125 results match your criteria densities enclosed

Efficacy and Nontarget Effects of Net Exclusion Enclosures on Apple Pest Management.

J Econ Entomol 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Washington State University, Tree Fruit Research and Extension Center, Wenatchee, WA.

Management of direct apple pests, such as codling moth, continues to be problematic despite the widespread implementation of behavioral and chemical controls. Apple growers have increased their use of netting to protect fruit from environmental injury, with some structures enclosing the entire orchard. These enclosures represent a new pest management tactic through physical exclusion. Read More

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Structural insight into transmissive mutant huntingtin species by correlative light and electron microscopy and cryo-electron tomography.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 10;560:99-104. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA; Institute for Quantitative Biomedicine, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Aggregates of mutant huntingtin (mHTT) containing an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract are hallmarks of Huntington's Disease (HD). Studies have shown that mHTT can spread between cells, leading to the propagation of misfolded protein pathology. However, the structure of transmissive mHTT species, and the molecular mechanisms underlying their transmission remain unknown. Read More

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Characteristics of noise complaints and the associations with urban morphology: A comparison across densities.

Huan Tong Jian Kang

Environ Res 2021 06 18;197:111045. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering, The Bartlett, University College London, London, WC1H 0NN, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

This study aimed to characterise spatial-temporal distribution of noise complaints across urban areas with different densities and to analyse the associations between urban morphology and noise complaints. Taking New York City as the study area, crowdsourced noise complaint and urban morphology datasets from the government's open data source were statistically analysed. The results suggest that between boroughs the characteristics of noise complaints are different, in terms of their spatial-temporal distribution, their relation to transport network, land use, and building morphology. Read More

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Predicting suitable coastal habitat for sei whales, southern right whales and dolphins around the Falkland Islands.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(12):e0244068. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Falklands Conservation, Jubilee Villas, Stanley, Falkland Islands.

Species distribution models (SDMs) are valuable tools for describing the occurrence of species and predicting suitable habitats. This study used generalized additive models (GAMs) and MaxEnt models to predict the relative densities of four cetacean species (sei whale Balaeanoptera borealis, southern right whale Eubalaena australis, Peale's dolphin Lagenorhynchus australis, and Commerson's dolphin Cephalorhynchus commersonii) in neritic waters (≤100 m depth) around the Falkland Islands, using boat survey data collected over three seasons (2017-2019). The model predictor variables (PVs) included remotely sensed environmental variables (sea surface temperature, SST, and chlorophyll-a concentration) and static geographical variables (e. Read More

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Strong effects of a mutualism on freshwater community structure.

Ecology 2021 02 20;102(2):e03225. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, 24061, USA.

Numerous mutualisms have been described from terrestrial and marine communities and many of these mutualisms have significant effects on community structure and function. In contrast, there are far fewer examples of mutualisms from freshwater habitats and there is no evidence that any mutualism has community-wide or ecosystem-level consequences. Northern hemisphere crayfish are host to a variety of ectosymbiotic worms called branchiobdellidans. Read More

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February 2021

Comparing the Feeding Damage of the Invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug to a Native Stink Bug and Leaffooted Bug on California Pistachios.

Insects 2020 Oct 12;11(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Environmental Science, Policy & Management, University of California Berkeley, Mulford Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

California currently produces about a quarter of the world's pistachios. Pistachio nuts are susceptible to feeding by stink bugs and leaffooted bugs; therefore, the invasive presence of the highly polyphagous brown marmorated stink bug, (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a concern to California pistachio growers. We aimed to assess the potential of to cause yield loss and nut damage to pistachios, which had not yet been assessed in the field. Read More

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October 2020

Field trials of chemical suppression of embryonic cane toads () by older conspecifics.

Ecol Evol 2020 Sep 31;10(18):10177-10185. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Sydney Sydney NSW Australia.

Laboratory experiments have shown that the viability of embryos of the invasive cane toad () can be reduced by exposure to chemical cues from older conspecific larvae. These effects (very strong in laboratory trials) may offer an exciting new approach to controlling this problematic invasive species in Australia. However, the degree to which the method works in natural environments has yet to be assessed. Read More

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September 2020

Precise Experimental Test of the Luttinger Theorem and Particle-Hole Symmetry for a Strongly Correlated Fermionic System.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Jul;125(4):046601

Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.

A fundamental concept in physics is the Fermi surface, the constant-energy surface in momentum space encompassing all the occupied quantum states at absolute zero temperature. In 1960, Luttinger postulated that the area enclosed by the Fermi surface should remain unaffected even when electron-electron interaction is turned on, so long as the interaction does not cause a phase transition. Understanding what determines the Fermi surface size is a crucial and yet unsolved problem in strongly interacting systems such as high-T_{c} superconductors. Read More

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Occurrence, spatiotemporal variation, and ecological risk of antibiotics in the water of the semi-enclosed urbanized Jiaozhou Bay in eastern China.

Water Res 2020 Oct 15;184:116187. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China.

The occurrence, temporal variation, and spatial variation of antibiotics in coastal bays and estuaries worldwide are not well documented or understood. Fifteen target antibiotics within the five classes of β-lactams, amphenicols, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and sulfonamides were measured during the summer and winter in the water of Jiaozhou Bay in China, which is a semi-enclosed urbanized bay. Fourteen antibiotics (excluding tylosin) were detected, thus demonstrating the widespread occurrence of their residues in the bay. Read More

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October 2020

Densely Populated Water Droplets in Heavy-Oil Seeps.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2020 05 19;86(11). Epub 2020 May 19.

Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany

Most of the microbial degradation in oil reservoirs is believed to take place at the oil-water transition zone (OWTZ). However, a recent study indicates that there is microbial life enclosed in microliter-sized water droplets dispersed in heavy oil of Pitch Lake in Trinidad and Tobago. This life in oil suggests that microbial degradation of oil also takes place in water pockets in the oil-bearing rock of an oil leg independent of the OWTZ. Read More

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Density of coral larvae can influence settlement, post-settlement colony abundance and coral cover in larval restoration.

Sci Rep 2020 03 26;10(1):5488. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Marine Ecology Research Centre, School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, 2480, Australia.

Successful recruitment of new individuals is essential for recovery of degraded coral reefs. Enhancing supply of coral larvae increases initial settlement, however post-settlement survival can be influenced by density-dependent processes. We investigated the influence of larval density on settlement, colony abundance and growth to 24 months for Acropora tenuis in the north-western Philippines, to determine whether larval supply can be optimised to maximise successful recruitment. Read More

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Citrus Production Under Screen as a Strategy to Protect Grapefruit Trees From Huanglongbing Disease.

Front Plant Sci 2019 18;10:1598. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Indian River Research and Education Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Fort Pierce, FL, United States.

Citrus production under enclosed structures can exclude the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, ) and eliminate the negative effects of citrus greening or huanglongbing (HLB) disease caused by Liberibacter asiaticus to the grapefruit () fresh fruit industry. Physically impeding the insect vector from accessing trees is a logical method to have disease-free groves. Our objectives were to assess the ability of enclosed screenhouses to exclude the ACP, stop HLB inoculation and dissemination, and improve fruit yield of in-ground and container-grown 6-year-old "Ray Ruby" grapefruit at super-high planting densities relative to open-air trees. Read More

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December 2019

The First Samples from Almahata Sitta Showing Contacts Between Ureilitic and Chondritic Lithologies: Implications for the Structure and Composition of Asteroid 2008 TC.

Meteorit Planet Sci 2019 Nov 15;54(11):2769-2813. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave, Mountain View CA 94043 USA.

Almahata Sitta (AhS), an anomalous polymict ureilite, is the first meteorite observed to originate from a spectrally classified asteroid (2008 TC). However, correlating properties of the meteorite with those of the asteroid is not straightforward because the AhS stones are diverse types. Of those studied prior to this work, 70-80% are ureilites (achondrites) and 20-30% are various types of chondrites. Read More

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November 2019

First simultaneous detection of helium and tritium inside bubbles in beryllium.

Micron 2019 12 20;127:102754. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB, United Kingdom.

Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was applied to detect and analyze quantitatively helium (He) and tritium (H) enclosed inside bubbles in irradiated beryllium. Both gases were formed in beryllium under neutron irradiation as a consequence of neutron-induced transmutation reactions. They were detected for the first time as pronounced peaks at 13. Read More

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December 2019

Leopard Density Estimation within an Enclosed Reserve, Namibia Using Spatially Explicit Capture-Recapture Models.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Sep 25;9(10). Epub 2019 Sep 25.

AfriCat Foundation, PO Box 1889, Otjiwarongo, Namibia.

The establishment of enclosed conservation areas are claimed to be the driving force for the long-term survival of wildlife populations. Whilst fencing provides an important tool in conservation, it simultaneously represents a controversial matter as it stops natural migration processes, which could ultimately lead to inbreeding, a decline in genetic diversity and local extinction if not managed correctly. Thus, wildlife residing in enclosed reserves requires effective conservation and management strategies, which are strongly reliant on robust population estimates. Read More

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September 2019

Distributions of three Alexandrium species and their toxins across a salinity gradient suggest an increasing impact of GDA producing A. pseudogonyaulax in shallow brackish waters of Northern Europe.

Harmful Algae 2019 07 28;87:101622. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.

Blooms of Alexandrium spp. are a well-known phenomenon in Northern European waters. While A. Read More

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Accounting for spectroscopic effects in laser-based open-path eddy covariance flux measurements.

Glob Chang Biol 2019 06 21;25(6):2189-2202. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

R&D, LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, Nebraska.

A significant portion of the production and consumption of trace gases (e.g. CO , CH , N O, NH , etc. Read More

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Hearing triangles: Perceptual clarity, opacity, and symmetry of spectrotemporal sound shapes.

Sven-Amin Lembke

J Acoust Soc Am 2018 08;144(2):608

Music, Technology and Innovation-Institute for Sonic Creativity (MTI2), De Montfort University, Leicester, LE1 9BH, United Kingdom.

In electroacoustic music, the spectromorphological approach commonly employs analogies to non-sonic phenomena like shapes, gestures, or textures. In acoustical terms, sound shapes can concern simple geometries on the spectrotemporal plane, for instance, a triangle that widens in frequency over time. To test the auditory relevance of such triangular sound shapes, two psychoacoustic experiments assessed if and how these shapes are perceived. Read More

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Structural basis for the recognition of Sonic Hedgehog by human Patched1.

Science 2018 08 28;361(6402). Epub 2018 Jun 28.

State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway involved in development and regeneration is activated by the extracellular binding of Hh to the membrane receptor Patched (Ptch). We report the structures of human Ptch1 alone and in complex with the N-terminal domain of human Sonic hedgehog (ShhN) at resolutions of 3.9 and 3. Read More

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CT-based attenuation correction and resolution compensation for I-123 IMP brain SPECT normal database: a multicenter phantom study.

Ann Nucl Med 2018 Jun 19;32(5):311-318. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Department of Radiology, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, 1-98, Dengakugakubo, Kutsukake, Toyoake, Aichi, 470-1192, Japan.

Objective: Statistical image analysis of brain SPECT images has improved diagnostic accuracy for brain disorders. However, the results of statistical analysis vary depending on the institution even when they use a common normal database (NDB), due to different intrinsic spatial resolutions or correction methods. The present study aimed to evaluate the correction of spatial resolution differences between equipment and examine the differences in skull bone attenuation to construct a common NDB for use in multicenter settings. Read More

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Marine litter on the seafloor of the southern Baltic.

Mar Pollut Bull 2018 Feb 29;127:612-617. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kollataja 1, Gdynia 81-332, Poland.

Marine litter occurrence and composition were investigated during routine bottom trawl fish surveys type BITS performed in the Polish Maritime Areas (the southern Baltic Sea). Sampling covered a distance of 325km and an area of 16km at a depth range of 19-110m. Litter densities varying between 0 items/ha (34% of tows) and 2. Read More

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February 2018

Population structure of giraffes is affected by management in the Great Rift Valley, Kenya.

Zoe Muller

PLoS One 2018 3;13(1):e0189678. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Giraffe populations in East Africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. This study had four objectives: i) to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of Rothschild's giraffes in Kenya, ii) to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii) to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations to inform future decision-making, and iv) to add to the availability of information available about giraffes in the wild. I used individual identification to assess the size and structure of the two populations; in Soysambu Conservancy between May 2010 and January 2011, I identified 77 giraffes; in Lake Nakuru National Park between May 2011 and January 2012, I identified 89. Read More

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February 2018

The paradox of long-term ungulate impact: increase of plant species richness in a temperate forest.

Appl Veg Sci 2017 Apr 8;20(2):282-292. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

The Forest Management Institute, Vrázova 1, 616 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Questions: Did high densities of wild ungulates cause a decline in plant species richness in a temperate oakwood? How did species composition change after nearly five decades? Did ungulates facilitate the spread of ruderal species and supress endangered species? Did dispersal strategies play a role in these processes?

Location: Krumlov Wood, SE Czech Republic.

Methods: In 2012, we resampled 58 quasi-permanent vegetation plots first surveyed in 1960s. Between the surveys, 36 plots were enclosed in a game preserve with artificially high density of ungulates (mostly deer, mouflon and wild boar; ca. Read More

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Occurrence, Prevalence and Dynamics of Parasitoids during Recurrent Blooms of the Toxic Dinoflagellate .

Front Microbiol 2017 31;8:1624. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

Departament de Biologia Marina i Oceanografia, Institut de Ciències del Mar, CSICBarcelona, Spain.

Dinoflagellate blooms are natural phenomena that often occur in coastal areas, which in addition to their large number of nutrient-rich sites are characterized by highly restricted hydrodynamics within bays, marinas, enclosed beaches, and harbors. In these areas, massive proliferations of dinoflagellates have harmful effects on humans and the ecosystem. However, the high cell density reached during blooms make them vulnerable to parasitic infections. Read More

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Stationary nano-SQUID: theoretical investigation and feasibility analysis.

Jorge Berger

J Phys Condens Matter 2017 Jul 30;29(29):29LT01. Epub 2017 May 30.

Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Ort Braude College, 21982 Karmiel, Israel.

The standard operation of a dc SQUID leads to oscillatory electric fields that emit electromagnetic radiation. We estimate the effect that this radiation could have on the measured sample. A stationary SQUID could be advantageous if the oscillation contribution to back action on the measured sample has to be avoided. Read More

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Macroinvertebrate communities from the shallow soft-bottoms of Deception Island (Southern Ocean): A paradise for opportunists.

Mar Environ Res 2017 Jun 29;127:62-74. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum of London, Cromwell Road, SW7 5BD, UK. Electronic address:

Deception Island (South Shetland Islands) is an atypical spot in its Antarctic context, being a still active volcano with a submerged caldera. Although the sea-floor of its enclosed bay, Port Foster, has been extensively studied from 40 m down, little is known about the macrozoobenthic composition of its shallower areas. The aim of this study was to characterize the so far unexplored soft-bottom marine macroinvertebrate communities living within the first few meters depth in Port Foster. Read More

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Electron momentum densities near Dirac cones: Anisotropic Umklapp scattering and momentum broadening.

N Hiraoka T Nomura

Sci Rep 2017 04 3;7(1):565. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology (QST), SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5148, Japan.

The relationship between electron momentum densities (EMDs) and a band gap is clarified in momentum space. The interference between wavefunctions via reciprocal lattice vectors, making a band gap in momentum space, causes the scattering of electrons from the first Brillouin zone to the other zones, so-called Umklapp scattering. This leads to the broadening of EMDs. Read More

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Feeding by Leucopis argenticollis and Leucopis piniperda (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the western USA on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the eastern USA.

Bull Entomol Res 2017 Oct 14;107(5):699-704. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources, The University of Vermont,Burlington,VT 05405,USA.

Leucopis argenticollis (Zetterstedt) and Leucopis piniperda (Malloch) are known to feed on the lineage of Adelges tsugae Annand that is native to western North America, but it is not known if they will survive on the lineage that was introduced from Japan to the eastern USA. In 2014, western Leucopis spp. larvae were brought to the laboratory and placed on A. Read More

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October 2017

Seasonality and toxin production of Pyrodinium bahamense in a Red Sea lagoon.

Harmful Algae 2016 05 19;55:163-171. Epub 2016 Mar 19.

Red Sea Research Center, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia; Department of Biosciences, University of Oslo, P. O. Box. 1066 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Harmful algal blooms of the dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense have caused human and economic losses in the last decades. This study, for the first time, documents a bloom of P. bahamense in the Red Sea. Read More

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Magnetohydrodynamic Waves in an Asymmetric Magnetic Slab.

Sol Phys 2017 1;292(2):35. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH UK.

Analytical models of solar atmospheric magnetic structures have been crucial for our understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave behaviour and in the development of the field of solar magneto-seismology. Here, an analytical approach is used to derive the dispersion relation for MHD waves in a magnetic slab of homogeneous plasma enclosed on its two sides by non-magnetic, semi-infinite plasma with different densities and temperatures. This generalises the classic magnetic slab model, which is symmetric about the slab. Read More

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February 2017