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Maxillofacial Bony Considerations in Facial Transplantation.

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Dallas, Texas.

Alloplastic facial transplantation has become a new rung on the proverbial reconstructive ladder for severe facial wounds in the past couple of decades. Since the first transfer including bony components in 2006, numerous facial allotransplantations across many countries have been successfully performed, many incorporating multiple bony elements of the face. There are many unique considerations to facial transplantation of bone, however, beyond the considerations of simple soft tissue transfer. Read More

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Local and Regional Blocks for Complex Facial Wound Repair.

Authors:
Joy Obokhare

Facial Plast Surg 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, Texas.

The location, severity, and associated injuries of the head and neck trauma dictate the type and treatment location needed for that particular patient. An in-depth knowledge of local and regional block options is vital to the proper management of facial wounds at the bedside, decreasing need for general anesthesia, anesthesia-related complication, length of hospital stay, and overall hospital costs. This article will discuss local and regional block options for the upper-face, midface, and lower face including dentition; complications of local and regional blocks and how to prevent them; and recent advances in local anesthesia. Read More

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Tranexamic Acid Treatment for Trauma Victims.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom.

Worldwide, traumatic injury is responsible for over 5 million deaths per year, the majority due to exsanguination and head injury. The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is the only drug proven to reduce deaths after traumatic injury. Several large randomized controlled trials have provided high-quality evidence of its effectiveness and safety in trauma patients. Read More

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Fibrinolysis in Acute and Chronic Cardiovascular Disease.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Metabolic Medicine, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

The formation of an obstructive thrombus within an artery remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite effective inhibition of platelet function by modern antiplatelet therapies, these agents fail to fully eliminate atherothrombotic risk. This may well be related to extensive vascular disease, beyond the protective abilities of the treatment agents used. Read More

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Fibrinolysis in Traumatic Brain Injury: Diagnosis, Management, and Clinical Considerations.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Posttraumatic coagulopathy involves disruption of both the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways secondary to tissue damage, hypotension, and inflammatory upregulation. This phenomenon contributes to delayed complications after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including intracranial hemorrhage progression and systemic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Development of an early hyperfibrinolytic state may result in uncontrolled bleeding and is associated with increased mortality in patients with TBI. Read More

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Neonatal Outcomes after Uterus Transplantation: Dallas Uterus Transplant Study.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Annette C. and Harold C. Simmons Transplant Institute, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.

Objective:  Limited data are available on the outcome of infants born after uterus transplantation. Our aim was to describe the hospital course and laboratory findings in the first 2 months of life of the 12 infants born in the Dallas UtErus Transplant Study (DUETS).

Study Design:  Based on the trial protocol, information about infants was collected in a prospective fashion, including infant demographics, hospital course, and laboratory values. Read More

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Clinical and Demographic Risk Factors for COVID-19 during Delivery Hospitalizations in New York City.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York.

Objective:  This study was aimed to review 4 weeks of universal novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) screening among delivery hospitalizations, at two hospitals in March and April 2020 in New York City, to compare outcomes between patients based on COVID-19 status and to determine whether demographic risk factors and symptoms predicted screening positive for COVID-19.

Study Design:  This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients admitted for delivery from March 22 to April 18, 2020, at two New York City hospitals. Obstetrical and neonatal outcomes were collected. Read More

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A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Standardized Video Education on Prenatal Genetic Testing Choices: Uptake of Genetic Testing.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Naval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California.

Objective:  This study aimed to assess the use of a standardized prenatal genetic testing educational video and its effects on patient uptake of prenatal testing, patient knowledge, decisional conflict, and decisional regret.

Study Design:  This was an IRB-approved randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to intervention (standardized video education) or control (no video education). Read More

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Improving Postpartum Attendance among Women with Gestational Diabetes Using the Medical Home Model of Care.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Objective:  Poor attendance at the 6-week postpartum (PP) visit has been well reported. Attendance at this visit is crucial to identify women who have persistent diabetes mellitus (DM) following pregnancies affected by gestational DM (GDM). The medical home model has eliminated barriers to care in various other settings. Read More

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Effects of Different Onset Times of Early Caffeine Treatment on Mesenteric Tissue Oxygenation and Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A Prospective, Randomized Study.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Bursa Uludag University Faculty of Medicine, Bursa, Turkey.

Objective:  Caffeine treatment is routinely used in premature infants to prevent development of apnea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Although a limited number of studies have reported that early caffeine treatment may cause development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by reducing mesenteric blood flow, this issue is still under discussion. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible effect of different onset times of early caffeine treatment on mesenteric tissue oxygen saturation and NEC development in premature infants. Read More

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Disparities in Trial of Labor among Women with Twin Gestations in the United States.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Objective:  The aim of the study is to examine clinical and demographic factors associated with trial of labor (TOL) among women with twin gestations eligible for a vaginal delivery.

Study Design:  This was a population-based cohort study of women giving birth to twin gestations in the United States (2012-2014). Inclusion criteria for the analysis included live births greater than 23 weeks' gestation and a cephalic presenting twin. Read More

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Comparison of Maternal and Neonatal Subspecialty Care Provision by Hospital.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objective:  The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between a hospital's provision of subspecialty neonatal and maternal care. Specifically, we sought to understand where women with high-risk maternal conditions received intrapartum care and estimate the potential transfer burden for those with maternal high-risk conditions delivering at hospitals without subspecialty maternal care.

Study Design:  This is a descriptive study using data from 2015 State Inpatient Databases and the American Hospital Association Annual Survey. Read More

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Diagnostic Challenges of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

Oncology 2021 Apr 20:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) comprises 1-2% of all thyroid cancers, yet 15% of all thyroid cancer-related deaths. While up to 20% of cases may be predicted due to autosomal dominant germline mutations, 80% of cases are sporadic. However, due to non-specific presenting symptoms and diagnostic imaging, prompt diagnosis and treatment has remained elusive. Read More

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Validity of the 6-Minute Walk Test in Patients with End-Stage Lung Diseases Wearing an Oronasal Surgical Mask in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Respiration 2021 Apr 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, German Heart Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background And Objectives: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT), as a clinical assessment tool for functional exercise capacity, is an integral component of lung allocation scores (LASs). In times of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, patients underwent 6MWTs wearing a surgical mask in ambulatory care. We investigated the impact of wearing a mask on 6-minute walk distances (6MWDs). Read More

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Anti-aging effects of a functional food via the action of gut microbiota and metabolites in aging mice.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 20;13. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Clinical Nutrition, Beijing Shijitan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100038, China.

Wushen (WS) is a mixed food containing 55 natural products that is beneficial to human health. This study aimed to reveal the preventive effect of WS on aging via a combined analysis of gut microbiome and metabolome. Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were used as aging model and senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice as control. Read More

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Concentrations of nine endogenous steroid hormones in 70-year old men and women.

Endocr Connect 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

T Naessen, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Objectives: Circulating concentrations of endogenous steroids have systemic implications for health in elderly. However, population-based age- and ethnicity-specific data are scarce. The aim was to report sex-specific plasma concentrations of endogenous sex- and adrenal steroids in elderly Swedish Caucasians, to examine the impact of BMI, and to present concentrations in apparently healthy subjects. Read More

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Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs: a fairytale for endocrinologists.

Endocr Connect 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

S Livadas, Endocrine Unit, Athens Medical Centre, Athens, 10563, Greece.

'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs', a fairytale that is widely known across the Western world, was originally written by the Brothers Grimm, and published in 1812. Though each dwarf was first given an individual name in the 1912 Broadway play by the same title, in Walt Disney's 1937 film 'Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs', they were renamed, and their names have become household words. As it is well known, myths, fables, and fairytales, though appearing to be merely children's tales about made-up and magical beings and places, have, more often than not, originated from real facts. Read More

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Associations of urinary bisphenol A and its alternatives bisphenol S and F concentrations with depressive symptoms among adults.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 14;279:130573. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The College of Public Health of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, China; Municipal Centre of Disease Control and Prevention of Qingdao, Qingdao Institute of Prevention Medicine, Qingdao, Shandong, 266034, China. Electronic address:

Background: Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), as substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA), are synthetic compounds detected increasingly frequently in plastics and resins. BPA, BPS, and BPF are endocrine disruptors with unclear effects on depressive symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the effects of these compounds on depressive symptoms in adults. Read More

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Rezum therapy, a feasible and safe treatment for the larger prostate.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 7;82:105871. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

College of Medicine, Mohammed Bin Rashid University for Medicine and Health Sciences, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Department of Urological Surgery, Mediclinic City Hospital, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Electronic address:

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the leading cause of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) in men worldwide. Urinary frequency, nocturia and incomplete emptying are common symptoms experienced by men with BPH, which significantly reduce their quality of life. Treatment for this dysfunction includes surgical and non-surgical modalities such as watchful waiting, lifestyle modification and medication. Read More

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Drivers of successful implementation of integrated care for multi-morbidity: Mechanisms identified in 17 case studies from 8 European countries.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Feb 3;277:113728. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

This paper provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying implementation strategies for integrated care. As part of the SELFIE project, 17 integrated care programmes addressing multi-morbidity from eight European countries were selected and studied. Data was extracted from 'thick descriptions' of the 17 programmes and analysed both inductively and deductively using implementation theory. Read More

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February 2021

Politicisation, depoliticisation, and repoliticisation of health care controversies: Vaccination and mental health care reform in the Czech Republic.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 18;277:113916. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address:

This article analyses the politicisation of public health debates by focusing on vaccination and mental health care in the Czech Republic. The mainstream understanding of politicisation commonly refers to politics-as-sphere, linked with the political instrumentalisation of health care controversies as part of electoral campaigning and power struggles. In our analysis, we conceive politicisation more broadly, as politics-as-activity, which encompasses the role of civic engagement and the involvement of patients in these processes. Read More

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Real-world analysis of botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections in post-stroke spasticity: Higher doses of BoNT and longer intervals in the early-start group.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 17;425:117449. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center McGovern Medical School and the NeuroRecovery Research Center, TIRR Memorial Hermann, Houston, TX, United States of America. Electronic address:

Our primary objective was to compare early-start vs. late-start Botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections in post-stroke spasticity management. This is an IRB approved retrospective chart review of patients who were admitted for inpatient rehabilitation within 6 months after first-ever stroke between January 2014 and December 2018 and received BoNT injections within 15 months. Read More

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Identifying prognostic factors and developing accurate outcome predictions for in-hospital cardiac arrest by using artificial neural networks.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 17;425:117445. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan; Clinical Big Data Research Center, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Accurate estimation of neurological outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) provides crucial information for clinical management. This study used artificial neural networks (ANNs) to determine the prognostic factors and develop prediction models for IHCA based on immediate preresuscitation parameters.

Methods: The derived cohort comprised 796 patients with IHCA between 2006 and 2014. Read More

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Frequency selectivity in the modulation domain estimated using forward masking: Effects of masker modulation depth and masker-signal delay.

Hear Res 2021 Apr 9;405:108244. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cambridge Hearing Group, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The threshold for detecting amplitude modulation (AM) of a sinusoidal or noise carrier is elevated when the signal AM is preceded by masker AM applied to the same carrier. This effect, called AM forward masking, shows selectivity in the AM domain, consistent with the existence of a modulation filter bank (MFB). In this paper we explore the effect of two factors that can influence AM forward masking, using an 8-kHz sinusoidal carrier and a range of masker AM frequencies, f, both below and above the signal AM frequency, f, of 40 Hz. Read More

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The relationship between childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms among Chinese college students: The multiple mediating effects of emotional and behavioral problems.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;288:129-135. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: This study aims to explore the mediational effects of emotional and behavioral problems on the association between childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms among college students.

Methods: Data were drawn from 60 universities from 10 provinces in China (n=30,374). Information about childhood maltreatment, depressive symptoms, emotional and behavioral problems were gathered through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), respectively. Read More

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A classification of primary care streaming pathways in UK emergency departments: Findings from a multi-methods study comprising cross-sectional survey; site visits with observations, semi-structured and informal interviews.

Int Emerg Nurs 2021 Apr 17;56:101000. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Division of Population Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK.

Background: Variation in initial assessment methods at emergency departments in with primary care service models and a conflated terminology causes difficulties in assessing relative performance, improving quality or gathering evidence about safety and clinical effectiveness. We aim to describe and classify streaming pathways in emergency departments in different models of emergency department primary care services in England and Wales.

Methods: We used a multi-stage method, including an online survey completed by 77 emergency departments across England & Wales, interviews with 21 clinical leads, and in-depth case studies of 13 emergency departments. Read More

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Intrauterine administration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by human chorionic gonadotropin in patients with repeated implantation failure: A meta-analysis.

J Reprod Immunol 2021 Apr 15;145:103323. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Jinxin Research Institute for Reproductive Medicine and Genetics, Chengdu Jinjiang Hospital for Maternal and Child Health Care, Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to assess whether intrauterine administration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) activated by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) could improve the pregnancy and live birth rates in women with repeated implantation failure (RIF), and whether the parameters of co-culture of hCG and PBMCs would affect the clinical outcomes. Six databases (PubMed, Ovid, Medline, NCBI, Cqvip and Wanfang) were searched up to October 2020 by two independent reviewers. Seven studies were included according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Read More

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Prediction of repeated-dose intravenous ketamine response in major depressive disorder using the GWAS-based machine learning approach.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 12;138:284-290. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Various clinical studies have shown that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has rapid, robust, and sustained antidepressant effects. However, given the concerns about the adverse effects of ketamine on patients, it would be important to identify a set of biomarkers that could be used to predict clinical outcomes for its treatment. Read More

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Evaluation of Promega PowerSeq™ Auto/Y systems prototype on an admixed sample of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Population data, sensitivity, stutter and mixture studies.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2021 Apr 6;53:102516. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Forensic DNA typing typically relies on the length-based (LB) separation of PCR products containing short tandem repeat loci (STRs). Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) elucidates an additional level of STR motif and flanking region variation. Also, MPS enables simultaneous analysis of different marker-types - autosomal STRs, SNPs for lineage and identification purposes, reducing both the amount of sample used and the turn-around-time of analysis. Read More

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