16,096 results match your criteria demyelination syndrome

COVID-19 and emerging spinal cord complications: A systematic review.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 21;51:102917. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital "12 de Octubre",Madrid, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Madrid, Spain; Department of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Spinal cord complications associated with coronavirus infectious disease of 2019 (COVID-19) are being widely reported. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize so far available pieces of evidence documenting de novo novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mediated spinal cord demyelinating diseases. Indeed, the spinal demyelinating disorders that have been reported in those patients who have suffered from COVID-19 rather than on the people already living with diagnosed or undiagnosed primary demyelinating disorders. Read More

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Olfactory Dysfunction and Cognition in Radiologically Isolated Syndrome and Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

Eur Neurol 2021 Apr 8:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative, demyelinating disease that causes cognitive, olfactory, and other neurological dysfunctions. Radiologically Isolated Syndrome (RIS), in which only radiological findings are monitored, is accepted as the preclinical stage of demyelinating disease and is considered an important period for disease pathology. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the olfactory and cognitive functions and their clinical correlation in RIS and Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) patients and a healthy control group. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(2):367-370


The aim was to analyze the contemporary scientific literature on Devic's opticomyelitis and to present a case report from our clinical practice. Based on the patient's complaints, case history and features of clinical course, objective neurological status, clinical laboratory and additional examination methods, characteristic MR-patterns, consultations of related specialists and differential diagnostics, we made the clinical diagnosis according to ICD-10: G36.0 Devic's opticomyelitis, exacerbation, with a sustained bilateral lesion of the optic nerves in the form of retrobulbar neuritis with the development of partial atrophy of the optic nerves in both eyes, spinal cord lesions with common cystic, cicatrical and atrophic alterations at C1-Th8 level with moderate lower paraparesis, expressed by sensory ataxia, sensory disturbances by the descending conductive type from Th10, impaired function of pelvic organs by the type of acute urinary retention, asthenic and neurotic syndrome. Read More

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Zika E Glycan Loop Region and Guillain-Barré Syndrome-Related Proteins: A Possible Molecular Mimicry to Be Taken in Account for Vaccine Development.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;9(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Processus Infectieux en Milieu Insulaire et Tropical (PIMIT), Université de La Réunion 1, La Réunion, 97490 Sainte-Clotilde, France.

The neurological complications of infection by the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuritis. GBS was first associated with recent ZIKV epidemics caused by the emergence of the ZIKV Asian lineage in South Pacific. Here, we hypothesize that ZIKV-associated GBS relates to a molecular mimicry between viral envelope E (E) protein and neural proteins involved in GBS. Read More

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Pathogenic Hydrogel? A Novel-Entrapment Neuropathy Model Induced by Ultrasound-Guided Perineural Injections.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 28;22(7). Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10048, Taiwan.

Entrapment neuropathy (EN) is a prevalent and debilitative condition caused by a complex pathogenesis that involves a chronic compression-edema-ischemia cascade and perineural adhesion that results in excessive shear stress during motion. Despite decades of research, an easily accessible and surgery-free animal model mimicking the mixed etiology is currently lacking, thus limiting our understanding of the disease and the development of effective therapies. In this proof-of-concept study, we used ultrasound-guided perineural injection of a methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-Poly(lactide-co-glycoilide) carboxylic acid (mPEG-PLGA-BOX) hydrogel near the rat's sciatic nerve to induce EN, as confirmed sonographically, electrophysiologically, and histologically. Read More

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A case report about adalimumab-induced radiologically isolated syndrome: A significant side effect of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 17;9:2050313X211003057. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Women's College Hospital, Division of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Tumor necrosis factor-α antagonists have become a therapeutic mainstay for various inflammatory diseases including Hidradenitis Suppurativa. Despite their clinical efficacy, these medications have been associated with the rare development of demyelinating diseases. We report a 29-year-old male who developed neurological symptoms while taking adalimumab, a tumor necrosis factor-α antagonist, for treatment of Hidradenitis Suppurativa. Read More

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Association of intranasal desmopressin therapy with overcorrection of severe hyponatremia: A retrospective, propensity score-based, single-center cohort study.

J Crit Care 2021 Mar 22;64:53-61. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Emergency and General Internal Medicine, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Aichi, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: Severe hyponatremia, defined as serum sodium concentration ([sNa]) ≤ 120 mEq/L, requires aggressive treatment to prevent potentially fatal cerebral edema, seizures, and other sequelae, but overcorrection can also result in life-threatening cerebral hemorrhage and demyelination. We compared the safety and efficacy of nasal desmopressin to conventional management for the prevention of [sNa] overcorrection.

Material And Methods: This retrospective analysis compared 47 patients treated with desmopressin to 17 patients treated conventionally at a university hospital ICU in Japan between 2013 and 2018 using propensity score-based approaches. Read More

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The potential neurological effect of the COVID-19 vaccines: A review.

Acta Neurol Scand 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a pandemic with people infected in almost all countries. The most efficient solution to end this pandemic is a safe and efficient vaccine. Classic platforms are used to develop vaccines including live-attenuated vaccine, inactivated vaccine, protein subunit vaccine, and viral vector. Read More

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A unique association of bifacial weakness, paresthesia and vestibulocochlear neuritis as post-COVID-19 manifestation in pregnant women: a case report.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 13;38:30. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Cheikh Khalifa International University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mohammed VI University of Health Sciences (UM6SS), Casablanca, Morocco.

SARS-CoV-2 is an infection due to a novel virus belonging to the coronavirus family. Since December 2019, first human cases of COVID-19 have been identified in Wuhan (China) and rapidly has been progressed to a global pandemic declared by the world health organization (WHO) on March 11 2020. The major complication of COVID-19, is pneumonia, but other presentations like cardiovascular and neurological complications have been reported. Read More

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Guillain Barre Syndrome following delivery in a pregnant woman infected with SARS-CoV-2.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Apr 2;86:190-192. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sehit Prof. Dr. Ilhan Varank Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the neurological system have been investigated. Evidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) cases associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection have recently been reported. A 34-year-old multiparous woman with COVID-19 infection at her 37th (4/7) gestational week was presented here. Read More

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Neurologic aspects of coronavirus disease of 2019 infection.

Curr Opin Infect Dis 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Cerebrovascular Center, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio Department of Neurology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Central and peripheral nervous system manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been frequently reported and may cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review details the latest evidence on the neuropathogenesis and neurologic complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Recent Findings: Commonly reported neurologic complications include toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disorders, seizures, and anoxic-brain injury. Read More

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Mercury as a cause of membranous nephropathy and Guillain-Barre syndrome: case report and literature review.

J Int Med Res 2021 Mar;49(3):300060521999756

Chu Hsien-I Memorial Hospital, Tianjin Institute of Endocrinology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury is well known. Mercury also causes central nervous system damage and demyelinating polyneuropathy. Here, we describe a case of a patient with daily exposure to mercury in skin lightening cream and hair dyes who was diagnosed with Guillain-Barre syndrome and then developed nephrotic syndrome because of membranous neuropathy. Read More

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Osmotic demyelination syndrome in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: A case report and literature review.

Int J Neurosci 2021 Mar 25:1-6. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México City, México.

Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a non-inflammatory process of the central nervous system caused by extracellular osmotic changes, which leads to oligodendrocyte apoptosis and disruption of myelin sheaths, usually affecting patients with underlying systemic conditions that impose susceptibility to osmotic stress. Description of ODS in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is limited to a few case reports. Here, we report a 44-year-old man with NHL that had an incidental diagnosis of ODS. Read More

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[Differential diagnostics of autoimmune inflammatory spinal cord diseases].

Nervenarzt 2021 Apr 25;92(4):293-306. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Experimental and Clinical Research Center, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, und Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Deutschland.

Myelitis is an acute or subacute inflammatory syndrome of the spinal cord. Myelopathy, often used as a synonym and presenting with similar symptoms in clinical practice, can be caused by numerous, not primarily inflammatory etiologies and might also show a progressive disease course. Within the last decade the spectrum of autoimmune myelitis was significantly broadened as was the spectrum of diagnostic methods. Read More

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Concomitant Guillain-Barre syndrome with COVID-19: a case report.

BMC Neurol 2021 Mar 23;21(1):135. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Center for Clinical and Translational Research, La Misericordia Clínica Internacional, Barranquilla, Colombia.

Background: During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, different neurological manifestations have been observed. However, only a few cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and COVID-19 have been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate a case of concomitant GBS with COVID-19 in Colombia. Read More

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Cognitive impairment, the central vein sign, and paramagnetic rim lesions in RIS.

Mult Scler 2021 Mar 23:13524585211002097. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada/Department of Psychiatry, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objective: The central vein sign (CVS) and "paramagnetic rim lesions" (PRL) are emerging imaging biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS) reflecting perivenular demyelination and chronic, smoldering inflammation. The objective of this study was to assess relationships between cognitive impairment (CI) and the CVS and PRL in radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS).

Methods: Twenty-seven adults with RIS underwent 3. Read More

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Inhibition of TLR4 signaling protects mice from sensory and motor dysfunction in an animal model of autoimmune peripheral neuropathy.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Mar 22;18(1):77. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

The Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, 740 Docteur Penfield Ave, Suite 3200C, Montreal, QC, H3A0G1, Canada.

Background: While the etiology remains elusive, macrophages and T cells in peripheral nerves are considered as effector cells mediating autoimmune peripheral neuropathy (APN), such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. By recognizing both pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) signals, TLRs play a central role in the initiation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we aimed to understand the involvement of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of APN and explore the potential of TLR4 as a drug target for therapeutic use. Read More

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Treatment response to cyclophosphamide, rituximab, and bortezomib in chronic immune-mediated sensorimotor neuropathies: a retrospective cohort study.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 5;14:1756286421999631. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Neurology, St. Josef-Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

Background: Up to 20% of patients with chronic immune-mediated sensorimotor neuropathies (CIN) do not respond adequately to first-line therapies. However, studies on further treatment are scarce.

Methods: We analyzed retrospectively 200 CIN patients regarding disease characteristics and response to therapy with cyclophosphamide (CYP), rituximab (RTX), and bortezomib (BTZ). Read More

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Ginsenoside Rd attenuates mouse experimental autoimmune neuritis by modulating monocyte subsets conversion.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Mar 17;138:111489. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, China. Electronic address:

Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), characterized by peripheral nerve demyelination and axonal damage, is initiated and aggravated through various of immunopathogenesis. Ginsenoside Rd, main active components extracted from ginseng saponins, is known to exhibit immune-regulate functions in many immune-mediated diseases. However, the evidence of preventive effect of Ginsenoside Rd on GBS is lacking. Read More

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Second intravenous immunoglobulin dose in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with poor prognosis (SID-GBS): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

Lancet Neurol 2021 04 17;20(4):275-283. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Treatment with one standard dose (2 g/kg) of intravenous immunoglobulin is insufficient in a proportion of patients with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. Worldwide, around 25% of patients severely affected with the syndrome are given a second intravenous immunoglobulin dose (SID), although it has not been proven effective. We aimed to investigate whether a SID is effective in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with a predicted poor outcome. Read More

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Preventing expensive harms in Guillain-Barré syndrome.

Michael P Lunn

Lancet Neurol 2021 04 17;20(4):249-251. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Centre for Neuromuscular Disease, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK. Electronic address:

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COVID-19 in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: Associations with Disease-Modifying Therapies.

CNS Drugs 2021 03 20;35(3):317-330. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) target immunity and have the potential to increase the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and alter its clinical course. We assessed these risks in patients with MS (PwMS).

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the overall risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, severe disease course, and potential population-level predictors of COVID-19 infection in PwMS, and to provide a context using a cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Read More

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Gastrointestinal dysfunction in neuroinflammatory diseases: Multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, acute autonomic ganglionopathy and related conditions.

Ryuji Sakakibara

Auton Neurosci 2021 May 13;232:102795. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Neurology, Internal Medicine, Sakura Medical Center, Toho University, 564-1 Shimoshizu, Sakura 285-8741, Japan. Electronic address:

Disorders of the nervous system can produce a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunctions. Among these, lesions in various brain structures can cause appetite loss (hypothalamus), decreased peristalsis (presumably the basal ganglia, pontine defecation center/Barrington's nucleus), decreased abdominal strain (presumably parabrachial nucleus/Kolliker-Fuse nucleus) and hiccupping and vomiting (area postrema/dorsal vagal complex). In addition, decreased peristalsis with/without loss of bowel sensation can be caused by lesions of the spinal long tracts and the intermediolateral nucleus or of the peripheral nerves and myenteric plexus. Read More

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COVID-19 and the clinical course of rheumatic manifestations.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Departments of Rheumatology and Research and Development, Russells Hall Hospital, Dudley, Dudley Group NHS Foundation Trust (Teaching Trust of the University of Birmingham, UK), Pensnett Road, Dudley, West Midlands, DY1 2HQ, UK.

The manifestations of COVID-19 have been evolving over time. Various post-COVID-19 syndromes are being recognised. Various viruses have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, and we expect a similar outcome with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Read More

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Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome in Hospitalized Patients With Cirrhosis: Analysis of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS).

J Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Goal: Characterize prevalence of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) in hospitalized patients with cirrhosis.

Background: ODS is a serious complication of rapid serum sodium correction. Patients with cirrhosis experience labile sodium levels related to portal hypertension and diuretic use, often with rapid correction-intentional or unintentional-during hospitalizations. Read More

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[From neuromyelitis optica to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: from clinical syndrome to diagnistic classification].

Nervenarzt 2021 Apr 16;92(4):307-316. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Institut für klinische Neuroimmunologie, LMU Klinikum, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, München, Deutschland.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), derived from NMO or Devic's disease, is considered as a distinct disease since the discovery of a novel and pathogenic serum autoantibody targeting aquaporin‑4 (AQP4-IgG) and is distinguished from classical multiple sclerosis (MS). With the continuous extension of knowledge on the clinical manifestations, the previously narrow diagnostic term NMO became NMOSD, which has also been used in the diagnostic criteria since 2015. The current diagnostic criteria enable the early diagnosis of NMOSD in patients with and without AQP4-IgG. Read More

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Prolonged Altered Mental Status in a Diabetic Hemodialysis Patient.

Cureus 2021 Feb 4;13(2):e13132. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Internal Medicine/Nephrology, Metropolitan Hospital Center, New York Medical College, New York, USA.

Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. It usually occurs with rapid correction of severe chronic hyponatremia. ODS is rarely seen as a complication of hyperglycemia. Read More

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February 2021

Neurological manifestations as the predictors of severity and mortality in hospitalized individuals with COVID-19: a multicenter prospective clinical study.

BMC Neurol 2021 Mar 16;21(1):116. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Skull Base Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Backgrounds: The reports of neurological symptoms are increasing in cases with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This multi-center prospective study was conducted to determine the incidence of neurological manifestations in hospitalized cases with COVID-19 and assess these symptoms as the predictors of severity and death.

Methods: Hospitalized males and females with COVID-19 who aged over 18 years were included in the study. Read More

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Pituitary tumor apoplexy associated with extrapontine myelinolysis during pregnancy: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Mar;100(10):e25075

Department of Radiology.

Rationale: Pituitary tumor apoplexy (PTA) is a rare clinical syndrome which requires urgent diagnosis and treatment due to its life-threatening consequences. Management of undiagnosed pituitary tumor before pregnancy is a problem during pregnancy.

Patient Concerns: We reported a case with PTA which was not diagnosed before pregnancy presenting with vomiting associated with hyponatremia during the third trimester. Read More

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