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Proximity to the descending aorta predicts regional fibrosis in the adjacent left atrial wall: aetiopathogenic and prognostic implications.

Europace 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Unitat de Fibril.lació Auricular (UFA), Institut Clínic Cardiovascular (ICCV), Hospital Clínic, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Aims: Left atrial (LA) fibrosis is present in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and can be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE-MRI). Previous studies have shown that LA fibrosis is not randomly distributed, being more frequent in the area adjacent to the descending aorta (DAo). The objective of this study is to analyse the relationship between fibrosis in the atrial area adjacent to the DAo and the distance to it, as well as the prognostic implications of this fibrosis. Read More

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Laparoscopic left hemicolectomy: an annotated video vignette.

Colorectal Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Greece.

Laparoscopic left hemicolectomy has matured into the gold standard for descending colon and left colonic flexure lesions [1]. The key steps of the procedure require selective ligation of the left colic artery (LCA) and the mobilization of the splenic flexure (SF) which can be performed with different approaches. In this video vignette, we present a narrated and annotated standardized left hemicolectomy with a medial to lateral dissection, and a combined, medial, lateral and gastrocolic dissection for the mobilization of the splenic flexure. Read More

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Hybrid Coronary Revascularization: Perspective Current State After 25 Years of Start.

Heart Surg Forum 2021 Apr 27;24(2):E392-E401. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Benha University, Department of Cardiology, Benha, Egypt.

Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) represents a minimally invasive revascularization strategy in which the durability of the internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending artery graft is combined with percutaneous coronary intervention to treat remaining lesions. It first was introduced in the mid-1990s and aspired to bring together the "best of both worlds" - the excellent patency rates and survival benefits associated with the durable left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending artery alongside the good patency rates of drug-eluting stents, which outlive saphenous vein grafts to non-left anterior descending vessels. Although in theory this is a very attractive revascularization strategy, several years later, only small randomized controlled trials comparing HCR with coronary artery bypass grafting has recently emerged in the medical literature, raising concerns regarding HCR's role. Read More

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Intravenous Interferon-β1a for the Treatment of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Acute Myocardial Infarct in Pigs.

Heart Surg Forum 2021 Apr 27;24(2):E409-E413. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Heart Center, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Background: To investigate the potential of intravenously administered porcine recombinant interferon-β1a (IFN-β1a) for myocardial protection during acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in an experimental animal model.

Methods: Twenty-two piglets (mean ± standard deviation, 26.7 ± 1. Read More

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Linked color imaging vs. white light imaging colonoscopy for colorectal adenoma detection: a randomized controlled trial.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Gastroenterology, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan.

Background And Aim: The adenoma detection rate is an important indicator of colonoscopy quality and colorectal cancer incidence. We compared the adenoma detection rates between white light imaging (WLI) and linked color imaging (LCI) colonoscopy.

Methods: Patients undergoing colonoscopy for positive fecal immunochemical tests, follow-up of colon polyps, and abdominal symptoms at three institutions were randomly assigned to the LCI or WLI groups. Read More

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Computational analysis the relationships of energy and mechanical properties with sensitivity for FOX-7 based PBXs via MD simulation.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Feb 10;8(2):200345. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

1North Univ China, Sch Environm and Safety Engn, Taiyuan 030051, Shanxi, People's Republic of China.

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been applied to investigate 1, 1-diamino-2, 2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) crystal and FOX-7 (011)-based polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) with four typical polymers, polyethylene glycol (PEG), fluorine-polymer (F), ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) and ester urethane (ESTANE5703) under COMPASS force field. Binding energy (), cohesive energy density (CED), initiation bond length distribution, RDG analysis and isotropic mechanical properties of FOX-7 and its PBXs at different temperatures were reported for the first time, and the relationship between them and sensitivity. Using quantum chemistry, FOX-7 was optimized with the four polymers at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level, and the structure and RDG of the optimized composite system were analysed. Read More

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February 2021

Association of PM exposure with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals in Japan.

Sci Rep 2021 May 10;11(1):9897. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, 2-16-1, Sugao, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

Although exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 2.5 µm (PM) influences cardiovascular disease (CVD), its association with CVD-related hospitalizations of super-aged patients in Japan remains uncertain. We investigated the relationship between short-term PM exposure and CVD-related hospitalizations, lengths of hospital stays, and medical expenses. Read More

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Activation of spinal dorsal horn astrocytes by noxious stimuli involves descending noradrenergic signaling.

Mol Brain 2021 May 10;14(1):79. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular and System Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Astrocytes are critical regulators of neuronal function in the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously shown that astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn (SDH) have increased intracellular Ca levels following intraplantar injection of the noxious irritant, formalin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Read More

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Mitigation of endemic GI-tract pathogen-mediated inflammation through development of multimodal treatment regimen and its impact on SIV acquisition in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009565. Epub 2021 May 10.

Infectious Disease Resource, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, United States of America.

Here, we assessed the efficacy of a short-course multimodal therapy (enrofloxacin, azithromycin, fenbendazole, and paromomycin) to eliminate common macaque endemic pathogens (EPs) and evaluated its impact on gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota, mucosal integrity, and local and systemic inflammation in sixteen clinically healthy macaques. Treatment combined with expanded practices resulted in successful maintenance of rhesus macaques (RM) free of common EPs, with no evidence of overt microbiota diversity loss or dysbiosis and instead resulted in a more defined luminal microbiota across study subjects. Creation of a GI pathogen free (GPF) status resulted in improved colonic mucosal barrier function (histologically, reduced colonic MPO+, and reduced pan-bacterial 16s rRNA in the MLN), reduced local and systemic innate and adaptive inflammation with reduction of colonic Mx1 and pSTAT1, decreased intermediate (CD14+CD16+) and non-classical monocytes (CD14-CD16+), reduced populations of peripheral dendritic cells, Ki-67+ and CD38+ CD4+ T cells, Ki-67+IgG+, and Ki-67+IgD+ B cells indicating lower levels of background inflammation in the distal descending colon, draining mesenteric lymph nodes, and systemically in peripheral blood, spleen, and axillary lymph nodes. Read More

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Targeting Peritumoral Lesions Identified by Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Feline Injection-Site Sarcomas for Microscopic Examination.

Vet Pathol 2021 May 10:3009858211012949. Epub 2021 May 10.

2694Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.

Peritumoral lesions identified during in vivo imaging of feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS) are frequently interpreted as neoplastic. We recently showed that most peritumoral imaging-identified lesions (PTIILs) in FISS are non-neoplastic. In this article, we describe a protocol to target PTIIL for microscopic examination and report on the protocol's performance. Read More

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Remifentanil preconditioning alleviates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats via activating Jagged-1/Notch signaling pathway.

Biosci Rep 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Chengdu Second People's Hospital, Chengdu, China.

Ischemic heart diseases have emerged as great threats to human health. Nowadays, restoration of cardiac blood flow supply is widely regarded as a feasible treatment choice for ischemic heart diseases; however, this intervention would contradictorily elicit reperfusion injury. Recently, myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI) has aroused widespread public concerns. Read More

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Deep Learning-Quantified Calcium Scores for Automatic Cardiovascular Mortality Prediction at Lung Screening Low-Dose CT.

Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2021 Apr 15;3(2):e190219. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics (B.D.d.V., I.I.), Cardiovascular Institute (B.D.d.V., I.I.), and Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (I.I.), Amsterdam University Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; and Image Sciences Institute (B.D.d.V., N.L., I.I.) and Department of Radiology (P.A.d.J., I.I.), University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To examine the prognostic value of location-specific arterial calcification quantities at lung screening low-dose CT for the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study included 5564 participants who underwent low-dose CT from the National Lung Screening Trial between August 2002 and April 2004, who were followed until December 2009. A deep learning network was trained to quantify six types of vascular calcification: thoracic aorta calcification (TAC); aortic and mitral valve calcification; and coronary artery calcification (CAC) of the left main, the left anterior descending, and the right coronary artery. Read More

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Cardiac Derived CD51-Positive Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhance the Cardiac Repair Through SCF-Mediated Angiogenesis in Mice With Myocardial Infarction.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 21;9:642533. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Anatomy, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Many tissues contained resident mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) that facilitated tissue hemostasis and repair. However, there is no typical marker to identify the resident cardiac MSCs. We aimed to determine if CD51 could be an optimal marker of cardiac MSCs and assess their therapeutic potential for mice with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Read More

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Small bowel perforation and death caused by anaplastic thyroid carcinoma metastasis in a patient with concomitant colonic and bilateral breast carcinoma.

Autops Case Rep 2021 Mar 26;11:e2021255. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Charles University, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady, Department of General Surgery, Prague, Czech Republic.

Undifferentiated or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is rare and one of the most aggressive human malignancies. The tumor is usually voluminous and fast-growing and mostly affects older women. The most common sites of distant metastases are the lungs, brain, and bones. Read More

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Pregnancy associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection: A case report and review of literature.

World J Cardiol 2021 Apr;13(4):103-110

Division of Inpatient Medicine, University of Arizona/Banner University Medical Center, Tucson, AZ 85719, United States.

Background: Pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (PSCAD) is an important cause of chest pain and acute myocardial infarction in pregnant and postpartum women. Pregnancy is considered an isolated risk factor for spontaneous coronary artery dissection. The etiology, pathogenesis, and incidence of PSCAD are not known. Read More

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Frozen elephant trunk in acute type A aortic dissection: surgical techniques and the extracorporeal circuit management.

Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 5;37(3):303-306. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Institute of Cardiac and Aortic Disorders (ICAD), SRM Institutes for Medical Science (SIMS Hospital), Vadapalani, Chennai, 600 026 India.

Acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a challenging clinical condition with immediate and late complications. Frozen elephant trunk (FET) has been offered as a solution for it promises to address the late complications-false lumen thrombosis and aortic remodelling. Here, we describe the implantation of the FET in ATAAD with the surgical technique and extracorporeal circuit management. Read More

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Dual left anterior descending artery: diagnostic criteria and novel classification.

Indian J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 May 2;37(3):285-294. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Cardiology, Indo-US Hospitals, Shyam Karan Road, Ameerpet, Hyderabad, Telangana 500016 India.

Duplication of the left anterior descending artery is an uncommon coronary anomaly. Since no proper classification has been established after the initial description and numerical classification by Spindola-Franco et al., many newer numbers have evolved with many overlapping and unclassified variants described in the literature. Read More

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Clinical Implementation of Second-generation Minimally Invasive Image-guided Cochlear Implantation Surgery.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Jun;42(5):702-705

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Objective: Minimally invasive, image-guided cochlear implantation (CI) surgery consists of drilling a precise tunnel from the surface of the mastoid cortex through the facial recess to target the scala tympani. In the first set of clinical trials of this technique, heat-induced facial nerve paresis (House-Brackmann II/VI) occurred on a patient on the last day of the initial trial which was scheduled to be halted secondary to a change in the regulatory requirements dictated by the 2012 the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act requiring Investigational Device Exemption approval for previously exempted customized medical device testing. To address this adverse event, extensive changes were made to the drilling protocol; additionally, a custom insertion tool was developed. Read More

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Cognition and progress of de Winter electrocardiogram pattern.

Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Apr;46(4):421-425

Department of Cardiology, Yongchuan Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 402160, China.

The de Winter electrocardiogram pattern is an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction equivalent, however this specific electrocardiogram change is easily ignored by clinicians. The de Winter electrocardiogram pattern in patients with acute chest pain mostly indicates sub-complete or complete occlusion of the left anterior descending or the diagonal branch. Patients with acute chest pain and such electrocardiographic finding should undergo emergency coronary angiography immediately to determine the coronary condition, and reperfusion therapy should be performed as soon as possible to reduce the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Read More

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Development of a prediction model for ascent and descent staircase independence during the sub-acute rehabilitation phase in individuals post-stroke.

NeuroRehabilitation 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Physical Therapy Department, School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Nearly half of individuals post-stroke are dependent in their daily activities. The ability to ascend and descend stairs is an important component of independence in the community.

Objective: To predict the future ability of post-stroke individuals at the beginning of the sub-acute rehabilitation phase to achieve ascending and descending staircase independence. Read More

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[A Case of De Winter Syndrome with Dynamic ST Segment Evolution].

Authors:
Chao Zhang Yi An

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2021 Apr;43(2):305-308

Department of Cardiology,The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University,Qingdao,Shandong 266003,China.

De Winter syndrome,a special electrocardiogram of acute total occlusion or subtotal occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery,is not common in clinical practice.It has been generally considered static,whereas the electrocardiogram changes dynamically in this case.We propose that de Winter pattern may indicate a thrombotic disease and can be roughly divided into two types according to whether the electrocardiogram changes dynamically. Read More

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Effect of wearing a helmet on the occurrence of head injuries in motorcycle riders in Benin: a case-control study.

Inj Epidemiol 2021 May 10;8(1):17. Epub 2021 May 10.

Ecole de Santé Publique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium.

Background: In Benin, motorcycles are the main means of transport for road users and are involved in more than half of crashes. This study aims to determine the effect of wearing a helmet on reducing head injuries in road crashes in Benin.

Methods: This case-control study took place in 2020 and focused on road trauma victims. Read More

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Infant botulism: an underestimated threat.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 May 8:1-14. Epub 2021 May 8.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medical, Surgical and Experimental Sciences, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

Infant botulism (IB) is defined as a potentially life-threatening neuroparalytic disorder affecting children younger than 12 months. It is caused by ingestion of food or dust contaminated by spores, which germinate in the infant's large bowel and produce botulinum neurotoxin. Although the real impact of IB is likely underestimated worldwide, the USA has the highest number of cases. Read More

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Determining the types of descending waves from transcranial magnetic stimulation measured with conditioned H-reflexes in humans.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Sport Science, University of Freiburg, Germany.

Non-invasive techniques are scarce with which human (motor) cortical mechanisms can be investigated. In a series of previous experiments, we have applied an advanced form of conditioning technique with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and peripheral nerve stimulation by which excitability changes at the laminar level in the primary motor cortex can be estimated. This method builds on the assumption that the first of subsequent corticospinal waves from TMS which is assessed with H-reflexes (called early facilitation) results from indirect excitation of corticospinal neurons in motor cortex (I-wave) and not direct excitation of corticospinal axons (D-wave). Read More

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Mapping the distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances in zebrafishes by liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry.

Talanta 2021 Aug 6;231:122377. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, South China Sea Bio-Resource Exploitation and Utilization Collaborative Innovation Center, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, 135 Xingangxi Road, Guangzhou, 510275, China; Institute of Environmental and Ecological Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, 100 Waihuanxi Road, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

Investigation on the distribution of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in aquatic organisms is of great importance for exploring the biological toxicity and health risks of environmental pollutants. In this study, a liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) method was developed for rapid and in situ analysis of the spatial distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in zebrafish. By combining the high-precision automated moving platform of LESA device and the high-resolution MS, quantitative analysis of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) in zebrafish tissue section were easily achieved. Read More

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Hypoxic acclimation improves cardiac redox homeostasis and protects heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury through upregulation of O-GlcNAcylation.

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 30;43:101994. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Mitochondria and Metabolism, Department of Anesthesiology, National Clinical Research Center for Geriatrics, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China; Laboratory of Anesthesia and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China. Electronic address:

Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is detrimental to cardiovascular system. Alteration in glucose metabolism has been recognized as an important adaptive response under hypoxic conditions. However, the biological benefits underlying this metabolic phenotype remain to be elucidated. Read More

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False lumen enhancement characteristics on computed tomography angiography predict risk of aneurysm formation in acute type B aortic dissection.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objectives: Differential luminal enhancement [between true lumen (TL) and false lumen (FL)] results from differential flow patterns, most likely due to outflow restriction in the FL. We aimed to assess the impact of differential luminal enhancement at baseline computed tomography angiography on the risk of adverse events in patients with acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD).

Methods: Baseline computed tomography angiographies of patients with acute TBAD between 2007 and 2016 (n = 48) were analysed using three-dimensional software at multiple sites along the descending thoraco-abdominal aorta. Read More

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Blood flow energy loss: a predictor for the recovery of left ventricular function after bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Blood Flow Imaging Research Laboratory, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.

Objectives: It is difficult to estimate the improvement in left ventricular (LV) function after aortic valve replacement (AVR). The present study aimed to evaluate whether energy loss (EL) can predict the postoperative LV function after AVR.

Methods: Nine patients who underwent AVR with a bioprosthetic valve were enrolled in the present study. Read More

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[Acute localized dissection of the descending thoracic aorta: A diagnostic trap].

Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Vascular Surgery Department, Mohammed VI University Hospital Center, Oujda, Maroc; University Mohammed 1st. Faculty of medicine and pharmacy, Oujda, Maroc. Electronic address:

Localized dissection of the descending thoracic aorta; class 3 of the classification proposed by the European Society of Cardiology; is a short and limited length dissection involving the descending thoracic aorta. It is a rare and unrecognized variant that poses a clinical and radiological diagnostic challenge. Indeed, it is manifested by an aspecific clinical profile represented by the acute aortic syndrome and characterized by a confused radiological aspect that entangled with the other differential diagnoses. Read More

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Pulsed field ablation selectively spares the oesophagus during pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation.

Europace 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

IHU LIRYC-CHU Bordeaux, Univ. Bordeaux, Inserm U1045, Avenue du Haut Lévêque, 33604 Pessac, France.

Aims: Extra-atrial injury can cause complications after catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulsed field ablation (PFA) has generated preclinical data suggesting that it selectively targets the myocardium. We sought to characterize extra-atrial injuries after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) between PFA and thermal ablation methods. Read More

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