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Micro-Heterogeneity of Antibody Molecules.

Exp Suppl 2021 ;112:1-26

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK.

Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are mostly of the IgG class and constitute highly efficacious biopharmaceuticals for a wide range of clinical indications. Full-length IgG mAbs are large proteins that are subject to multiple posttranslational modifications (PTMs) during biosynthesis, purification, or storage, resulting in micro-heterogeneity. The production of recombinant mAbs in nonhuman cell lines may result in loss of structural fidelity and the generation of variants having altered stability, biological activities, and/or immunogenic potential. Read More

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January 2021

High-Sensitivity Flexible Pressure Sensor-Based 3D CNTs Sponge for Human-Computer Interaction.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Oct 9;13(20). Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Physics and Electronics Engineering, Yuncheng University, Yuncheng 044000, China.

Researchers are showing an increasing interest in high-performance flexible pressure sensors owing to their potential uses in wearable electronics, bionic skin, and human-machine interactions, etc. However, the vast majority of these flexible pressure sensors require extensive nano-architectural design, which both complicates their manufacturing and is time-consuming. Thus, a low-cost technology which can be applied on a large scale is highly desirable for the manufacture of flexible pressure-sensitive materials that have a high sensitivity over a wide range of pressures. Read More

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October 2021

Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Simulations to Determine the Optimal Interlayer Distance of a Graphene Slit-Shaped Pore for Adsorption of Methane, Hydrogen and their Equimolar Mixture.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Sep 28;11(10). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Alya Technology and Innovation SL, C/Republica 42, Sabadell, 08202 Barcelona, Spain.

The adsorption-for separation, storage and transportation-of methane, hydrogen and their mixture is important for a sustainable energy consumption in present-day society. Graphene derivatives have proven to be very promising for such an application, yet for a good design a better understanding of the optimal pore size is needed. In this work, grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations, employing Improved Lennard-Jones potentials, are performed to determine the ideal interlayer distance for a slit-shaped graphene pore in a large pressure range. Read More

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September 2021

Improving Curcumin Bioavailability: Current Strategies and Future Perspectives.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Oct 17;13(10). Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, Via Bonanno 6, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.

Curcumin possesses a plethora of interesting pharmacological effects. Unfortunately, it is also characterized by problematic drug delivery and scarce bioavailability, representing the main problem related to the use of this compound. Poor absorption, fast metabolism, and rapid systemic clearance are the most important factors contributing to low curcumin levels in plasma and tissues. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of Concave Stave on Class I Barrel-Stave Flextensional Transducer.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Oct 17;12(10). Epub 2021 Oct 17.

State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, NPU-QMUL Joint Research Institute of Advanced Materials and Structure, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, China.

To meet the requirements of low frequency, high power, small size and light weight, a type of Class I barrel-stave flextensional transducer employing improved concave stave is presented. As the key component of flextensional transducer, concave stave plays an important role in vibrating efficiently to radiate acoustic energy. The structure of concave stave has a great effect on its behavior. Read More

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October 2021

Intergenerational Narrative Learning to Bridge the Generation Gap in Humanistic Care Nursing Education.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Sep 29;9(10). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

College of Health and Nursing, Mei Ho University, Pingtung 912, Taiwan.

Background: The development of nursing students' ability to practice humanistic care is extremely important.

Methods: This study explored students' learning experience when providing humanistic care for older adults with chronic diseases while employing intergenerational narrative learning. An exploratory descriptive qualitative study design was adopted. Read More

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September 2021

Ecological Water Requirement in Upper and Middle Reaches of the Yellow River Based on Flow Components and Hydraulic Index.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Oct 18;18(20). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

School of Electrical Engineering, Lanzhou Institute of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, China.

Deterioration of the ecological environment in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River in China substantially impacts the growth and development of aquatic organisms in the drainage basin. This paper builds a conceptual model by applying flow components and fish ecological requirements relation with a relevant object of main fish in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River. The paper utilized the flow restoration method by employing the River2D model (two-dimensional model of river hydrodynamics and fish habitat), and a one-dimensional hydrodynamics HEC-RAS (hydrologic engineering center's-river analysis system). Read More

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October 2021

Tailoring Release Profiles of BCS Class II Drugs Using Controlled Release Amorphous Solid Dispersion Beads with Membrane-Reservoir Design: Effect of Pore Former and Coating Levels.

Mol Pharm 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2, Canada.

Poor aqueous solubility is a major limiting factor during the development of BCS Class II drug candidates in a solid oral dosage form. Conventional amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) systems focus on maximizing the rate and extent of release by employing water-soluble polymeric crystallization inhibitors; however, they often encounter rapid supersaturation and solution-mediated phase transformation (SMPT). Therefore, in this work, a controlled release membrane was introduced onto ASD beads to mitigate the SMPT problem. Read More

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October 2021

De Novo Design of a Robust Fluorescent Probe for Basal HClO Imaging in a Mouse Parkinson's Disease Model.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Key Laboratory of Hunan Province for Water Environment and Agriculture Product Safety, Central South University, Changsha 410083, P. R. China.

Elevated HClO gets involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Herein, a novel fluorescent probe NUU-1 was designed and synthesized. Distinct from the general strategies, NUU-1 features two distinct HClO reactive sites, a HClO-specific reaction site and a HClO-nonspecific reactive site, which in turn endows NUU-1 with the "0 + 1 > 1" amplification effect, that thus dramatically promotes the selectivity. Read More

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October 2021

design to enhance the barrier height for magnetization reversal in Dy(iii) sandwich complexes by stitching them under the umbrella of corannulene.

Chem Sci 2021 Sep 19;12(34):11506-11514. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Mumbai-400076 India +91-22-2576-7187.

Lanthanide based single molecular magnets (SMMs), particularly dysprocenium based SIMs, are well known for their high energy barrier for spin reversal ( ) and blocking temperatures ( ). Enhancing these two parameters and at the same time obtaining ambient stability is key to realising end-user applications such as compact storage or as qubits in quantum computing. In this work, by employing an array of theoretical tools (DFT, CASSCF and molecular dynamics), we have modelled six complexes [(η-corannulene)Dy(Cp)] (), [(η-corannulene)Dy(CH)] (), [(η-corannulene)Dy(Cp)] (), [(η-corannulene)Dy(CH)] (), [(-η-corannulene)Dy(-η-corannulene)] (), and [(-η-corannulene)Dy(-η-corannulene)] () containing corannulene as a capping ligand to stabilise Dy(iii) half-sandwich complexes. Read More

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September 2021

Using community-engaged methods to adapt virtual reality job-interview training for transition-age youth on the autism spectrum.

Res Autism Spectr Disord 2020 Mar 12;71. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

SIMmersion, LLC, Columbia, MD, USA.

Background: Virtual Reality Job-Interview Training (VR-JIT) is an efficacious Internet-based intervention for adults with severe mental illness (SMI). Evaluations of VR-JIT have shown improved interview skill and access to employment in several cohorts of adults with SMI and with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). VR-JIT trains participants how to fill out job applications and handle job interviews through e-learning content and applied practice. Read More

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Bacterial contamination of the smartphones of healthcare workers in a German tertiary-care hospital before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Department of Infectious Diseases/Tropical Medicine, Nephrology and Rheumatology, Hospital St. Georg, Leipzig, Germany; Division of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Department of Medicine II, Leipzig University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany; Interdisciplinary Center for Infectious Diseases, Leipzig University Hospital, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Assuming that hygiene measures have improved significantly due to COVID-19, we aimed to investigate bacterial colonization on smartphones (SPs) owned by healthcare workers (HCWs) before and during the pandemic.

Methods: Employing a before-and-after study design, randomly selected HCWs were included. Devices underwent sampling under real-life conditions, without prior manipulation. Read More

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October 2021

Modeling the Triboelectric Behaviors of Elastomeric Nonwoven Fabrics.

Adv Mater 2021 Oct 19:e2106429. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry & Science, Wilson College of Textiles, North Carolina State University, 1020 Main Campus Dr, Raleigh, NC, 27606, USA.

Theoretical modeling of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) is fundamental to their performance optimization, since it can provide useful guidance on the material selection, structure design, and parameter control of relevant systems. Built on the theoretical model of film-based TENGs, here we introduce an analytical model for conductor-to-dielectric contact-mode nonwoven-based TENGs, which copes with the unique hierarchical structure of nonwovens and details the correlation between the triboelectric output (maximum transferred charge density) and nonwoven structural parameters (thickness, solidity, and average fiber diameter). A series of styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS, Kraton MD1653) nonwoven samples have been fabricated through the melt-blowing process in a pilot-plant setting to map elastomeric nonwoven structural features within certain ranges, while an ion-injection testing protocol is adopted to quantify the triboelectric output with superior consistency and reproducibility. Read More

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October 2021

Modular Evolution of the Drosophila Metabolome.

Mol Biol Evol 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Lab Medicine & Pathology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Box 357705, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington, 98195, USA.

Comparative phylogenetic studies offer a powerful approach to study the evolution of complex traits. While much effort has been devoted to the evolution of the genome and to organismal phenotypes, until now relatively little work has been done on the evolution of the metabolome, despite the fact that it is composed of the basic structural and functional building blocks of all organisms. Here we explore variation in metabolite levels across 50 million years of evolution in the genus Drosophila, employing a common garden design to measure the metabolome within and among 11 species of Drosophila. Read More

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October 2021

Lead-free Ultrasonic Phased Array Transducer for Human Heart Imaging.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Oct 18;PP. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Substantial advancement has been made in recent years on lead-free piezoelectric materials, but up to date, it is still a challenge to make a true medical imaging ultrasonic array transducer with center frequency < 3 MHz. There are two major obstacles: the difficulty of fabricating large enough uniform lead-free piezoelectric materials with high piezoelectric coefficient, and the severe electrical impedance mismatch of array element to the imaging system due to the relatively low dielectric constant of lead-free materials compared to lead-based piezoelectric materials. We resolved these two issues by employing texture engineering and stacking piezoelectric-layer design, which allowed us to fabricate an 80 element phased array transducer with the center frequency of 2. Read More

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October 2021

Microfluidic On-Chip Production of Alginate Hydrogels Using Double Coflow Geometry.

ACS Omega 2021 Oct 30;6(40):25964-25971. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6, Canada.

Microfluidic on-chip production of microgels employing external gelation has numerous biological and pharmaceutical applications, particularly for the encapsulation of delicate cargos; however, the on-chip production of microgels in microfluidic devices can be challenging due to problems such as clogging caused by accelerated progress in precursor solution viscosity. Here, we introduce a novel microfluidic design incorporating two consecutive coflow geometries for microfluidic droplet generation. A shielding oil phase is employed to avoid emulsification and gelation stages from occurring simultaneously, thereby preventing clogging. Read More

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October 2021

Sustainable Chromium Recovery From Wastewater Using Mango and Jackfruit Seed Kernel Bio-Adsorbents.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:717848. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India.

Wastewater is a rich source of valuable chemicals of industrial importance. However, their economic recovery is crucial for sustainability. The objective of the present work is to recover hexavalent chromium (Cr VI) as a value-added transition metal from wastewater cost-effectively; the biosorbent derived from seed kernels of mango (M) and jackfruit (JF) were applied for removing the metal from simulated wastewater. Read More

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September 2021

A Preliminary Exploration of Factors Affecting a University Entrepreneurship Ecosystem.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:732388. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, School of Art and Design, Hangzhou, China.

This study examines the factors that affect the formation and operation of the university entrepreneurship ecosystem (UEE). Employing the case-study methodology, this research attempts to provide an evidence-based analysis of the existing theoretical framework of the UEE and verify the role of elements in it through empirical experience as described in semi-structured interviews with 33 respondents on and off an American university. Findings reveal that extracurricular activities, networks, entrepreneurial culture, and leadership have an important impact on the formation and operation of the UEE. Read More

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September 2021

Employing multiple synchronous outcome samples per subject to improve study efficiency.

Authors:
Roger P A'Hern

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 Oct 17;21(1):211. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

, London, UK.

Background: Accuracy can be improved by taking multiple synchronous samples from each subject in a study to estimate the endpoint of interest if sample values are not highly correlated. If feasible, it is useful to assess the value of this cluster approach when planning studies. Multiple assessments may be the only method to increase power to an acceptable level if the number of subjects is limited. Read More

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October 2021

Simultaneous determination of Allium compounds (Propyl propane thiosulfonate and thiosulfinate) in animal feed using UPLC-MS/MS.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Oct 14;157:112619. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Área de Toxicología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.

Propyl-propane-thiosulfonate (PTSO) and Propyl-propane-thiosulfinate (PTS) are organosulfur compounds used to supplement the diet of livestock because of their beneficial effects on feed palatability, their antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antimethanogenic activities. Besides, antibiotic residues in the environment can be reduced by using these natural bioactive compounds. The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters for the analysis of PTSO and PTS in feed matrices by performing a solid-liquid extraction and quantification by Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Read More

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October 2021

Efficient degradation of organic pollutants by novel titanium dioxide coupled bismuth oxide nanocomposite: Green synthesis, kinetics and photoactivity.

J Environ Manage 2021 Dec 24;300:113777. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Chemistry Dr B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology Jalandhar, Jalandhar, Punjab, 144011, India. Electronic address:

Herein, a green and facile methodology was used for the structural design of semiconductor nanomaterials and employed as efficient photocatalyst to resolve the environmental issues of water pollutants. Titanium oxide coupled with bismuth oxide ([email protected]) nanocomposite was synthesized by employing the seed extract of Sapindus mukorossi (commonly found plant in India) and subsequently used for the elimination of toxic, and persistence industrial pollutants namely bisphenol A (BPA) and methylene blue (MB). Microscopic and spectroscopic techniques revealed particle size of synthesized nanocomposite found less than 50 nm along with high crystallinity. Read More

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December 2021

Catalytic Fields as a Tool to Analyze Enzyme Reaction Mechanism Variants and Reaction Steps.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Chemistry, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wyb. Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.

Catalytic fields representing the topology of the optimal molecular environment charge distribution that reduces the activation barrier have been used to examine alternative reaction variants and to determine the role of conserved catalytic residues for two consecutive reactions catalyzed by the same enzyme. Until now, most experimental and conventional top-down theoretical studies employing QM/MM or ONIOM methods have focused on the role of enzyme electric fields acting on broken bonds of reactants. In contrast, our bottom-up approach dealing with a small reactant and transition-state model allows the analysis of the opposite effects: how the catalytic field resulting from the charge redistribution during the enzyme reaction acts on conserved amino acid residues and contributes to the reduction of the activation barrier. Read More

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October 2021

Morphometric study of the testis in sheep embryos using unbiased design-based stereology.

Anat Histol Embryol 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences (UNI EN ISO 9001:2008), University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Sheep have been used as translational models of human postnatal testicular development. However, the morphometric features of the normal developing testis in sheep embryos have not been previously investigated using stereology. The objective of the present work was to establish normal quantitative parameters for fetal testicular tissue components in sheep, using unbiased design-based stereological methods. Read More

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October 2021

Development and Optimization of Itraconazole-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Topical Administration Using High Shear Homogenization Process by Design of Experiments: In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Evaluation.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 Oct 13;22(7):248. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 160 014, India.

The aim of present study was to develop topical itraconazole (ITZ)-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles for treatment of superficial fungal infections. Formulations were prepared using high shear homogenization process, and optimized by employing a two-step design of experiments (DoE) approach. It comprised a Taguchi experimental design for screening of 'vital few' factors, and a central composite experimental design for optimization. Read More

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October 2021

A neutral polysulfide/ferricyanide redox flow battery.

iScience 2021 Oct 23;24(10):103157. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Changsha University of Science & Technology, Changsha 410114, China.

Energy storage systems are crucial in the deployment of renewable energies. As one of the most promising solutions, redox flow batteries (RFBs) are still hindered for practical applications by low energy density, high cost, and environmental concerns. To breakthrough the fundamental solubility limit that restricts boosting energy density of the cell, we here demonstrate a new RFB system employing polysulfide and high concentrated ferricyanide (up to 1. Read More

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October 2021

Understanding and Tailoring Excited State Properties in Solution-Processable Oligo(-phenyleneethynylene)s: Highly Fluorescent Hybridized Local and Charge Transfer Character via Experiment and Theory.

J Phys Chem B 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Nanotechnology Engineering, Abdullah Gül University, 38080 Kayseri, Turkey.

Rod-shaped oligo(-phenyleneethynylene) (OPE) offers an attractive π-framework for the development of solution-processable highly fluorescent molecules having tunable hybridized local and charge transfer (HLCT) excited states and (reverse) intersystem crossing ((R)ISC) channels. Herein, an HLCT oligo(-phenyleneethynylene) library was studied for the first time in the literature in detail systematically via experiment and theory. The design, synthesis, and full characterization of a new highly fluorescent (Φ ∼ 1) sky blue emissive 4',4‴-((2,5-bis((2-ethylhexyl)oxy)-1,4-phenylene)bis(ethyne-2,1-diyl))bis(,-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-amine) () was also reported. Read More

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October 2021

Influence function methods to assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine with survey data.

Health Serv Res 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Department of Biostatistics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York, USA.

Objective: To examine a robust relative risk (RR) estimation for survey data analysis with ideal inferential properties under various model assumptions.

Data Sources: We employed secondary data from the Household Component of the 2000-2016 US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS).

Study Design: We investigate a broad range of data-balancing techniques by implementing influence function (IF) methods, which allows us to easily estimate the variability for the RR estimates in the complex survey setting. Read More

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October 2021

Impacts of COVID-19 on Chinese nationals' tourism preferences.

Tour Manag Perspect 2021 Oct 8;40:100895. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

School of Tourism, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

This paper examines the impacts of COVID-19 on Chinese nationals' tourism preferences. Employing a mixed-method research design, two rounds of nation-wide online surveys were conducted, one in February 2020 when COVID-19 cases started to peak in China and another one in June 2020 when COVID-19 was a global pandemic; both survey studies were accompanied with semi-structured in-depth interviews and altogether 37 interviews were conducted in two stages. Based on both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data, the research identified that: 1) COVID-19 significantly reduced Chinese nationals' preferences to travel to countries with high infection numbers, and geographically faraway, administratively and culturally distant outbound destinations; 2) Chinese nationals reduced their preferences in all travel modes and most of the tourism forms, but most of them would prefer nature-based, rural, and cultural destinations after COVID-19; and 3) shortened trips in short travel distance are preferred after COVID-19. Read More

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October 2021

Wafer-scale functional circuits based on two dimensional semiconductors with fabrication optimized by machine learning.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 12;12(1):5953. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117583, Singapore.

Triggered by the pioneering research on graphene, the family of two-dimensional layered materials (2DLMs) has been investigated for more than a decade, and appealing functionalities have been demonstrated. However, there are still challenges inhibiting high-quality growth and circuit-level integration, and results from previous studies are still far from complying with industrial standards. Here, we overcome these challenges by utilizing machine-learning (ML) algorithms to evaluate key process parameters that impact the electrical characteristics of MoS top-gated field-effect transistors (FETs). Read More

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October 2021

Selected Class of Enamides Bearing Nitro Functionality as Dual-Acting with Highly Selective Monoamine Oxidase-B and BACE1 Inhibitors.

Molecules 2021 Oct 3;26(19). Epub 2021 Oct 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, AIMS Health Sciences Campus, Kochi 682041, India.

A small series of nitro group-bearing enamides was designed, synthesized (-), and evaluated for their inhibitory profiles of monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (β-secretase, BACE1). Compounds and exhibited a more potent MAO-B inhibition (IC value = 0.0092 and 0. Read More

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October 2021