1,977 results match your criteria desert areas

Brownness of Organic Aerosol over the United States: Evidence for Seasonal Biomass Burning and Photobleaching Effects.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, Reno, Nevada 89512, United States.

Light-absorptivity of organic aerosol may play an important role in visibility and climate forcing, but it has not been assessed as extensively as black carbon (BC) aerosol. Based on multiwavelength thermal/optical analysis and spectral mass balance, this study quantifies BC for the U.S. Read More

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Consensus Statement on the Treatment of Massive Irreparable Rotator Cuff Tears - A Delphi Approach by the Neer Circle of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.

Background: Management of massive irreparable rotator cuff tears (MIRCTs) remains controversial due to variability in patient features and outcomes contributing to a lack of unanimity in treatment recommendations. The purpose of this study was to implement the Delphi process using experts from the Neer Circle of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) to determine areas of consensus regarding treatment options for a variety of MIRCTs.

Methods: A panel of 120 shoulder surgeons were sent a survey regarding MIRCT treatments including: arthroscopic débridement and partial cuff repair, graft augmentation, reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA), superior capsular reconstruction (SCR), and tendon transfers. Read More

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High Levels of Heavy Metals detected in Feathers of an Avian Scavenger Warn of a High Pollution Risk in the Atacama Desert (Chile).

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Area of Toxicology, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Murcia, 30100, Murcia, Spain.

The Atacama Desert represents the highest levels of mining exploitation in Chile, which inexorably results in high levels of pollution. Raptors, and particularly scavengers, have shown their usefulness to evaluate exposure to environmental contaminants in polluted scenarios. In this study, we used primary feathers from a local avian scavenger, turkey vulture Cathartes aura, to evaluate the exposure to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in two locations from the southern Atacama Desert (coastal and inland) and a third location from the bordering semiarid region, in northern Chile. Read More

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Identification of 16SrXXX-A Phytoplasma Associated with Salt cedar (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) witches'-broom (SCWB) in Southern Xinjiang of China.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Tarim University, 12483, Plant Science, Aral, Xinjiang, China;

Salt cedar is an ornamental shrub/moderate tree species native to Asia and East Europe, and grows in salt-alkali soil, desert and other dry areas, which plays an important role in wind prevention and sand fixation as well as maintaining ecological balance. Salt cedar witches'-broom (SCWB), which was extremely pernicious to Salt cedar. It was first observed and reported in Xi'an, China in 2005 (Zhao et al. Read More

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Nitrogen burden from atmospheric deposition in East Asian oceans in 2010 based on high-resolution regional numerical modeling.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 5;286:117309. Epub 2021 May 5.

Research Institute for Applied Mechanics (RIAM), Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga Park, Kasuga, Fukuoka, 816-8580, Japan. Electronic address:

East Asian oceans are possibly affected by a high nitrogen (N) burden because of the intense anthropogenic emissions in this region. Based on high-resolution regional chemical transport modeling with horizontal grid scales of 36 and 12 km, we investigated the N burden into East Asian oceans via atmospheric deposition in 2010. We found a high N burden of 2-9 kg N ha yr over the Yellow Sea, East China Sea (ECS), and Sea of Japan. Read More

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Prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis among the tribal populations in India.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0251519. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Division of Communicable Diseases (ECD), Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

Importance: There is no concrete evidence on the burden of TB among the tribal populations across India except for few studies mainly conducted in Central India with a pooled estimation of 703/100,000 with a high degree of heterogeneity.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of TB among the tribal populations in India.

Design, Participants, Setting: A survey using a multistage cluster sampling design was conducted between April 2015 and March 2020 covering 88 villages (clusters) from districts with over 70% tribal majority populations in 17 States across 6 zones of India. Read More

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Spatial ecology of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in their native range: a radiotelemetric study from French Guiana.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11817. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Like most invasive species, cane toads have attracted less research in their native range than in invaded areas. We radio-tracked 34 free-ranging toads in French Guiana, a source region for most invasive populations, across two coastal and two rainforest sites. Coastal toads generally sheltered in pools of fresh or brackish water but nocturnally foraged on beaches, whereas rainforest toads sheltered in forested habitats, moving into open areas at night. Read More

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Ion migration process and influencing factors in inland river basin of arid area in China: a case study of Shiyang River Basin.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu, China.

A thorough understanding of the processes and driving factors of ion migration, dilution, and enrichment in arid inland river basins is the basis for implementing water resources management. In this study, we analyzed the water chemistry of streamflow, groundwater, and precipitation and the behavior of main elements in the Shiyang River Basin by means of the hydrochemical diagram and multivariate statistical analysis. The spatial variation of water chemistry was obvious, and the conversion between different water bodies was frequent. Read More

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Multiple mineral horizons in layered outcrops at Mawrth Vallis, Mars, signify changing geochemical environments on early Mars.

Icarus 2020 May 17;341. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab, Laurel, MD, United States of America.

Refined calibrations of CRISM images are enabling identification of smaller deposits of unique aqueous materials on Mars that reveal changing environmental conditions at the region surrounding Mawrth Vallis. Through characterization of these clay-sulfate assemblages and their association with the layered, phyllosilicate units of this region, more details of the aqueous geochemical history can be gleaned. A stratigraphy including five distinct mineral horizons is mapped using compositional data from CRISM over CTX and HRSC imagery across 100s of km and from CRISM over HiRISE imagery across 100s of meters. Read More

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Smoke from regional wildfires alters lake ecology.

Sci Rep 2021 May 25;11(1):10922. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, NV, USA.

Wildfire smoke often covers areas larger than the burned area, yet the impacts of smoke on nearby aquatic ecosystems are understudied. In the summer of 2018, wildfire smoke covered Castle Lake (California, USA) for 55 days. We quantified the influence of smoke on the lake by comparing the physics, chemistry, productivity, and animal ecology in the prior four years (2014-2017) to the smoke year (2018). Read More

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Using satellite imagery to evaluate precontact Aboriginal foraging habitats in the Australian Western Desert.

Sci Rep 2021 May 25;11(1):10755. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Biological Sciences and Environment Institute, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia.

Modern satellite imaging offers radical new insights of the challenges and opportunities confronting traditional Aboriginal ecology and land use in Australia's Western Desert. We model the likely dynamics of historic and precontact desert land use using Earth observation data to identify the distribution of suitable foraging habitats. Suitability was modelled for an ideal environmental scenario, based on satellite observations of maximal water abundance, vegetation greenness, and terrain ruggedness. Read More

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An empirical study on industrial eco-efficiency in arid resource exploitation region of northwest China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Collage of Geographical Science and Tourism, Xinjiang Normal University, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

Located in the northwest of China, Xinjiang is a typical arid desert area and mineral resources development zone. The lack of water resources and a fragile ecological environment restricts the sustainable development of the region. Based on the industrial panel data of Xinjiang from 2001 to 2015, this paper uses the undesirable output SBM model, Malmquist index model, and Tobit regression model to comprehensively and systematically measure and evaluate the industrial eco-efficiency and its change characteristics from provincial, regional, and prefectural levels. Read More

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Quantifying the influences of natural and human factors on the water footprint of afforestation in desert regions of northern China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;780:146577. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Key Laboratory of Land Surface Pattern and Simulation, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

To mitigate desertification and alleviate soil erosion, a wide range of ecological restoration initiatives have been implemented in arid and semi-arid areas, the water consumption of ecological projects and driving mechanisms received increasing attention to balance economy development and ecology restoration at different scales. In this study, the water footprint (WF) was employed as an indicator of water consumption by afforestation, and trend analysis, texture classification and geographical detector methods were used to identify the afforestation area and assess the influences of natural and human factors on the afforestation WF in the desert regions of northern China. The results revealed four major findings. Read More

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Occurrence of Leaf Spot of Caused by in China.

Plant Dis 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Wonkwang University, 35030, Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Iksan, Jeollabuk-do, Korea (the Republic of).

Oats () are an important fodder crop in the vast ranges of northern and northwestern China, given the growing demand from livestock. (Yang et al. 2010). Read More

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How Mental Health Professionals Can Address Disparities in the Context of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Traumatology (Tallahass Fla) 2021 Mar 10;27(1):60-69. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA, 90095.

The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unparalleled crisis, yet also a unique opportunity for mental health professionals to address and prioritize mental and physical health disparities that disproportionately impact marginalized populations. Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) have long experienced structural racism and oppression, resulting in disproportionately high rates of trauma, poverty, and chronic diseases that span generations and are associated with increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality rates. The current pandemic, with the potential of conferring new trauma exposure, interacts with and exacerbates existing disparities. Read More

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Fine resolution air quality dynamics related to socioeconomic and land use factors in the most polluted desert metropolitan in the American Southwest.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 14;788:147713. Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA.

Air pollution kills approximately 4.2 million people every year. As air pollution varies significantly in different urban areas, the assessment of urban emissions is key to taking appropriate actions and formulating policies for sustainable built environments and to promote the wellbeing of people. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of Disease Risk Associated With Potential Removal of Anthropogenic Barriers To Mojave Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) Population ConnectivitY.

J Wildl Dis 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Disease Investigations, San Diego Zoo Global, 15600 San Pasqual Valley Rd., Escondido, California 92027, USA.

The Mojave Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), federally listed as threatened, has suffered habitat loss and fragmentation due to human activities. Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD), a documented health threat to desert tortoises, has been detected at the Large-Scale Translocation Study Site (LSTS) in southwestern Nevada, a fenced recipient site for translocated animals. Our study aimed to 1) estimate prevalence of URTD and Mycoplasma infection at LSTS and three nearby unfenced sites; 2) assess whether Mycoplasma infection status was associated with developing clinical signs of URTD; and 3) determine whether such an association differed between LSTS and unfenced areas. Read More

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Geospatial modelling to estimate the territory at risk of establishment of influenza type A in Mexico - An ecological study.

Geospat Health 2021 05 14;16(1). Epub 2021 May 14.

Desert Zones Research Institute, Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P.; University of Central Mexico, San Luis Potosí, S.L.P..

The aim of this study was to estimate the territory at risk of establishment of influenza type A (EOITA) in Mexico, using geospatial models. A spatial database of 1973 outbreaks of influenza worldwide was used to develop risk models accounting for natural (natural threat), anthropic (man-made) and environmental (combination of the above) transmission. Then, a virus establishment risk model; an introduction model of influenza A developed in another study; and the three models mentioned were utilized using multi-criteria spatial evaluation supported by geographically weighted regression (GWR), receiver operating characteristic analysis and Moran's I. Read More

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Variance of vegetation coverage and its sensitivity to climatic factors in the Irtysh River basin.

PeerJ 2021 5;9:e11334. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

Background: Climate change is an important factor driving vegetation changes in arid areas. Identifying the sensitivity of vegetation to climate variability is crucial for developing sustainable ecosystem management strategies. The Irtysh River is located in the westerly partition of China, and its vegetation cover is more sensitive to climate change. Read More

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Soil fertility evaluation and spatial distribution of grasslands in Qilian Mountains Nature Reserve of eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

PeerJ 2021 23;9:e10986. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

College of Grassland Science, Gansu Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Grassland Ecosystem of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou, China.

The study assessed the overall soil characteristics of grasslands on Qilian Mountains and rated the soil nutrient status with classification standard of the second national soil survey of China. Nemerow index method was used to evaluate the soil fertility of different grassland types. GIS was used to analyze the spatial distribution of the soil nutrients and provided a database for the grassland's ecological protection and restoration. Read More

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Sources of PM-bound water soluble ions at EMEP's Auchencorth Moss (UK) supersite revealed by 3D-Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) model.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 15;274:129979. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik, UK.

The Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) model is a well-known tool which combines the residence time (trajectory points) of air masses over specific regions with ambient concentrations of air pollutants, aiming to identify potential long range transport impacts. An upgraded 3D-version of CWT model (3D-CWT), investigating not only the geographical origin of the exogenous emissions but also the altitudinal layers in which the transport occurs, was developed and coupled with PM-bound concentrations of water soluble ions (nss- SO (non-sea salt sulfates), NO, Cl, NH, Na, Mg, Ca and K) for the years 2017-2018, derived by the Auchencorth Moss supersite in Southeast Scotland, United Kingdom (UK). The 3D-CWT model was implemented in two distinct altitudinal layers above ground level (0 m ≤ Layer 1 < 1000 m, 1000 m ≤ Layer 2 < 2000 m), because few trajectory points exceeded the 2000 m limit. Read More

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Opioid Treatment Deserts: Concept development and application in a US Midwestern urban county.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250324. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Urban Regional Analysis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States of America.

Objectives: An Opioid Treatment Desert is an area with limited accessibility to medication-assisted treatment and recovery facilities for Opioid Use Disorder. We explored the concept of Opioid Treatment Deserts including racial differences in potential spatial accessibility and applied it to one Midwestern urban county using high resolution spatiotemporal data.

Methods: We obtained individual-level data from one Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agency (Columbus Fire Department) in Franklin County, Ohio. Read More

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Spatial distribution of PM-bound elements in eighteen cities over China: policy implication and health risk assessment.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of Aerosol Chemistry & Physics (KLACP), Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an, 710061, China.

In this study, 30 elements in fine particulate matter (PM) were measured in 18 Chinese cities in 2013. Elemental pollution in northern, southwest, and central China were severe, attributing to excessive coal and biomass combustion in these regions. The concentrations of S, Cl, and K in these areas were 8. Read More

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The living heart: Climate gradients predict desert mountain endemism.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 15;11(9):4366-4378. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Environmental Futures Research Institute and School of Environment and Science Griffith University Nathan Qld Australia.

Mountain regions are centers of biodiversity endemism at a global scale but the role of arid-zone mountain ranges in shaping biodiversity patterns is poorly understood. Focusing on three guilds of taxa from a desert upland refugium in Australia, we sought to determine: (a) the relative extent to which climate, terrain or geological substrate predict endemism, and (b) whether patterns of endemism are complimentary across broad taxonomic guilds. We mapped regional endemism for plants, land snails, and vertebrates using combined Species Distribution Models (SDMs) for all endemic taxa ( = 82). Read More

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Dynamics of bird assemblages in response to temporally and spatially variable resources in arid Australia.

Ecol Evol 2021 May 17;11(9):3977-3990. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods Charles Darwin University Alice Springs NT Australia.

Bird assemblages in arid Australia are often characterized as being highly variable through time in response to boom and bust dynamics, although the importance of habitat in structuring assemblages at a local-scale is also recognized. We use a novel approach to investigate the importance of rainfall variability in structuring bird assemblages in a resource-limited environment. Monthly bird surveys were conducted at ten plots for 8 years at a botanical and zoological park in central Australia, including five irrigated plots within a fenced area and five natural plots outside. Read More

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Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs, oxygenated PAHs, nitrated PAHs, and azaarenes) in air from four climate zones of China: Occurrence, gas/particle partitioning, and health risks.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 1;786:147234. Epub 2021 May 1.

Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Reinhard-Baumeister-Platz 1, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany.

Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives [oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs), nitrated PAHs (NPAHs), and azaarenes (AZAs)] are toxic and ubiquitous air pollutants. In this study, the concentrations of these PACs were determined in air obtained in spring and autumn of 2012 from urban and rural areas of the Tibetan Plateau, temperate, subtropical, and tropical climate zones in China. Average concentrations (gaseous + particulate) of ∑29PAHs, ∑15OPAHs, ∑11NPAHs, and ∑4AZAs were 928 ± 658, 54 ± 45, 5. Read More

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September 2021

Insight into the function and evolution of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway in Actinobacteria.

ISME J 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Zhuhai), School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, PR China.

Carbon fixation by chemoautotrophic microbes such as homoacetogens had a major impact on the transition from the inorganic to the organic world. Recent reports have shown the presence of genes for key enzymes associated with the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) in the phylum Actinobacteria, which adds to the diversity of potential autotrophs. Here, we compiled 42 actinobacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from new and existing metagenomic datasets and propose three novel classes, Ca. Read More

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Identification of the Begomoviruses Squash Leaf Curl Virus and Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus in Various Plant Samples in North America.

Viruses 2021 04 30;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

The Biodesign Center for Fundamental and Applied Microbiomics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287, USA.

Geminiviruses are a group of plant-infecting viruses with single-stranded DNA genomes. Within this family, viruses in the genus are known to have a worldwide distribution causing a range of severe diseases in a multitude of dicotyledonous plant species. Begomoviruses are transmitted by the whitefly and their ssDNA genomes can be either monopartite or bipartite. Read More

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Biochemical Profiling for Antioxidant and Therapeutic Potential of Pakistani Chickpea ( L.) Genetic Resource.

Front Plant Sci 2021 13;12:663623. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology College, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In Pakistan, chickpeas ( L.) are the largest grown legume crops, especially in desert areas. Along with an excellent source of nutrition, chickpea seeds have discernible medicinal and antioxidant characteristics. Read More

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Entropy of the Land Parcel Mosaic as a Measure of the Degree of Urbanization.

Entropy (Basel) 2021 Apr 28;23(5). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw, Poland.

Quantifying the urbanization level is an essential yet challenging task in urban studies because of the high complexity of this phenomenon. The urbanization degree has been estimated using a variety of social, economic, and spatial measures. Among the spatial characteristics, the Shannon entropy of the landscape pattern has recently been intensively explored as one of the most effective urbanization indexes. Read More

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