2,103 results match your criteria details backbone

Tuberculosis of the spine in children - Does drug resistance affect surgical outcomes?

Spine J 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Paediatric TB Clinic, Bai Jerbai Wadia Hospital for Children, Mumbai, India. Electronic address:

Background Context: The emergence of drug resistance has complicated the management of spinal tuberculosis (TB). While it is well known that the medical management of drug-resistant spinal TB is more difficult, the surgical outcomes of the same have not been studied sufficiently, particularly in children.

Purpose: To analyze the surgical outcomes in a cohort of children treated for spinal TB, and to thus assess whether drug resistant (DR) disease is associated with poorer surgical outcomes. Read More

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Invaginating Structures in Synapses - Perspective.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 24;13:685052. Epub 2021 May 24.

Advanced Imaging Core, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders/National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Invaginating structures are common in the synapses of most animals. However, the details of these invaginating structures remain understudied in part because they are not well resolved in light microscopy and were often misidentified in early electron microscope (EM) studies. Utilizing experimental techniques along with the latest advances in microscopy, such as focused ion beam-scanning EM (FIB-SEM), evidence is gradually building to suggest that the synaptic invaginating structures contribute to synapse development, maintenance, and plasticity. Read More

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Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: an updated grid dataset (1867-2020).

Alexey P Seregin

Biodivers Data J 2021 28;9:e68046. Epub 2021 May 28.

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia Lomonosov Moscow State University Moscow Russia.

Background: The dataset covers wild tracheophytes (native species, naturalised aliens and casuals) of Vladimir Oblast, Russia. It includes only one occurrence per species per grid square, thereby recently confirmed earlier records are not duplicated. Georeferences are based on the WGS84 grid scheme with 342 squares with areas ranging from 94. Read More

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Synthetic biology open language visual (SBOL Visual) version 2.3.

J Integr Bioinform 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

People who are engineering biological organisms often find it useful to communicate in diagrams, both about the structure of the nucleic acid sequences that they are engineering and about the functional relationships between sequence features and other molecular species. Some typical practices and conventions have begun to emerge for such diagrams. The Synthetic Biology Open Language Visual (SBOL Visual) has been developed as a standard for organizing and systematizing such conventions in order to produce a coherent language for expressing the structure and function of genetic designs. Read More

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Protocol for genome-scale CRISPR screening in engineered lineage reporter hPSCs to study cell fate determination.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 20;2(2):100548. Epub 2021 May 20.

Translational Medical Center for Stem Cell Therapy, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120, China.

is a key determinant of human neuroectoderm cell fate. Here, we describe a protocol for genome-scale CRISPR screening for use in genetically engineered human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Using the germ layer reporter and an inducible CRISPR/Cas9 knockout system, we describe how to identify lineage-specific preventing genes. Read More

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Compensation claims in pediatric orthopedics in Norway between 2012 and 2018: a nationwide study of 487 patients.

Acta Orthop 2021 Jun 4:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Section of Children's Orthopaedics and Reconstructive Surgery, Oslo University Hospital.

Background and purpose - In Norway all compensation claims based on healthcare services are handled by a government agency (NPE, Norsk Pasientskade Erstatning). We provide an epidemiological overview of claims within pediatric orthopedics in Norway, and identify the most common reasons for claims and compensations.Patients and methods - All compensation claims handled by NPE from 2012 to 2018 within pediatric orthopedics (age 0 to 17 years) were reviewed. Read More

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Multi-Level and Multi-Scale Feature Aggregation Network for Semantic Segmentation in Vehicle-Mounted Scenes.

Yong Liao Qiong Liu

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 9;21(9). Epub 2021 May 9.

School of Software Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China.

The main challenges of semantic segmentation in vehicle-mounted scenes are object scale variation and trading off model accuracy and efficiency. Lightweight backbone networks for semantic segmentation usually extract single-scale features layer-by-layer only by using a fixed receptive field. Most modern real-time semantic segmentation networks heavily compromise spatial details when encoding semantics, and sacrifice accuracy for speed. Read More

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The surgical treatment of spinal deformity in children with non-ambulatory myelomeningocele.

Bone Joint J 2021 Jun;103-B(6):1133-1141

Scottish National Spine Deformity Centre, Royal Hospital for Children and Young People, Edinburgh, UK.

Aims: To report the outcome of spinal deformity correction through anterior spinal fusion in wheelchair-bound patients with myelomeningocele.

Methods: We reviewed 12 consecutive patients (7M:5F; mean age 12.4 years (9. Read More

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Neurosurgical Wrong Surgical Site in Lower-Middle- or Low-Income Countries (LMICs): A Survey Study.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Neurosurgery, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Introduction: One of the most preventable errors of a surgeon's career is operating on the incorrect surgical site (ICSS). No study in any specialty has ever investigated the incidence of ICSS events in lower-income countries. This study focuses on identifying the occurrence of these events along with an analysis of potential causes leading to these unfortunate events. Read More

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Structural Analysis of Glycosylglycerolipids Using NMR Spectroscopy.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2295:249-272

Division of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Research Center Borstel, Leibniz Lung Center, Borstel, Germany.

Glycosylglycerolipids are essential components of plant and bacterial membranes. These lipids exert central roles in physiological processes such as photosynthesis in plants or to maintain membrane stability in bacteria. They are composed of a glycerol backbone esterified with two fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-2 positions, and carbohydrate moieties connected via a glycosidic bond at the sn-3 position. Read More

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January 2021

European guidelines on radiographic image quality in chiropractic practice - proposal of a cross-sectional graded classification reporting principle.

Chiropr Man Therap 2021 May 26;29(1):19. Epub 2021 May 26.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Southern Denmark and Orthopedic Department, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Background: The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) has published: European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images. These guidelines are considered a gold standard, recommended for use in quality assurance protocols. The objectives of this study: 1) Propose a graded classification format for Danish chiropractic clinics according to the CEC-quality criteria for diagnostic radiographic images of the lumbar spine. Read More

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Orthopedic Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis.

Orthopedics 2021 May-Jun;44(3):e440-e445. Epub 2021 May 1.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a relatively common disease seen in Whites of northern European descent. Classically, it was a lethal disease and uncommon for the orthopedic practitioner to interact with CF patients. Recent pharmaceutical breakthroughs targeting the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene have significantly prolonged patient life expectancy. Read More

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Robotics in Spine Surgery and Spine Surgery Training.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

The increasing interest and advancements in robotic spine surgery parallels a growing emphasis on maximizing patient safety and outcomes. In addition, an increasing interest in minimally invasive spine surgery has further fueled robotic development, as robotic guidance systems are aptly suited for these procedures. This review aims to address 3 of the most critical aspects of robotics in spine surgery today: salient details regarding the current and future development of robotic systems and functionalities, the reported accuracy of implant placement over the years, and how the implementation of robotic systems will impact the training of future generations of spine surgeons. Read More

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The Role of BCL-2 Proteins in the Development of Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer and Emerging Therapeutic Strategies.

Am J Clin Oncol 2021 May 17. Epub 2021 May 17.

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University Division of Hematology/Oncology, Lifespan Cancer Institute Cancer Center at Brown University Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI.

The development of androgen resistance in advanced prostate cancer remains a challenging clinical problem. Because androgen deprivation therapy constitutes the backbone of first-line treatments for metastatic prostate cancer, the phenotypic switch from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent growth state limits the treatment options for these patients. This critical change from an androgen-dependent to an androgen-independent growth state can be regulated by the B-cell lymphoma gene 2 (BCL-2) family of apoptotic proteins. Read More

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Cervicothoracic Versus Proximal Thoracic Lower Instrumented Vertebra Have Comparable Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes in Adult Cervical Deformity.

Global Spine J 2021 May 20:21925682211017478. Epub 2021 May 20.

Spine Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Study Design: Comparative cohort study.

Objective: Factors that influence the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) selection in adult cervical deformity (ACD) are less reported, and outcomes in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) and proximal thoracic (PT) spine are unclear.

Methods: A prospective ACD database was analyzed using the following inclusion criteria: LIV between C7 and T5, upper instrumented vertebra at C2, and at least a 1-year follow-up. Read More

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Biomolecular response to hour-long ultralow field microwave radiation: An effective coarse-grained model simulation.

Phys Rev E 2021 Apr;103(4-1):042416

Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur, West Bengal 721302, India.

Various electronic devices, which we commonly use, radiate microwaves. Such external perturbation influences the functionality of biomolecules. In an ultralow field, the cumulative response of a molecule is expected only over a time scale of hours. Read More

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Sacrectomy for Sacral Tumors: Perioperative Outcomes in a Large-Volume Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Spine J 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD USA 21287; Department of Neurosurgery, Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra, Long Island Jewish Medical Center and North Shore University Hospital, Northwell Health, Manhasset, NY USA 11030. Electronic address:

Background Context: Sacral tumors are incredibly rare lesions affecting fewer than 1 in every 10,000 persons. Reported perioperative morbidity rates range widely, varying from 30-70%, due to the relatively low volumes seen by most centers. Factors affecting perioperative outcome following sacrectomy remain ill-defined. Read More

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Orthogonal Active-Site Labels for Mixed-Linkage endo-β-Glucanases.

ACS Chem Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Michael Smith Laboratories, University of British Columbia, 2185 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada.

Small molecule irreversible inhibitors are valuable tools for determining catalytically important active-site residues and revealing key details of the specificity, structure, and function of glycoside hydrolases (GHs). β-glucans that contain backbone β(1,3) linkages are widespread in nature, e.g. Read More

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Clinical, radiological and functional outcome of posterior-only three-column osteotomy in healed, post-tubercular kyphotic deformity: a minimum of 2-year follow-up.

Spine Deform 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: To describe clinical, radiological and functional outcomes of patients with post-tubercular healed kyphosis operated by posterior-only three-column osteotomy.

Methods: The hospital records of 47 patients from a single center, operated for healed, post-tubercular kyphosis were retrospectively analyzed. Deformity correction in all patients was done utilizing a three-column osteotomy by a single-stage, posterior-only approach. Read More

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Subaxial Cervical Pedicular Screw Insertion via the Nonanatomic Axis: Technical Notes and Preliminary Clinical Report.

Global Spine J 2021 May 12:21925682211015649. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Spine surgery, Center for Orthopedics, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Objective: To report the technical details of subaxial cervical pedicular screw insertion via the nonanatomic axis (nAA-CPS) and evaluate its clinical safety and accuracy.

Methods: The nAA-CPS technique was performed in 21 patients. Read More

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Seeing the PDB.

J Biol Chem 2021 May 3:100742. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Integrative and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA; Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

Ever since the first structures of proteins were determined in the 1960s, structural biologists have required methods to visualize biomolecular structures, both as an essential tool for their research and also to promote 3D comprehension of structural results by a wide audience of researchers, students, and the general public. In this review to celebrate the 50 anniversary of the Protein Data Bank, we present our own experiences in developing and applying methods of visualization and analysis to the ever-expanding archive of protein and nucleic acid structures in the worldwide PDB. Across that timespan, Jane and David Richardson have concentrated on the organization inside and between the macromolecules, with ribbons to show the overall backbone "fold" and contact dots to show how the all-atom details fit together locally. Read More

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Clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes for patients who undergo cytoreductive surgery for thoracic meningiomas: a retrospective analysis.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 May;50(5):E18

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Primary spinal meningiomas represent a rare indolent neoplasm usually situated in the intradural-extramedullary compartment. They have a predilection for afflicting the thoracic spine and most frequently present with sensory and/or motor symptoms. Resection is the first-line treatment for symptomatic tumors, whereas other clinical factors will determine the need for adjuvant therapy. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of cement augmentation with fenestrated pedicle screws for tumor-related spinal instability.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 May;50(5):E12

Objective: Achieving rigid spinal fixation can be challenging in patients with cancer-related instability, as factors such as osteopenia, radiation, and immunosuppression adversely affect bone quality. Augmenting pedicle screws with cement is a strategy to overcome construct failure. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of cement augmentation with fenestrated pedicle screws in patients undergoing posterior, open thoracolumbar surgery for spinal metastases. Read More

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Applied anatomy and surgical technique of the lateral single-position L5-S1 fusion.

Clin Anat 2021 Jul 5;34(5):774-784. Epub 2021 May 5.

The Spine Clinic of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA.

The latest development in the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure is its application in the lateral position to allow for simultaneous posterior percutaneous screw placement. The technical details of the lateral ALIF technique have not yet been described. To describe the surgical anatomy relevant to the lateral ALIF approach we performed a comprehensive anatomical study. Read More

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Lowest Instrumented Vertebra Selection to S1 or Ilium Versus L4 or L5 in Adult Spinal Deformity: Factors for Consideration in 349 Patients With a Mean 46-Month Follow-Up.

Global Spine J 2021 Apr 28:21925682211009178. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Spine Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: To compare the outcomes of patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD) following spinal fusion with the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) at L4/L5 versus S1/ilium.

Methods: A multicenter ASD database was evaluated. Read More

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Bizhan Aarabi and Knowledge Development in Neurotrauma.

Arch Iran Med 2021 03 1;24(3):253-259. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Neurotrauma (NT) is one of the common causes of mortality and morbidity. Investigating the role of people who had an impact on the development of knowledge of NT is reasonable. Our aim is to investigate the role of Bizhan Aarabi, professor of Neurosurgery, on the knowledge development in NT. Read More

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Promising diagnostic and therapeutic circRNAs for skeletal and chondral disorders.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 7;17(5):1428-1439. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Spine Surgery and Institute for Orthopaedic Research, the 2nd Clinical Medical College (Shenzhen People's Hospital) of Jinan University, the First Affiliated Hospital of Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Reconstruction of Sports System, Shenzhen, 518055, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) belong to a highly conserved subtype of non-coding RNAs, produced by the back-splicing of specific regions of pre-mRNA. CircRNAs have wide-ranging effects on eukaryotic physiology and pathology by acting as transcription regulators, miRNA sponges, protein sponges, and templates for translation. Skeletal and chondral disorders are the leading causes of pain and disability, especially for elders, affecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Read More

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Transient Stimulation with Psychoplastogens Is Sufficient to Initiate Neuronal Growth.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 11;4(2):452-460. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California, Davis 95616, United States.

Cortical neuron atrophy is a hallmark of depression and includes neurite retraction, dendritic spine loss, and decreased synaptic density. Psychoplastogens, small molecules capable of rapidly promoting cortical neuron growth, have been hypothesized to produce long-lasting positive effects on behavior by rectifying these deleterious structural and functional changes. Here we demonstrate that ketamine and LSD, psychoplastogens from two structurally distinct chemical classes, promote sustained growth of cortical neurons after only short periods of stimulation. Read More

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Intravertebral insertion of interbody fusion cage via transpedicular approach for the treatment of stage III Kümmell disease: a technical note and case presentation.

Br J Neurosurg 2021 Apr 10:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopaedics, Shandong University Qilu Hospital, Jinan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Kümmell disease usually occurs in the elderly osteoporosis population and develops gradually into symptomatic, progressive kyphosis of the spine. However, current surgical methods to deal with stage III Kümmell disease are less satisfying. The objective of this study was to describe a less invasive technique for treating stage III Kümmell disease. Read More

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Thoracic Myelopathy in Ossified Ligamentum Flavum: Surgical Management and Long-Term Outcome Following 2 Different Techniques of Surgical Decompression.

Global Spine J 2021 Apr 12:21925682211003061. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Spine Surgery, Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, India.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Objective: Thoracic ossified ligamentum flavum (TOLF) has been reported to present with varying degrees of neuro-deficit and multiple factors have been purported to affect its outcome. Purpose of study was to analyze factors affecting outcome and impact of ultrasonic osteotome (UO). Read More

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