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An interictal measurement of cerebral oxygen extraction fraction in MRI-negative refractory epilepsy using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

Phys Med 2021 May 10;85:87-97. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Neuroimaging and Analysis, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: Oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) can be a factor to identify brain tissue's disability in epileptic patients. This study aimed to assess the OEF's level measurement in refractory epileptic patients (REPs) using a quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) method and to determine whether the OEF parameters change.

Methods: QSM-OEF maps of 26 REPs and 16 healthy subjects were acquired using 3T MRI with a 64-channel coil. Read More

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Egg residue and depletion in Rhode Island Red hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) following multiple oral doses of Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 10:104941. Epub 2021 May 10.

Comparative Medicine Institute, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA; Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, 27607. Electronic address:

Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim residues in eggs can cause risks to human health. The most common cause of residues in eggs results from failure to meet an appropriate withdrawal interval. The aim of this study was to determine the quantity and duration of sulfamethoxazole- trimethoprim residues in eggs and evaluate the drug elimination parameters in egg components and whole egg to better estimate the withdrawal interval of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim following oral administration for 7 days at a purposed dosage regimen (time average 46 mg kg day for sulfamethoxazole, time average 25 mg kg day for trimethoprim). Read More

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Knowledge gaps in Alzheimer's disease immune biomarker research.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Sciences Research, Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Considerable evidence has accumulated implicating a role for immune mechanisms in moderating the pathology in Alzheimer's disease dementia. However, the appropriate therapeutic target, the appropriate direction of manipulation, and the stage of disease at which to begin treatment remain unanswered questions. Part of the challenge derives from the absence of any selective pressure to develop a coordinated beneficial immune response to severe neural injury in adults. Read More

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A descriptive analysis of the data availability statements accompanying medRxiv preprints and a comparison with their published counterparts.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250887. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Objective: To determine whether medRxiv data availability statements describe open or closed data-that is, whether the data used in the study is openly available without restriction-and to examine if this changes on publication based on journal data-sharing policy. Additionally, to examine whether data availability statements are sufficient to capture code availability declarations.

Design: Observational study, following a pre-registered protocol, of preprints posted on the medRxiv repository between 25th June 2019 and 1st May 2020 and their published counterparts. Read More

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Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus by age and race/ ethnicity among males.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Women's Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA.

Background: Genital and oral cancers are often caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types that can be prevented through HPV vaccination. Since HPV is sexually transmitted, knowledge of penile prevalence of vaccine-type HPV among US males can help predict potential disparities in these cancers. This study examines penile HPV prevalence by age and race/ethnicity among males. Read More

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Off-Label Use of Multitarget Stool DNA Testing in Primary Care.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):829-832

1Mercy Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Introduction: We evaluated the off-label use of multitarget stool DNA (mt-sDNA) testing in the primary care setting.

Methods: We reviewed all mt-sDNA orders between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2019, to determine the frequency of off-label mt-sDNA orders.

Results: Nine hundred two patients with mt-sDNA orders were evaluated, of which 160/902 patients (17. Read More

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Maternal Dietary Intake of Total Fat, Saturated Fat, and Added Sugar Is Associated with Infant Adiposity and Weight Status at 6 mo of Age.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Public Health, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Background: Whether current dietary guidelines are appropriate for pregnancy and lactation has not been well studied. Many women of reproductive age are not meeting recommendations for dietary components such as fat, added sugar, and fiber.

Objectives: To assess associations between maternal dietary components during pregnancy and lactation and infant growth and adiposity at 6 mo of age. Read More

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Comparison of clinical and biomechanical outcomes between the kinematic and mechanical alignment methods in total knee arthroplasty: Protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2021 Jun 15;22:100775. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, 7-5-1, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, 650-0017 Japan.

Introduction: The concept of anatomic restoration has garnered considerable interest in the form of kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty (KA-TKA). KA-TKAs have been reported to reproduce natural alignment and kinematics. However, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have compared the biomechanical outcomes and the long-term clinical outcomes of KA-TKA with those of mechanically aligned TKA (MA-TKA). Read More

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Knowledge of patient emotional health status: impact on clinical care in glaucoma and retinal services.

BMJ Open Ophthalmol 2021 21;6(1):e000640. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Dana Center for Preventive Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Knowledge of a patient's emotional health status and using patient-centred communication may be key to providing early intervention and referral to appropriate treatment/support services for ophthalmology patients. This study aims to determine if and how ophthalmologists use anxiety and depression scores to determine clinical care of patients with chronic eye disease.

Methods And Analysis: This cross-sectional study included 10 ophthalmologists and a convenience sample of 100 of their patients (>18 years). Read More

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The Maximal Lactate Steady State Workload Determines Individual Swimming Performance.

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:668123. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Sport and Health Science, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

The lactate threshold (LT) and the strongly related maximal lactate steady state workload (MLSS) are critical for physical endurance capacity and therefore of major interest in numerous sports. However, their relevance to individual swimming performance is not well understood. We used a custom-made visual light pacer for real-time speed modulation during front crawl to determine the LT and MLSS in a single-exercise test. Read More

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Reliability of generic quality-of-life instruments in assessing health-related quality of life among children and adolescents with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: a systematic review.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2021 May 12;19(1):144. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla, Enugu, 400001, Nigeria.

Introduction: Most of the studies reporting the negative impact of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome on health-related quality of life in children and adolescents were conducted with generic quality-of-life instruments rather than disease-specific instruments. The consistency of these studies' findings using these generic instruments is not well established.

Aim: This systematic review aims to determine the reliability of current generic quality-of-life instruments in assessing health-related quality of life among children and adolescents with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Read More

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Identification of prognosis-related molecular subgroups based on DNA methylation in pancreatic cancer.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 May 12;13(1):109. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of General Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, 110004, China.

Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal and aggressive cancer malignancies. The lethality of PC is associated with delayed diagnosis, presence of distant metastasis, and its easy relapse. It is known that clinical treatment decisions are still mainly based on the clinical stage and pathological grade, which are insufficient to determine an appropriate treatment. Read More

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Influence of the Head Neck Position on Imaging Measurements Used to Assess the Craniovertebral Junction in Small Breed Dogs: A Cadaveric Study.

Vet Comp Orthop Traumatol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Clinical Radiology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Objective:  The study aimed to determine the influence of head neck position on imaging measurements used to assess the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) and to recommend the most appropriate position for the evaluation of the CVJ.

Study Design:  A cross-sectional sample of adult dogs' cadavers was subjected to a computed tomography scan of the cranium and the cranial cervical region in three standardized head positions. Imaging measurements often used to assess the CVJ were measured. Read More

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The Preparation of Cu(II)- and Ag(I)-responsive Carbon Nanodots from the Right Amino-acid Carbon Source.

J Fluoresc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Liaoning Province Key Laboratory for Green Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry of Advanced Materials, College of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang, 110036, People's Republic of China.

Carbon nanodots (CDs) have exhibited excellent sensing capability for various metal ions. However, it is difficult to determine the selectivity of CDs to metal ions. In this work, we chose appropriate carbon source to design CD sensors against Cu(II) and Ag(I). Read More

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Examining current patterns of opioid prescribing and use after bariatric surgery.

Surg Endosc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

Background: Evidence-based guidelines on the appropriate amount of opioid medications to prescribe following bariatric surgery are lacking. We sought to determine our current opioid-prescribing practices, patient utilization, and satisfaction with pain control following elective bariatric surgery.

Methods: A retrospective chart review and phone survey were conducted on patients who underwent laparoscopic or robotic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) from April 2018 to March 2019 at a single academic medical center. Read More

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Association of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction Among Carriers of Truncating Variants in Filamin C With Frequent Ventricular Arrhythmia and End-stage Heart Failure.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation Unit, Virgen del Rocio University Hospital, Sevilla, Spain.

Importance: Truncating variants in the gene encoding filamin C (FLNCtv) are associated with arrhythmogenic and dilated cardiomyopathies with a reportedly high risk of ventricular arrhythmia.

Objective: To determine the frequency of and risk factors associated with adverse events among FLNCtv carriers compared with individuals carrying TTN truncating variants (TTNtv).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study recruited 167 consecutive FLNCtv carriers and a control cohort of 244 patients with TTNtv matched for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from 19 European cardiomyopathy referral units between 1990 and 2018. Read More

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Quality Improvement Methodology Optimizes Infliximab Levels in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Pediatr Qual Saf 2021 May-Jun;6(3):e400. Epub 2021 May 5.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Achieving and maintaining target serum trough infliximab levels improves outcomes in children and young adults with inflammatory bowel disease. Our goal was to improve adherence to an infliximab therapy guideline. The primary aim was to increase the percentage of patients with infliximab levels ≥5 μg/mL and results checked in the last 12 months from 73% to ≥80% from July 2017 to January 2018. Read More

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Effectiveness of peer-supervision on pediatric fever illness treatment among registered private drug sellers in East-Central Uganda: An interrupted time series analysis.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;4(2):e284. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Community Health and Behavioural Sciences Makerere University College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health Kampala Uganda.

Rationale Aims And Objectives: Appropriate treatment of pediatric fever in rural areas remains a challenge and maybe partly due to inadequate supervision of licensed drug sellers. This study assessed the effectiveness of peer-supervision among drug sellers on the appropriate treatment of pneumonia symptoms, uncomplicated malaria, and non-bloody diarrhea among children less than 5 years of age in the intervention (Luuka) and comparison (Buyende) districts, in East-Central Uganda.

Methods: Data on pneumonia symptoms, uncomplicated malaria, and non-bloody diarrhea among children less than 5 years of age was abstracted from drug shop sick child registers over a 12-month period; 6 months before and 6 months after the introduction of peer-supervision. Read More

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Using data mining techniques to fight and control epidemics: A scoping review.

Health Technol (Berl) 2021 May 7:1-13. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Health Information Management, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The main objective of this survey is to study the published articles to determine the most favorite data mining methods and gap of knowledge Since the threat of pandemics has raised concerns for public health, data mining techniques were applied by researchers to reveal the hidden knowledge. Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases were selected for systematic searches. Then, all of the retrieved articles were screened in the stepwise process according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist to select appropriate articles. Read More

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Non-native rats detected on uninhabited southern Grenadine islands with seabird colonies.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 9;11(9):4172-4181. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Biological Sciences Arkansas State University State University Jonesboro AR USA.

Seabirds are among the most endangered avian groups, with populations declining worldwide because of various threats, including invasive nest predators. Similar decreasing trends are occurring in the Southern Grenadines; however, the causes of decline remain uncertain, although non-native rats have been suspected. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether non-native rats are present on five Southern Grenadine islands that harbor seabird colonies, during May-July 2014-2017, using four methods (chew cards, tunnels, cameras, and questionnaires). Read More

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Risk Factors for Falls in Patients with Alzheimer Disease: A Retrospective Study of Balance, Cognition, and Visuospatial Ability.

Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra 2021 Jan-Apr;11(1):58-63. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Occupational Therapy, Kyorin University, Mitaka, Japan.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the main risk factors for falls in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) by comparing balance, cognition, and visuospatial ability between those who have experienced a fall and those who have not.

Methods: Forty-seven AD patients were admitted to a ward for patients with dementia (22 men and 25 women). The balance of patients was evaluated using the Functional Reach Test (FRT), the one-leg standing duration, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Read More

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Inappropriate outpatient antibiotic use in children insured by Kentucky Medicaid.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 May 12:1-7. Epub 2021 May 12.

Duke University Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Durham, North Carolina.

Objective: To describe risk factors associated with inappropriate antibiotic prescribing to children.

Design: Cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of antibiotic prescribing to children, using Kentucky Medicaid medical and pharmacy claims data, 2017.

Participants: Population-based sample of pediatric Medicaid patients and providers. Read More

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Changes in Diagnosis of Poisoning in Patients in the Emergency Room Using Systematic Toxicological Analysis with the National Forensic Service.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 May 10;36(18):e118. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Korea.

Background: It is difficult to diagnose patients with poisoning and determine the causative agent in the emergency room. Usually, the diagnosis of such patients is based on their medical history and physical examination findings. We aimed to confirm clinical diagnoses using systematic toxicological analysis (STA) and investigate changes in the diagnosis of poisoning. Read More

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Long-term survival case of esophageal carcinosarcoma coexisting with alcoholic liver cirrhosis successfully treated by staged operation: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 30;83:105946. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Surgery, Ota Memorial Hospital, 455-1 Oshima-cho, Ota, Gunma 373-8585, Japan.

Introduction: Patients with esophageal cancers including carcinosarcoma sometimes have underlying liver cirrhosis because of a history of heavy drinking. It is definitely required to determine the appropriate surgical strategy and to manage the patients promptly when performing esophagectomy for the esophageal carcinosarcoma coexisting with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

Presentation Of Case: A 56-year-old male patient with a history of chest pain and difficulty swallowing was admitted to our hospital. Read More

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Intrinsically disordered Meningioma-1 stabilizes the BAF complex to cause AML.

Mol Cell 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Pediatric Oncology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Abramson Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Meningioma-1 (MN1) overexpression in AML is associated with poor prognosis, and forced expression of MN1 induces leukemia in mice. We sought to determine how MN1 causes AML. We found that overexpression of MN1 can be induced by translocations that result in hijacking of a downstream enhancer. Read More

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Concordance Between Electronic Health Record and Tumor Registry Documentation of Smoking Status Among Patients With Cancer.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2021 May;5:518-526

Department of Health Outcomes and Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Purpose: Patients with cancer who use tobacco experience reduced treatment effectiveness, increased risk of recurrence and mortality, and diminished quality of life. Accurate tobacco use documentation for patients with cancer is necessary for appropriate clinical decision making and cancer outcomes research. Our aim was to assess agreement between electronic health record (EHR) smoking status data and cancer registry data. Read More

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Management of surgery, menorrhagia and child-birth for patients with unclassified bleeding disorders: a systematic review of cohort studies.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Haemostasis and Thrombosis Centre, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London Department of Clinical Haematology, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford Cardiff Haemophilia Centre, University Hospital of Wales Comprehensive Care Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham Systematic Review Initiative, NHS Blood and Transplant, Oxford Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

Unclassified bleeding disorders account for 2.6% of all new bleeding disorder registrations in the UK. The management of the bleeding phenotype associated with these disorders is poorly described. Read More

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Clinical Significance and Prognostic Value of SOX2 Protein Expression in Patients With Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Periodontology, School of dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Department of Pathology, Cancer Institute, Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex Department of Pathology, Amir Alam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.

Objectives: Cancer stem cells are a small group of highly tumorigenic cells with the trend of self-renewal, tumor progression, metastasis, recurrence, and therapeutic resistance. SOX2 is an important cancer stem cell marker that is involved in tumorigenesis and correlated with aggressive features in various types of malignancies. The present study was aimed to investigate the expression of this biomarker in neoplastic tissues of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to determine whether it has the potential to predict the outcomes and survival of the affected patients. Read More

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Dermatophyte infections in children compared to adults in Germany: a retrospective multicenter study in Germany.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allergology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Background And Objective: Dermatophyte infections of the skin and nails are common worldwide and vary between geographical areas and over time. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological profile of dermatophytes in Germany with a focus on comparing children with adults.

Patients And Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study, mycological dermatophyte culture results in the period 01/2014 to 12/2016 were analyzed according to identified pathogen, age and gender of patients, and type of disease. Read More

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Sonographic detection and localization of fistulas in fetuses with imperforate anus: Case reports.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan.

Imperforate anus (IA) requires urgent treatment after birth, which is dependent on the type of IA, and is also frequently associated with other congenital abnormalities. Most patients with IA have an accompanying fistula, whose location is strongly associated with the type of IA. The fistula location can be a key factor in defining appropriate treatment, especially in neonates presenting with severe associated abnormalities. Read More

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