. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Faculty of Life Sciences, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-motoyama, Kyoto, Japan.

The mitochondrial outer membrane contains so-called β-barrel proteins, which allow communication between the cytosol and the mitochondrial interior. Insertion of β-barrel proteins into the outer membrane is mediated by the multisubunit mitochondrial sorting and assembly machinery (SAM, also known as TOB). Here we use cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structures of two different forms of the yeast SAM complex at a resolution of 2. Read More

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February 2021

Demography of the Intertidal Fucoid Hormosira banksii: Importance of Recruitment to Local Abundance.

J Phycol 2021 04 3;57(2):664-676. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies (IMAS), University of Tasmania, Private Bag 129, Hobart, Tasmania, 7001, Australia.

Canopy-forming macroalgae form the basis of diverse coastal ecosystems globally. The fucoid Hormosira banksii is often the dominant canopy-forming macroalga in the temperate intertidal of southern Australia and New Zealand, where it is commonly associated with an understory of coralline turf. Hormosira banksii is susceptible to both natural and anthropogenic disturbance and despite its abundance, few studies have examined the demography of this important species. Read More

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Is increased Staphylococcus aureus colonization during military service caused by specific genotypes? Molecular examination of long-term carriage in a prospective cohort study.

APMIS 2021 Apr 7;129(4):170-177. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.

A 22% increase in Staphylococcus aureus colonization was observed in Norwegian recruits during first year of military service. The aim was to determine whether specific genotypes caused the increase and to examine carriage status based on genotyping. Characterization of S. Read More

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TRF2 Mediates Replication Initiation within Human Telomeres to Prevent Telomere Dysfunction.

Cell Rep 2020 11;33(6):108379

Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1300 Morris Park Avenue, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address:

The telomeric shelterin protein telomeric repeat-binding factor 2 (TRF2) recruits origin recognition complex (ORC) proteins, the foundational building blocks of DNA replication origins, to telomeres. We seek to determine whether TRF2-recruited ORC proteins give rise to functional origins in telomere repeat tracts. We find that reduction of telomeric recruitment of ORC2 by expression of an ORC interaction-defective TRF2 mutant significantly reduces telomeric initiation events in human cells. Read More

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November 2020

Risk Indicators of Urgent and Extensive Dental Treatment Needs in U.S. Air Force Recruits.

Mil Med 2020 Oct 30. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Division of Pediatric and Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill Adams School of Dentistry, Koury Oral Health Sciences Bldg Room 4508, Campus Box 7450, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450, USA.

Introduction: Dental Readiness Classifications (DRCs) enable the Military Health System to prioritize dental care in garrison, minimizing dental emergencies and mission degradation during deployments. Over half (52.4%) of 2008 military recruits presented with high-priority urgent needs classified as DRC3 upon initial dental examination and 18. Read More

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October 2020