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Which Biomarkers Can Be Used as Diagnostic Tools for Infection in Suspected Sepsis?

Semin Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Oct 20;42(5):662-671. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Polyvalent Intensive Care Unit, Sao Francisco Xavier Hospital, CHLO, Lisbon, Portugal.

The diagnosis of infection in patients with suspected sepsis is frequently difficult to achieve with a reasonable degree of certainty. Currently, the diagnosis of infection still relies on a combination of systemic manifestations, manifestations of organ dysfunction, and microbiological documentation. In addition, the microbiologic confirmation of infection is obtained only after 2 to 3 days of empiric antibiotic therapy. Read More

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October 2021

Loss of Function Variants in the XPC Causes Severe Xeroderma Pigmentosum in Three Large Consanguineous Families.

Klin Padiatr 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare recessively inherited disorder that presents clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Mutations in eight genes, of which seven are involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway have been reported to cause the XP.

Methods And Results: Three large consanguineous families of Pakistani origin displaying typical clinical hallmarks of XP were evaluated at clinical and molecular level. Read More

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September 2021

Uniform versus non-uniform dose prescription for proton stereotactic body radiotherapy of liver tumors investigated by extensive motion-including treatment simulations.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, DENMARK.

Compared to x-ray-based stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver cancer, proton SBRT may reduce the normal liver tissue dose. For optimal trade-off between target and liver dose, a non-uniform dose prescription is often applied in x-ray SBRT, but lacks investigation for proton SBRT. Also, proton SBRT is prone to breathing-induced motion-uncertainties causing target mishit or dose alterations by interplay with the proton delivery. Read More

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September 2021

Investigations on the potential role of prostaglandin E2 in canine uterine inertia.

Theriogenology 2021 Sep 10;175:134-147. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Reproductive Unit of the Clinics - Clinic for Small Animals, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation, Hannover, Germany; Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Section of Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Prostaglandin (PG) E2 plays a crucial role in the endocrine network of canine parturition and we hypothesized that PGE2, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD) and PG-transporter (PGT) might be involved in the development of primary uterine inertia (PUI). We investigated PTGE synthase (PTGES), PTGE receptors 2/4 (PTGER2/4), HPGD and PGT expression on the mRNA- and protein-level in interplacental (IP) and uteroplacental (UP) tissues of bitches presented with dystocia undergoing emergency caesarean section. Groups were formed retrospectively based on strict criteria: PUI (n = 12; small/normal/large litter - PUI-S/N/L: n = 5/4/3), and obstructive dystocia (OD, n = 8). Read More

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September 2021

Penalty weighted glucose prediction models could lead to better clinically usage.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Sep 15;138:104865. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark.

Background And Objective: Numerous attempts to predict glucose value from continuous glucose monitors (CGM) have been published. However, there is a lack of proper analysis and modeling of penalty for errors in different glycemic ranges. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for developing glucose prediction models with focus on the clinical aspects. Read More

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September 2021

Changes in negative symptoms are linked to white matter changes in superior longitudinal fasciculus in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

Schizophr Res 2021 Sep 17;237:192-201. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Centre for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, CINS, and Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, CNSR, Mental Health Centre Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark; Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Center, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, and Melbourne Health, Carlton South, Victoria, Australia; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aim: Growing evidence suggests that subtle white matter (WM) alterations are associated with psychopathology in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR). However, the longitudinal relationship between symptom progression and WM changes over time remains under-explored. Here, we examine associations between changes in clinical symptoms and changes in WM over six months in a large UHR-cohort. Read More

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September 2021

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and reduced risk of reinfection through six months: a Danish observational cohort study of 44,000 healthcare workers.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objectives: Antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are a key factor against COVID-19. We examined longitudinal changes in seroprevalence in healthcare workers (HCW) in Copenhagen and the protective effect of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: In this prospective study, screening for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (ELISA) was offered to HCW three times over six months. Read More

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September 2021

AlphaTims: Indexing trapped ion mobility spectrometry - time of flight data for fast and easy accession and visualization.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2021 Sep 17:100149. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Proteomics and Signal Transduction, Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany; NNF Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

High resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics generates large amounts of data, even in the standard liquid chromatography (LC) - tandem mass spectrometry configuration. Adding an ion mobility dimension vastly increases the acquired data volume, challenging both analytical processing pipelines and especially data exploration by scientists. This has necessitated data aggregation, effectively discarding much of the information present in these rich data sets. Read More

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September 2021

Liver cirrhosis.

Lancet 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA.

Cirrhosis is widely prevalent worldwide and can be a consequence of different causes, such as obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, high alcohol consumption, hepatitis B or C infection, autoimmune diseases, cholestatic diseases, and iron or copper overload. Cirrhosis develops after a long period of inflammation that results in replacement of the healthy liver parenchyma with fibrotic tissue and regenerative nodules, leading to portal hypertension. The disease evolves from an asymptomatic phase (compensated cirrhosis) to a symptomatic phase (decompensated cirrhosis), the complications of which often result in hospitalisation, impaired quality of life, and high mortality. Read More

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September 2021

Exploration of real-world outcomes and treatment patterns in patients treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factors for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in Sweden.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Divison of Ophthalmology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Purpose: To analyse and compare the number and interval of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD), as well as the visual development in patients followed up for one to three years in clinical practice and during different index periods.

Methods: This observational study included treatment-naïve eyes with nAMD from the Swedish Macula Register that started treatment between 2007 and 2017, stratified by different index periods (2007-2010, 2011-2013, 2014-2015 and 2016-2017) and by follow-up cohorts for each index period of one, two or three years (cohorts 1-3). Their intravitreal anti-VEGF treatment was assessed by number of injections, injection intervals, visual acuity (VA) and near VA change. Read More

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September 2021

Four-year HbA1c and LDL-cholesterol trajectories among individuals with mental disorders and newly developed type 2 diabetes.

Brain Behav 2021 Sep 20:e2372. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

The impact of different types of mental disorders on long-term glycemic and lipid trajectories following newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unknown. We used real-world clinical data in a population-based cohort to fill this knowledge gap. We found that individuals with new T2D and preexisting personality, anxiety, unipolar depression, or psychotic disorder had higher mean HbA1c levels over 4 years following the onset of T2D, whereas no differences were found regarding LDL-C levels. Read More

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September 2021

Incursions of divergent genotypes, evolution of virulence and host jumps shape a continental clonal population of the stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis.

Mol Ecol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Plant Breeding Institute, The University of Sydney, 107 Cobbitty Road, Cobbitty, NSW, 2570, Australia.

Long-distance migration and host adaptation by transboundary plant pathogens often brings detrimental effects to important agroecosystems. Efficient surveillance as a basis for responding to the dynamics of such pathogens is often hampered by a lack of information on incursion origin, evolutionary pathways and the genetic basis of rapidly evolving virulence across larger timescales. Here, we studied these genetic features by using historical isolates of the obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. Read More

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September 2021

Quality of life and patient-perceived symptoms in patients with psoriasis undergoing proactive or reactive management with the fixed-dose combination Cal/BD foam: a post-hoc analysis of PSO-LONG.

J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Institute and Comprehensive Center for Inflammation Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany.

Background: Psoriasis has important physical and psychosocial effects that extend beyond the skin. Understanding the impact of treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patient-perceived symptom severity in psoriasis is key in clinical decision-making.

Objectives: This post-hoc analysis of the PSO-LONG trial data assessed the impact of long-term proactive or reactive management with fixed-dose combination calcipotriene 50 µg/g and betamethasone dipropionate 0. Read More

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September 2021

The clinical course of Crohn's disease in a Danish population-based inception cohort with more than 50 years of follow-up, 1962-2017.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, North Zealand Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Few population-based studies have investigated the long-term prognosis of Crohn's disease (CD).

Aim: To determine the long-term natural disease course of CD with regard to surgery, cancer and mortality in a population-based cohort followed for more than 50 years.

Methods: All patients diagnosed with CD from 1962 to 1987 in Copenhagen County, Denmark were included in a population-based cohort. Read More

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September 2021

Interactions between running volume and running pace on injury occurrence in recreational runners: A secondary analysis.

J Athl Train 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

aDepartment of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus 8000, DK.

Context The combination of an excessive increase in running pace and volume is essential to consider when investigating associations between running and running-related injury. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to complete a secondary analysis on a dataset from a randomized trial, to investigate the interactions between relative or absolute weekly changes in running volume and running pace on running injury occurrence among a cohort of injury-free recreational runners in Denmark. Design Prospective cohort study Setting Running volume and pace were collected during a 24-week follow-up using global positioning systems (GPS) data. Read More

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September 2021

CombiFlow: Combinatorial AML-specific plasma membrane expression profiles allow longitudinal tracking of clones.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often presents as an oligoclonal disease whereby multiple genetically distinct subclones can co-exist within patients. Differences in signaling and drug sensitivity of such subclones complicates treatment and warrants tools to identify them and track disease progression. We previously identified over 50 AML-specific plasma membrane (PM) proteins and seven of these (CD82, CD97, FLT3, IL1RAP, TIM3, CD25 and CD123) were implemented in routine diagnostics in patients with AML (n=256) and MDS (n=33). Read More

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September 2021

Analysis of social interactions and risk factors relevant to the spread of infectious diseases at hospitals and nursing homes.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(9):e0257684. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

Ensuring the safety of healthcare workers is vital to overcome the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We here present an analysis of the social interactions between the healthcare workers at hospitals and nursing homes. Using data from an automated hand hygiene system, we inferred social interactions between healthcare workers to identify transmission paths of infection in hospitals and nursing homes. Read More

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September 2021

The blood metabolome of incident kidney cancer: A case-control study nested within the MetKid consortium.

PLoS Med 2021 Sep 20;18(9):e1003786. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC/WHO), Lyon, France.

Background: Excess bodyweight and related metabolic perturbations have been implicated in kidney cancer aetiology, but the specific molecular mechanisms underlying these relationships are poorly understood. In this study, we sought to identify circulating metabolites that predispose kidney cancer and to evaluate the extent to which they are influenced by body mass index (BMI).

Methods And Findings: We assessed the association between circulating levels of 1,416 metabolites and incident kidney cancer using pre-diagnostic blood samples from up to 1,305 kidney cancer case-control pairs from 5 prospective cohort studies. Read More

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September 2021

A phase I/II study of acute and late physician assessed and patient-reported morbidity following whole pelvic radiation in high-risk prostate cancer patients.

Acta Oncol 2021 Sep 20:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: The aim of this study was to assess acute and late morbidity measured by the physician and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in high-risk prostate cancer (PC) patients receiving whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the setting of a national clinical trial.

Material And Methods: A total of 88 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate and high-risk parameters were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. All patients received 78 Gy in 39 fractions of IMRT delivering simultaneous 78 Gy to the prostate and 56 Gy to the seminal vesicles and lymph nodes. Read More

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September 2021

Antifungal Susceptibility of 182 spp Isolates from 20 European Centers Comparison between EUCAST and Gradient Concentration Strips Methods.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Sep 20:AAC0149521. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

AP-HP, Groupe Hospitalier La Pitié-Salpêtrière, Service de Parasitologie Mycologie, F-75013, Paris, France.

We determined the susceptibility of 182 Fusarium spp. isolates to 5 antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, voriconazole, posaconazole, isavuconazole, terbinafine) by EUCAST method. Based on the latest taxonomic insights, isolates collected from 20 European centers were distributed into 7 complexes and 27 species. Read More

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September 2021

Recycling Nutrients and Reducing Carbon Emissions in the Baltic Sea Region-Sustainable or Economically Infeasible?

Environ Manage 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Stockholm Environment Institute, Linnégatan 87D, 104 51, Stockholm, Sweden.

Ecotechnologies have the potential to reduce the use of finite resources while providing a variety of co-benefits to society, though they often lack in market competitiveness. In this study, we investigate the sustainability of ecotechnologies for recovering carbon and nutrients, and demonstrate how a so-called "bottom-up" approach can serve as a decision-making instrument. Based on three case study catchments with a focus on domestic wastewater in Sweden and Poland, and on manure, grass and blackwater substrates in Finland, we apply a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) on system alternatives derived from a participatory process. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of Artificial Intelligence Automatic Multiple Sclerosis Lesion Delineation Tool for Clinical Use.

Clin Neuroradiol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen east, Denmark.

Purpose: To implement and validate an existing algorithm for automatic delineation of white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on a local single-center dataset.

Methods: We implemented a white matter hyperintensity segmentation model, based on a 2D convolutional neural network, using the conventional T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI sequence as input. The model was adapted for delineation of MS lesions by further training on a local dataset of 93 MS patients with a total of 3040 lesions. Read More

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September 2021

A Bayesian meta-analysis of infants' ability to perceive audio-visual congruence for speech.

Infancy 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Communication and Culture, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

This paper quantifies the extent to which infants can perceive audio-visual congruence for speech information and assesses whether this ability changes with native language exposure over time. A hierarchical Bayesian robust regression model of 92 separate effect sizes extracted from 24 studies indicates a moderate effect size in a positive direction (0.35, CI [0. Read More

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September 2021

Assessing gender differences among presumed and diagnosed patients with pulmonary TB: observations from Guinea-Bissau.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Ban dim Health Project, INDEPTH Network, Apartado 861, 1004 Bissau Codex, Guinea-Bissau.

Background: Globally, more males than females are diagnosed with pulmonary TB (PTB); however, the cause of this gender disparity remains unknown. We aimed to assess gender differences in an observational cohort of patients with presumed PTB (prePTB) at the Bandim Health Project, Guinea-Bissau.

Methods: Adult patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of PTB seeking medical care were invited to participate and were referred to comprehensive diagnostic work-up. Read More

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September 2021

Defect engineering of oxide perovskites for catalysis and energy storage: synthesis of chemistry and materials science.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Sep 20;50(18):10116-10211. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Laboratory of Advanced Catalysis for Sustainability, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.

Oxide perovskites have emerged as an important class of materials with important applications in many technological areas, particularly thermocatalysis, electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, and energy storage. However, their implementation faces numerous challenges that are familiar to the chemist and materials scientist. The present work surveys the state-of-the-art by integrating these two viewpoints, focusing on the critical role that defect engineering plays in the design, fabrication, modification, and application of these materials. Read More

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September 2021

Outcome-based multi-objective optimization of lymphoma radiation therapy plans.

Br J Radiol 2021 Sep 19:20210303. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

At its core, radiation therapy (RT) requires balancing therapeutic effects against risk of adverse events in cancer survivors. The radiation oncologist weighs numerous disease and patient-level factors when considering the expected risk-benefit ratio of combined treatment modalities. As part of this, RT plan optimization software is used to find a clinically acceptable RT plan delivering a prescribed dose to the target volume while respecting pre-defined radiation dose-volume constraints for selected organs at risk. Read More

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September 2021

Healthcare professionals' experiences with practice for managing disease-related malnutrition in general practice and proposals for improvement: A qualitative study.

Scand J Caring Sci 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Center for Nutrition and Intestinal Failure, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark.

Background & Aim: Disease-related malnutrition is prevalent in all healthcare settings, including general practice, and is associated with negative consequences for the individual and the community. The aim of this study was to investigate general practitioners and general practice nurses' perceptions of how they manage disease-related malnutrition, and their view on introducing an early intervention against disease-related malnutrition.

Methods: Content analysis was used to analyse individual semi-structured interviews with the general practitioners (n = 9) and five focus group interviews with the general practice nurses (n = 21) from five general practices in Denmark. Read More

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September 2021

The effect of peripheral high-frequency electrical stimulation on the primary somatosensory cortex in pigs.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Dec 9;11:112-118. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

This study implements the use of Danish Landrace pigs as subjects for the long-term potentiation (LTP)-like pain model. This is accomplished by analyzing changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in response to electrical stimulation on the ulnar nerve after applying high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) on the ulnar nerve. In this study, eight Danish Landrace pigs were electrically stimulated, through the ulnar nerve, to record the cortically evoked response in S1 by a 16-channel microelectrode array (MEA). Read More

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December 2021

Single-cell tracking reveals super-spreading brain cancer cells with high persistence.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2021 Dec 9;28:101120. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen O, Denmark.

Cell migration is a fundamental characteristic of vital processes such as tissue morphogenesis, wound healing and immune cell homing to lymph nodes and inflamed or infected sites. Therefore, various brain defect diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases as well as tumor formation and metastasis are associated with aberrant or absent cell migration. We embedded multicellular brain cancer spheroids in Matrigel™ and utilized single-particle tracking to extract the paths of cells migrating away from the spheroids. Read More

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December 2021