5,187 results match your criteria densities indicate

Quantifying Collective Intelligence and Behaviours of SARS-CoV-2 via Environmental Resources from Virus' Perspectives.

Ray-Ming Chen

Environ Res 2021 May 11:111278. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Mathematics and Statistics, Baise University, 21, Zhongshan No.2 Road, Guangxi Province, China.

Collective intelligence of viruses is witnessed in many research articles. Most of the researches focus on the qualitative properties or observations. In this research, we model the behaviours and collective intelligence of SARS-CoV-2 by minimal spanning trees (MSTs), which specify the underlying mechanisms of resource allocation in the viral colony. Read More

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Emotion network density is a potential clinical marker for anxiety and depression: Comparison of ecological momentary assessment and daily diary.

Br J Clin Psychol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, USA.

Objectives: Using two intensive longitudinal data sets with different timescales (90 minutes, daily), we examined emotion network density, a metric of emotional inflexibility, as a predictor of clinical-level anxiety and depression.

Design: Mobile-based intensive longitudinal assessments.

Methods: 119 participants (61 anxious and depressed, 58 healthy controls) completed ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to rate a variety of negative (NE) and positive emotions (PE) 9 times per day for 8 days using a mobile phone application. Read More

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Elevated temperature inhibits Mycobacterium shottsii infection and Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii disease in striped bass Morone saxatilis.

Dis Aquat Organ 2021 May 6;144:159-174. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA.

Mycobacteriosis occurs with high prevalence in the wild striped bass Morone saxatilis of Chesapeake Bay, USA. Etiologic agents of mycobacteriosis in this system are dominated by Mycobacterium pseudoshottsii and Mycobacterium shottsii, both members of the M. ulcerans/M. Read More

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Establishment of a Faba Bean Banker Plant System with Predator for the Control of Thrips on Tea Plants under Laboratory Conditions.

Insects 2021 Apr 29;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Entomology, Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of the Mountainous Region, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025, China.

The stick tea thrip (Priesner) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a destructive pest in tea plantations in south and southwest China. To control this pest, a non-crop banker plant system was developed using a polyphagous predator (Poppius) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) with the black bean aphid (Scopoli) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as an alternative prey and the faba bean as the banker plant to support the predator in targeting the pest. The fitness of on tea plants and faba bean was evaluated to determine its host specificity. Read More

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Multi-seasonal systematic camera-trapping reveals fluctuating densities and high turnover rates of Carpathian lynx on the western edge of its native range.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 29;11(1):9236. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 613 00, Brno, Czech Republic.

Camera-trapping and capture-recapture models are the most widely used tools for estimating densities of wild felids that have unique coat patterns, such as Eurasian lynx. However, studies dealing with this species are predominantly on a short-term basis and our knowledge of temporal trends and population persistence is still scarce. By using systematic camera-trapping and spatial capture-recapture models, we estimated lynx densities and evaluated density fluctuations, apparent survival, transition rate and individual's turnover during five consecutive seasons at three different sites situated in the Czech-Slovak-Polish borderland at the periphery of the Western Carpathians. Read More

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HRP2 and HRP3 cross-reactivity and implications for HRP2-based RDT use in regions with Plasmodium falciparum hrp2 gene deletions.

Malar J 2021 Apr 29;20(1):207. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Malaria Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

Background: The Plasmodium falciparum antigen histidine rich protein 2 (HRP2) is a preferred target for malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) because of its abundant production by the parasite and thermal stability. As a result, a majority of RDTs procured globally target this antigen. However, previous reports from South America and recent reports from sub-Saharan Africa and Asia indicate that certain P. Read More

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Improved Performance of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes Grown on Si (111) Substrates with NH Growth Interruption.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Apr 5;12(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Advanced Convergence Technology, Research Institute of Advanced Convergence Technology, Korea Polytechnic University, 237 Sangidaehak-ro, Siheung-si 15073, Korea.

We demonstrate the highly efficient, GaN-based, multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on Si (111) substrates embedded with the AlN buffer layer using NH growth interruption. Analysis of the materials by the X-ray diffraction omega scan and transmission electron microscopy revealed a remarkable improvement in the crystalline quality of the GaN layer with the AlN buffer layer using NH growth interruption. This improvement originated from the decreased dislocation densities and coalescence-related defects of the GaN layer that arose from the increased Al migration time. Read More

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Mn3-xFexO4 Hollow Nanostructures for High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor Applications.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Ocean University of China, Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Songling Road number 238, 266100, Qingdao, CHINA.

Design of hollow nanostructure and controllable phase of mixed metal oxides for improving performance in supercapacitor applications is highly desirable. Here we demonstrate the rational design and synthesis of Mn 3-x Fe x O 4 hollow nanostructures for supercapacitor applications. Owing to high porosity and the specific surface area that provides more active sites for electrochemical reactions, the electrochemical performance of Mn 3-x Fe x O 4 hollow nanostructure substantially enhances comparing with pristine Mn 3 O 4 . Read More

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Understanding the sodium cation conductivity of human epileptic brain tissue.

AIP Adv 2021 Apr 16;11(4):045118. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Transient and frequency-dependent conductivity measurements on excised brain-tissue lesions from epilepsy patients indicate that sodium cations are the predominant charge carriers. The transient conductivity ultimately vanishes as ions encounter blockages. The initial and final values of the transient conductivity correspond to the high-frequency and low-frequency limits of the frequency-dependent conductivity, respectively. Read More

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Falling bacterial communities from the atmosphere.

Environ Microbiome 2020 Dec 10;15(1):22. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Background: Bacteria emitted into the atmosphere eventually settle to the pedosphere via sedimentation (dry deposition) or precipitation (wet deposition), constituting a part of the global cycling of substances on Earth, including the water cycle. In this study, we aim to investigate the taxonomic compositions and flux densities of bacterial deposition, for which little is known regarding the relative contributions of each mode of atmospheric deposition, the taxonomic structures and memberships, and the aerodynamic properties in the atmosphere.

Results: Precipitation was found to dominate atmospheric bacterial deposition, contributing to 95% of the total flux density at our sampling site in Korea, while bacterial communities in precipitation were significantly different from those in sedimentation, in terms of both their structures and memberships. Read More

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December 2020

Experimental investigation and mass transfer modelling of 3D printed monolithic cation exchangers.

J Chromatogr A 2021 Jun 1;1646:462125. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute for Bioengineering, The School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3DW, UK. Electronic address:

3D printing has recently found application in chromatography as a means to create ordered stationary phases with improved separation efficiency. Currently, 3D printed stationary phases are limited by the lack of 3D printing materials suitable for chromatographic applications, and require a strict compromise in terms of desired resolution, model size and the associated print time. Modelling of mass transfer in 3D printed monoliths is also fundamental to understand and further optimise separation performance of 3D printed stationary phases. Read More

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Constitutive Overexpression of RAM1 Leads to an Increase in Arbuscule Density in Brachypodium distachyon.

Plant Physiol 2020 Nov;184(3):1263-1272

Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, New York 14853.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is a mutually beneficial association of plants and fungi of the subphylum Glomeromycotina. Endosymbiotic AM fungi colonize the inner cortical cells of the roots, where they form branched hyphae called arbuscules that function in nutrient exchange with the plant. To support arbuscule development and subsequent bidirectional nutrient exchange, the root cortical cells undergo substantial transcriptional reprogramming. Read More

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November 2020

Persistent 2-3 σ-bonded heteronuclear radical cations centered on S/Se and P/As atoms.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

The two-center three-electron (2c-3e) bonded species are important in chemical and biological science. Reported isolable 2c-3e σ-bonded species are usually constructed in homoatomic radicals. The one-electron oxidation of main-group heteronuclear species Nap(SPh)(P(Mes)2) (1), Nap(SePh)(P(Mes)2) (2), Nap(SPh)(As(Mes)2) (3) and Nap(SePh)(As(Mes)2) (4) produced persistent radical cations 1˙+-4˙+ in solution. Read More

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Harmful algal blooms and their effects in coastal seas of Northern Europe.

Harmful Algae 2021 Feb 6;102:101989. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Marine Research Centre, Agnes Sjöbergin katu 2, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.

Harmful algal blooms (HAB) are recurrent phenomena in northern Europe along the coasts of the Baltic Sea, Kattegat-Skagerrak, eastern North Sea, Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. These HABs have caused occasional massive losses for the aquaculture industry and have chronically affected socioeconomic interests in several ways. This status review gives an overview of historical HAB events and summarises reports to the Harmful Algae Event Database from 1986 to the end of year 2019 and observations made in long term monitoring programmes of potentially harmful phytoplankton and of phycotoxins in bivalve shellfish. Read More

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February 2021

Electron acceleration at oblique angles via stimulated Raman scattering at laser irradiance >10^{16}Wcm^{-2}μm^{2}.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):033203

Center for Energy Research, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0417, USA.

The generation of hot, directional electrons via laser-driven stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is a topic of great importance in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) schemes. Little recent research has been dedicated to this process at high laser intensity, in which back, side, and forward scatter simultaneously occur in high energy density plasmas, of relevance to, for example, shock ignition ICF. We present an experimental and particle-in-cell (PIC) investigation of hot electron production from SRS in the forward and near-forward directions from a single speckle laser of wavelength λ_{0}=1. Read More

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Landscape structure affects the sunflower visiting frequency of insect pollinators.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 14;11(1):8147. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Zoology and Ecology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Páter Károly utca 1, Gödöllő, 2100, Hungary.

Mass-flowering crop monocultures, like sunflower, cannot harbour a permanent pollinator community. Their pollination is best secured if both managed honey bees and wild pollinators are present in the agricultural landscape. Semi-natural habitats are known to be the main foraging and nesting areas of wild pollinators, thus benefiting their populations, whereas crops flowering simultaneously may competitively dilute pollinator densities. Read More

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Spine impairment in mice high-expressing neuregulin 1 due to LIMK1 activation.

Cell Death Dis 2021 Apr 14;12(4):403. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Life Sciences, Nanchang University, Nanchang, 330031, China.

The genes encoding for neuregulin1 (NRG1), a growth factor, and its receptor ErbB4 are both risk factors of major depression disorder and schizophrenia (SZ). They have been implicated in neural development and synaptic plasticity. However, exactly how NRG1 variations lead to SZ remains unclear. Read More

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Single-molecule micromanipulation studies of methylated DNA.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. Electronic address:

Cytosine methylated at the five-carbon position is the most widely studied reversible DNA modification. Prior findings indicate that methylation can alter mechanical properties. However, those findings were qualitative and sometimes contradictory, leaving many aspects unclear. Read More

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Polymer-Induced Liquid Precursor (PILP) remineralization of artificial and natural dentin carious lesions evaluated by nanoindentation and microcomputed tomography.

J Dent 2021 Apr 6;109:103659. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Preventative and Restorative Dental Sciences, UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study evaluates the efficacy to remineralize artificial and natural dentin lesions through restorative dental procedures that include the Polymer-Induced Liquid Precursor (PILP) method comprising polyaspartic acid (pAsp).

Methods: Novel ionomeric cement compositions based on bioglass 45S5 and pAsp mixtures, as well as conditioning solutions (conditioner) containing 5 mg/mL pAsp, were developed and tested on demineralized dentin blocks (3-4 mm thick) on shallow and deep lesions with the thickness of 140 μm ± 50 and 700 μm ± 50, respectively. In the first treatment group, 20 μL of conditioner was applied to demineralized shallow (n = 3) and deep (n = 3) lesion specimens for 20 s before restoration with glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Read More

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Tunable ultrasharp terahertz plasma edge in a lightly doped narrow-gap semiconductor.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):9261-9268

Plasma edges in metals typically occur in the visible range, producing characteristic colors of metals. In a lightly doped semiconductor, the plasma edge can occur in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. Due to low scattering rates and variable electron densities in semiconductors, such THz plasma edges can be extremely sharp and greatly tunable. Read More

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The Impact of Selected Risk Factors on The Occurrence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Commercial Poultry Flocks in Poland.

J Vet Res 2021 Mar 29;65(1):45-52. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Poultry Diseases, National Veterinary Research Institute, 24-100 Puławy, Poland.

Introduction: Introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) into a country and its further spread may have a devastating impact on the poultry industry and lead to serious economic consequences. Various risk factors may increase the probability of HPAI outbreak occurrence but their relative influence is often difficult to determine. The study evaluates how the densities of selected poultry species and proximity to the areas inhabited by wild birds impacted HPAI outbreak occurrence during the recently reported epidemics in Poland. Read More

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Percolation on coupled networks with multiple effective dependency links.

Chaos 2021 Mar;31(3):033152

Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

The ubiquitous coupled relationship between network systems has become an essential paradigm to depict complex systems. A remarkable property in the coupled complex systems is that a functional node should have multiple external support associations in addition to maintaining the connectivity of the local network. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to study the structural robustness of the coupled network with multiple useful dependency links. Read More

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Effect of Peak Current Density on Tensile Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Mar 17;14(6). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Mechanical System Engineering, System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 191-0052, Japan.

An investigation into the effects, including the athermal effect, of a pulsed current on AZ31B magnesium alloy was carried out. Different peak current densities were applied at the same temperature under uniaxial tensile testing. The results indicate that the stress reduction caused by the increasing peak current density is independent of temperature. Read More

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Prediction of photosynthetic light-response curves using traits of the leaf economics spectrum for 75 woody species: effects of leaf habit and sun-shade dichotomy.

Am J Bot 2021 03;108(3):423-431

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Ecophysiology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, Fujian Province, 350007, China.

Premise: Photosynthetic light-response (PLR) curves for leaves are important components of models related to carbon fixation in forest ecosystems, linking the Mitscherlich equation and Michaelis-Menten equation to traits of the leaf economics spectrum (LES). However, models do not consider changes in leaf habits (i.e. Read More

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Tumor-infiltrating plasmacytoid dendritic cells are associated with survival in human colon cancer.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 Mar;9(3)

Institute of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, TU Dresden, Dresden, Germany

Background: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a key role in the induction and maintenance of antitumor immunity. Conversely, they can act as tolerogenic DCs by inhibiting tumor-directed immune responses. Therefore, pDCs may profoundly influence tumor progression. Read More

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Response of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) to pipelines in Alberta.

Environ Manage 2021 Jun 18;67(6):1158-1170. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Research Scientist and Program Lead, Grizzly Bear Program, fRI Research, 1176 Switzer Drive, Hinton, AB, T7V 1V3, Canada.

This research provides the first in-depth analysis of fine-scale grizzly bear habitat selection and movement patterns in response to the linear footprints cleared for below-ground pipelines in Alberta. Using an extensive set of GPS location data from collared grizzly bears, we were able to determine that grizzly bears selected for younger pipelines (mean age since last construction~6.5 years), which are known to have a greater abundance of important bear foods. Read More

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Repeated victorious and defeat experiences induce similar apical dendritic spine remodeling in CA1 hippocampus of rats.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 13;406:113243. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Dept. of Behavioral Neuroscience, Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

In this study, apical dendritic spine density of neurons in hippocampal, amygdalar and prefrontal cortical areas was compared in rats that were repeatedly winning or losing social conflicts. Territorial male wild-type Groningen (WTG) rats were allowed multiple daily attacks (>20 times) on intruder males in the resident-intruder paradigm. Frequent winning experiences are known to facilitate uncontrolled aggressive behavior reflected in aggressive attacks on anesthetized males which was also observed in the winners in this study. Read More

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Predator community and resource use jointly modulate the inducible defense response in body height of crucian carp.

Ecol Evol 2021 Mar 3;11(5):2072-2085. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences Koppang Norway.

Phenotypic plasticity can be expressed as changes in body shape in response to environmental variability. Crucian carp (), a widespread cyprinid, displays remarkable plasticity in body morphology and increases body depth when exposed to cues from predators, suggesting the triggering of an antipredator defense mechanism. However, these morphological changes could also be related to resource use and foraging behavior, as an indirect effect of predator presence. Read More

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Elevated pH Conditions Associated With spp. Blooms Decrease Viability of the Cultured Diatom and Natural Diatoms in Lake Erie.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:598736. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Knoxville, TN, United States.

Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) commonly increase water column pH to alkaline levels ≥9.2, and to as high as 11. This elevated pH has been suggested to confer a competitive advantage to cyanobacteria such as . Read More

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February 2021

Impact of Diamondback Moth Density and Infestation Timing on Broccoli Yield.

Neotrop Entomol 2021 Apr 8;50(2):298-302. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Depto de Entomologia, Univ Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

The diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lep.: Plutellidae), is an important pest of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. Read More

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