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Imprints of COVID-19 lockdown on the surface water quality of Bagmati river basin, Nepal.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 10;289:112522. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Central Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.

COVID-19 pandemic has caused profound impacts on human life and the environment including freshwater ecosystems globally. Despite the various impacts, the pandemic has improved the quality of the environment and thereby creating an opportunity to restore the degraded ecosystems. This study presents the imprints of COVID-19 lockdown on the surface water quality and chemical characteristics of the urban-based Bagmati River Basin (BRB), Nepal. Read More

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African and Asian leopards are highly differentiated at the genomic level.

Curr Biol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute for Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany.

Leopards are the only big cats still widely distributed across the continents of Africa and Asia. They occur in a wide range of habitats and are often found in close proximity to humans. But despite their ubiquity, leopard phylogeography and population history have not yet been studied with genomic tools. Read More

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LGR6 marks nephron progenitor cells.

Dev Dyn 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Nephron progenitor cells (NPCs) undergo a stepwise process to generate all mature nephron structures. Mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) is considered a multi-step process of NPC differentiation to ensure progressive establishment of new nephrons. However, despite this important role, to date, no marker for NPCs undergoing MET in the nephron exists. Read More

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Splenic Artery Embolization for Treatment of Iatrogenic Kasabach-Merritt Phenomenon Following Failed Endovascular Splenic Artery Aneurysm Repair.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2021 Apr 13:15385744211003470. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, MN, USA.

Stent grafts are utilized to treat and exclude visceral arterial aneurysms while preserving flow through the vessel. Stent-associated thrombocytopenia is a rare complication not typically seen with modern stents. The following case describes the clinical presentation of stent kinking and consumptive coagulopathy. Read More

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Uncovering the prevalence and neural substrates of anhedonia in frontotemporal dementia.

Brain 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The University of Sydney, Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Much of human behaviour is motivated by the drive to experience pleasure. The capacity to envisage pleasurable outcomes and to engage in goal-directed behaviour to secure these outcomes depends upon the integrity of frontostriatal circuits in the brain. Anhedonia refers to the diminished ability to experience, and to pursue, pleasurable outcomes, and represents a prominent motivational disturbance in neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

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An association between stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis, peripheral retinoschisis and posterior hyaloid attachment.

Retina 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, United Kingdom Wellcome EPSRC Centre for Interventional and Surgical Sciences, University College London, United Kingdom Department of Ophthalmology, Luton and Dunstable University Hospital, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Stellate nonhereditary idiopathic foveomacular retinoschisis (SNIFR) is a disorder characterized by splitting of the retina at the macula, without a known underlying mechanical or inherited cause. This study investigates demographic, anatomical and functional characteristics of subjects with SNIFR, to explore potential underlying mechanisms.

Methods: In this single-site, retrospective and cross-sectional, observational study, data were collected from 28 eyes from 24 subjects with SNIFR. Read More

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Human in vivo neuroimaging to detect reprogramming of the cerebral immune response following repeated systemic inflammation.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Radboud university medical center, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Radboud university medical center, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Despite increasing evidence that immune training within the brain may affect the clinical course of neuropsychiatric diseases, data on cerebral immune tolerance are scarce. This study in healthy volunteers examined the trajectory of the immune response systemically and within the brain following repeated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges. Five young males underwent experimental human endotoxemia (intravenous administration of 2 ng/kg LPS) twice with a 7-day interval. Read More

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Cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIP) critically maintains apoptotic resistance in human lens epithelial cells.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 9;12(4):386. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

The present study aims to understand the mechanism of the lens epithelial cell's strong anti-apoptotic capacity and survival in the mature human lens that, on the one hand, maintains lens transparency over several decades, while on the other hand, increases the risk of posterior capsule opacification (PCO). Here we compared FHL124 cells and HeLa cells, spontaneously immortalized epithelial cell lines derived from the human lens and cervical cancer cells, respectively, of their resistance to TNFα-mediated cell death. TNFα plus cycloheximide (CHX) triggered almost all of HeLa cell death. Read More

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When your host shuts down: larval diapause impacts host-microbiome interactions in Nasonia vitripennis.

Microbiome 2021 Apr 9;9(1):85. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

The Rowland Institute at Harvard, Harvard University, 100 Edwin H. Land Boulevard, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Background: The life cycles of many insect species include an obligatory or facultative diapause stage with arrested development and low metabolic activity as an overwintering strategy. Diapause is characterised by profound physiological changes in endocrine activity, cell proliferation and nutrient metabolism. However, little is known regarding host-microbiome interactions during diapause, despite the importance of bacterial symbionts for host nutrition and development. Read More

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Progression of changes in vascular surgery practices during the novel corona virus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Division of Vascular and Endovscular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Saint Louis University. Electronic address:

Introduction: The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly since it was identified. We sought to understand its effects on vascular surgery practices stratified by VASCON surgical readiness level and determine how these effects have changed during the course of the pandemic.

Methods: All members of the Vascular and Endovascular Surgery Society were sent electronic surveys questioning the effects of COVID-19 on their practices in the early pandemic in April (EP) and four months later in the pandemic in August (LP) 2020. Read More

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Controlling the Drug Resistant TB Epidemic in India: Challenges & Implications.

Epidemiol Health 2021 Apr 7:e2021022. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Research Centre, Dr G.M. Taori Central India Institute of Medical Sciences (CIIMS), Nagpur (Maharashtra), India.

India is highest Tuberculosis (TB) burden country accounting for an estimated one-fourth of the global burden. Drug resistant TB (DR-TB) represents major public health problem in India. Patients with DR-TB may often require profound changes in their drug regimen which are invariably linked to poor adherence and sub-optimal treatment outcomes compared to drug sensitive TB. Read More

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The skin microbiota in equine pastern dermatitis: a case-control study of horses in Switzerland.

Vet Dermatol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Swiss Institute of Equine Medicine (ISME), Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, and Agroscope, Länggassstrasse 124, 3012, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: Equine pastern dermatitis (EPD), a multifactorial syndrome, manifests as skin lesions of variable severity in the pastern area. Despite the widespread use of antibacterial therapy for treating this condition, little is known about the contributing bacteria.

Hypothesis/objectives: To investigate the bacterial skin microbiota in EPD-affected and unaffected (control) pasterns. Read More

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Zinc absorption and zinc status are reduced after either sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in premenopausal women with severe obesity studied prospectively over 24 postoperative months.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Section of Nutrition, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is known to reduce zinc absorption; the effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and its long-term implications on zinc absorption have not yet been studied.

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effects of SG and RYGBP on zinc absorption and zinc status in premenopausal women with severe obesity up to 24 mo after surgery.

Methods: Twenty-six premenopausal women undergoing SG [BMI (in kg/m2): 37. Read More

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Accelerated wound closure - Systematic evaluation of cellulose acetate effects on biologically active molecules release from amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs).

Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, 199 Taikang East Road, Ningbo, 315100, China.

Despite a lot of intensive research on cells-scaffolds interaction, focused are mainly on the capacity of construct scaffolds to regulate cell mobility, migration and cytotoxicity. The effect of the scaffold's topographical and material properties on the expression of biologically active compounds from stem cells is not well understood. In this study, the influence of cellulose acetate (CA) on the electrospinnability of gelatin and the roles of gelatin-cellulose acetate (Ge-CA) on modulating the release of biologically active compounds from amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs) is emphasized. Read More

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Sudden Sensorineural Hearing and Vestibular Loss in a Case of Relapsing Polychondritis.

Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2021 Apr 3:34894211005979. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objectives: To report a case of profound bilateral sensorineural hearing and vestibular loss from relapsing polychondritis and hearing outcomes after cochlear implantation.

Methods: Case report and literature review.

Results: A 43 year-old woman developed sudden loss of hearing and balance that progressed over several weeks to bilateral, profound hearing and vestibular loss. Read More

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Nutrition Transition with Accelerating Urbanization? Empirical Evidence from Rural China.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 12;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Agricultural Markets, Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Transition Economies (IAMO), 06120 Halle, Germany.

Although rapid urbanization is often considered as one of the most important drivers for changing dietary patterns, little attention has been paid to rural areas despite the profound transformation they have undergone. Using longitudinal data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) for the period from 2004 to 2011, this study seeks to better understand the relationship between the urbanization of rural areas and dietary transition, with the focus on nutrition intake and dietary quality. Our results suggest that with increasing urbanization, rural residents tend to have on average lower calorie intakes but higher dietary quality. Read More

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Koi () Seek Out Tactile Interaction with Humans: General Patterns and Individual Differences.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 5;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Environmental Studies, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA.

The study of human-animal interactions has provided insights into the welfare of many species. To date, however, research has largely focused on human relationships with captive mammals, with relatively little exploration of interactions between humans and other vertebrates, despite non-mammals constituting the vast majority of animals currently living under human management. With this study, we aimed to address this gap in knowledge by investigating human-fish interactions at a community garden/aquaponics learning-center that is home to approximately 150 goldfish () and seven adult and two juvenile koi (). Read More

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Before the Bullets Fly: The Physician's Role in Preventing Firearm Injury.

Yale J Biol Med 2021 Mar 31;94(1):147-152. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care, and Emergency Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Firearm injury is a disease that is disproportionately prevalent in the United States. When a bullet hits a human being, it brings together multiple structural determinants of health into one acute, life-changing event. Firearm injury can lead to long-term mental and physical challenges for individuals, families, and communities. Read More

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The role of teleconsultation in the management of suspected skin malignancy in plastic surgery during COVID-19 outbreak: A single centre experience.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

The Mersey Regional Burns and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Unit, Whiston Hospital, Warrington Rd, Rainhill, Prescot L35 5DR, United Kingdom.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the provision of skin cancer treatment in the UK. To preserve the service, the department transformed the outpatient skin cancer clinic into teleclinic service. This study examines the safety and efficacy of a teleclinic consultation, in comparison to a face-to-face consultation. Read More

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Public perceptions of Lyme disease and climate change in southern Manitoba, Canada: making a case for strategic decoupling of climate and health messages.

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 30;21(1):617. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Prairie Climate Centre, University of Winnipeg, 515 Portage Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3B 2E9, Canada.

Background: Despite scientific evidence that climate change has profound and far reaching implications for public health, translating this knowledge in a manner that supports citizen engagement, applied decision-making, and behavioural change can be challenging. This is especially true for complex vector-borne zoonotic diseases such as Lyme disease, a tick-borne disease which is increasing in range and impact across Canada and internationally in large part due to climate change. This exploratory research aims to better understand public risk perceptions of climate change and Lyme disease in order to increase engagement and motivate behavioural change. Read More

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Insight into capacity decay mechanism in cycled LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2 cathode via in situ X-ray diffraction.

Nanotechnology 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source, Lemont, Illinois, UNITED STATES.

Layered LiNixCoyMn1-x-yO2 (NCM) has been considered to dominate the cathode technology of future automotive industry due to its high energy density and low cost. Despite the excellent prospect, however, severe capacity decay of the NCM cathodes has prevented this promising material from further success. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is controversial and has been generally unified as arising from the complex structural changes upon Li-(de)intercalation. Read More

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Low-Dose Tamoxifen Induces Significant Bone Formation in Mice.

JBMR Plus 2021 Mar 20;5(3):e10450. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Medicine University of North Carolina Chapel Hill NC USA.

Use of the selective estrogen receptor modulator Tamoxifen (TAM) is a mainstay to induce conditional expression of Cre recombinase in transgenic laboratory mice. To excise β-catenin in 28-day-old male and female Prrx1-CreER/β-catenin mice (C57BL/6), we utilized TAM at 150 mg/kg; despite β-catenin knockout in MSC, we found a significant increase in trabecular and cortical bone volume in all genders. Because TAM was similarly anabolic in KO and control mice, we investigated a dose effect on bone formation by treating wild-type mice (WT C57BL/6, 4 weeks) with TAM (total dose 0, 20, 40, 200 mg/kg via four injections). Read More

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Association Between a Low Carbohydrate Diet, Quality of Life, and Glycemic Control in Australian Adults Living With Type 1 Diabetes: Protocol for a Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Mar 26;10(3):e25085. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, Australia.

Background: Globally, the prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is rising. In 2020, a total of 124,652 Australians had T1DM. Maintaining optimal glycemic control (hemoglobin A ≤7. Read More

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Perspectives of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study.

Women Birth 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Monash University, Victoria, Australia.

Background: The current COVID-19 pandemic has been shown to have profound effects on pregnant women globally, particularly, on their psycho-social wellbeing. Despite this, there has been limited qualitative inquiry into the experiences of pregnant women during the pandemic.

Aim: This original research aimed to study the perspectives of pregnant women in Australia in relation to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on their pregnancy experience. Read More

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[Development of the publication activity at the German university hospitals for Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic in 2020].

Laryngorhinootologie 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Klinik für Hals-Nasen-Ohrenheilkunde, Universitätsklinikum Frankfurt a. M., Goethe-Universität Frankfurt a. M.

Introduction:  The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to profound limitations in patient care and student teaching at the University Hospitals of Otorhinolaryngology (ORL). In contrast, the impact on research has been variable. To classify the pandemic-related effect on research, the development of the number of scientific publications of the German ORL university hospitals before and during the pandemic was analyzed. Read More

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The Pauli Repulsion-Lowering Concept in Catalysis.

Acc Chem Res 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Departamento de Química Orgánica I and Centro de Innovación en Química Avanzada (ORFEOCINQA), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

ConspectusOrganic chemistry has undoubtedly had a profound impact on humanity. Day in and day out, we find ourselves constantly surrounded by organic compounds. Pharmaceuticals, plastics, fuels, cosmetics, detergents, and agrochemicals, to name a few, are all synthesized by organic reactions. Read More

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Overexpression of CCNE1 confers a poorer prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer identified by bioinformatic analysis.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 23;19(1):86. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 169 Donghu Road, Wuhan, Hubei, 430071, China.

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a major subtype of breast cancer. Due to the lack of effective therapeutic targets, the prognosis is poor. In order to find an effective target, despite many efforts, the molecular mechanisms of TNBC are still not well understood which remain to be a profound clinical challenge. Read More

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Melt Processable Novolac Cyanate Ester/Biphenyl Epoxy Copolymer Series with Ultrahigh Glass-Transition Temperature.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 23;13(13):15551-15562. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

The rapid progress in silicon carbide (SiC)-based technology for high-power applications expects an increasing operation temperature (up to 250 °C) and awaits reliable packaging materials to unleash their full power. Epoxy-based encapsulant materials failed to provide satisfactory protection under such high temperatures due to the intrinsic weakness of epoxy resins, despite their unmatched good adhesion and processability. Herein, we report a series of copolymers made by melt blending novolac cyanate ester and tetramethylbiphenyl epoxy (NCE/EP) that have demonstrated much superior high-temperature stability over current epoxies. Read More

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Mannosylated Solid Lipid Nanocarriers Of Chrysin To Target Gastric Cancer: Optimization and Cell line Study.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Maliba Pharmacy College, Uka Tarsadia University, Surat. India.

Background: Despite significant biological effects, the clinical use of chrysin has been restricted because of its poor oral bioavailability.

Objective: The purpose of the present research was to investigate the targeting potential of Mannose decorated chrysin (5,7- dihydroxyflavone) loaded solid lipid nanocarrier (MC-SLNs) for gastric cancer.

Methods: The Chrysin loaded SLNs (C-SLNs) were developed optimized, characterized and further mannosylated. Read More

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