123,902 results match your criteria demonstrated mechanisms


Suffrutines A and B Inhibit the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Planta Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.

is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been commonly used for the treatment of inflammatory ailments, including rheumatism and lumbago. Suffrutines A and suffrutines B are a pair of novel E,E and Z,E isomeric indolizidine alkaloids isolated from the roots of . However, their anti-inflammatory activity has not been reported thus far. Read More

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Astrocyte-derived CCL7 promotes microglia-mediated inflammation following traumatic brain injury.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 19;99:107975. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Neurology Department, Jintan Hospital affiliated to Jiangsu University, Changzhou 213200, China. Electronic address:

Microglia are immune cells of the central nervous system that mediate neuroinflammation. It is widely known that microglia-mediated inflammation in the brain contribute to the widespread tissue damage and neurological deficits in traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the mechanisms responsible for this inflammatory response remain elusive. Read More

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AIRE-overexpressing BMDCs suppress T cells through ICOSL to prevent and attenuate autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 19;99:107979. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address:

The strong genetic association between autoimmune regulator (AIRE) and autoimmune diseases indicates its critical role in immune tolerance. AIRE deficiency is thought to promote the development of follicular helper T (T) cells, which are considered to be essential in B cell proliferation. Excessive T cell generation is a key step towards the development of autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. Read More

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Biodegradable and re-usable sponge materials made from chitin for efficient removal of microplastics.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 8;420:126599. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Institute of Coastal Environmental Pollution Control, Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics have attracted widespread attention due to their detrimental effects on organisms, and their efficient removal poses great challenges, especially those smaller than 3 µm that are more harmful for aquatic biota. Herein, the chitin based sponges with interconnected pores, excellent elasticity and mechanical durability were fabricated and composed with graphene oxide (GO) and oxygen-doped carbon nitride (O-CN). The chitin based sponges could effectively remove different functionalized microplastics (~1 µm) at pH 6-8, including carboxylate-modified polystyrene (PS-COOH), amine-modified polystyrene (PS-NH), and polystyrene (PS). Read More

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Antagonizing effects of curcumin against mercury-induced autophagic death and trace elements disorder by regulating PI3K/AKT and Nrf2 pathway in the spleen.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 19;222:112529. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pathophysiology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou 646000, Sichuan Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Mercury is a naturally occurring element and highly toxic to humans even at a low dosage. Curcumin is a polyphenol found in turmeric (Curcuma longa), widely used as a treatment strategy to improve antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective mechanisms of curcumin in spleen damage induced by HgCl. Read More

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Automated read-across workflow for predicting acute oral toxicity: I. The decision scheme in the QSAR Toolbox.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jul 19:105015. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Laboratory of Mathematical Chemistry, Prof. As. Zlatarov University, Bourgas, Bulgaria. Electronic address:

A decision-scheme outlining the steps for identifying the appropriate chemical category and subsequently appropriate tested source analog(s) for data gap filling of a target chemical by read-across is described. The primary features used in the grouping of the target chemical with source analogs within a database of 10,039 discrete organic substances include reactivity mechanisms associated with protein interactions and specific-acute-oral-toxicity-related mechanisms (e.g. Read More

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Cell-type-specific meQTLs extend melanoma GWAS annotation beyond eQTLs and inform melanocyte gene-regulatory mechanisms.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Although expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have been powerful in identifying susceptibility genes from genome-wide association study (GWAS) findings, most trait-associated loci are not explained by eQTLs alone. Alternative QTLs, including DNA methylation QTLs (meQTLs), are emerging, but cell-type-specific meQTLs using cells of disease origin have been lacking. Here, we established an meQTL dataset by using primary melanocytes from 106 individuals and identified 1,497,502 significant cis-meQTLs. Read More

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A framework to support the integration of priority setting in the preparedness, alert, control and evaluation stages of a disease pandemic.

Glob Public Health 2021 Jul 22:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Reeleder & Associate, Toronto, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic, where the need-resource gap has necessitated decision makers in some contexts to ration access to life-saving interventions, has demonstrated the critical need for systematic and fair priority setting and resource allocation mechanisms. Disease outbreaks are becoming increasingly common and priority setting lessons from previous disease outbreaks could be better harnessed to inform decision making and planning for future disease outbreaks. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how priority setting and resource allocation could, ideally, be integrated into the WHO pandemic planning and preparedness framework and used to inform the COVID-19 pandemic recovery plans and plans for future outbreaks. Read More

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Individual variability in human urinary metabolites identifies age-related, body mass index-related, and sex-related biomarkers.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 22:e1738. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Materia Medica Development Group, Institute of Medicinal Chemistry, Lanzhou University School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Metabolites present in human urine can be influenced by individual physiological parameters (e.g., body mass index [BMI], age, and sex). Read More

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Fusaricide is a Novel Iron Chelator that Induces Apoptosis through Activating Caspase-3.

J Nat Prod 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry (SKLAOC), College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, P. R. China.

Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been a fatal and refractory disease worldwide. Novel therapeutic developments based on fundamental investigations of anticancer mechanisms underlie substantial foundations to win the fight against cancer diseases. In this study, we isolated a natural product fusaricide (FCD) from an endophytic fungus of , identified as . Read More

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Probe into the Molecular Mechanism of Ibuprofen Interaction with Warfarin Bound to Human Serum Albumin in Comparison to Ascorbic and Salicylic Acids: Allosteric Inhibition of Anticoagulant Release.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Biochemistry Research Laboratory, Chemistry Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-3516, Tehran, Iran.

The release of anticoagulant drugs such as warfarin from human serum albumin (HSA) has been important not only mechanistically but also clinically for patients who take multiple drugs simultaneously. In this study, the role of some commonly used drugs, including -ibuprofen, ascorbic acid, and salicylic acid, was investigated in the release of warfarin bound to HSA . The effects of the aforementioned drugs on the HSA-warfarin complex were investigated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using two approaches; in the first perspective, molecular docking was used to model the interaction of each drug with the HSA-warfarin complex, and in the second approach, drugs were positioned randomly and distant from the binary complex (HSA-warfarin) in a physiologically relevant concentration. Read More

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Irritability-related neural responses to frustrative nonreward in adolescents with trauma histories: A preliminary investigation.

Dev Psychobiol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA.

Irritability, conceptualized as a lowered frustration response threshold to blocked goal attainment (i.e., frustrative nonreward), is a common, detrimental symptom in adolescence. Read More

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Hypermethylation of Genes in New Long Noncoding RNA in Ovarian Tumors and Metastases: A Dual Effect.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

N. N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia.

The role of methylation in the regulation of genes of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is still poorly understood. We revealed new hypermethylated lncRNA genes in ovarian tumors and their effect on metastasis of ovarian cancer. A multiple and significant (p<0. Read More

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Engineered Polystyrene-Based Microplastics of High Environmental Relevance.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

Microplastic (MP) pollution-an emerging environmental challenge of the 21st century-refers to accumulation of environmentally weathered polymer-based particles with potential environmental and health risks. Because of technical and practical challenges when using environmental MPs for risk assessment, most available data are generated using plastic models of limited environmental relevancy (i.e. Read More

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The Phytochemical Profile and Biological Activity of Mill. var. via NF-κB and Apoptotic Pathways in Human Colorectal Cancer.

Nutr Cancer 2021 Jul 22:1-15. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Biology, Medical Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram, Konya, Turkey.

Mill. var. (Hammamelidaceae) commonly known as oriental sweet gum is a medicinal plant endemic to Turkey, and used for treatment of wounds such as ulcers, gastritis and skin diseases. Read More

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FOXA2 inhibits doxorubicin-induced apoptosis via transcriptionally activating HBP rate-limiting enzyme GFPT1 in HCC cells.

J Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin, China.

Apoptosis plays an important role in both carcinogenesis and cancer treatment. Understanding the mechanisms through which resistance to apoptosis occurs in cancer cells has huge implications for cancer treatment. Although pieces of evidence have shown that elevated levels of global O-GlcNAcylation play an anti-apoptotic role in myriad cancers, the underlying mechanism is still ambiguous. Read More

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Breast and gut microbiome in health and cancer.

Genes Dis 2021 Sep 20;8(5):581-589. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA.

The microbiota plays essential roles in health and disease, in both the intestine and the extra-intestine. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota causes dysfunction in the intestine, which leads to inflammatory, immune, and infectious diseases. Dysbiosis is also associated with diseases beyond the intestine via microbial translocation or metabolisms. Read More

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September 2021

Ganglioside Alters Phospholipase Trafficking, Inhibits NF-κB Assembly, and Protects Tight Junction Integrity.

Front Nutr 2021 5;8:705172. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Dietary gangliosides are present in human milk and consumed in low amounts from organ meats. Clinical and animal studies indicate that dietary gangliosides attenuate signaling processes that are a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Gangliosides decrease pro-inflammatory markers, improve intestinal permeability, and reduce symptoms characteristic in patients with IBD. Read More

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Clinical Value and Underlying Mechanisms of Upregulated in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:654424. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Clinical Laboratory Medicine and Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Aims: This study aimed to reveal the functional role of in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Materials & Methods: 210 serum samples from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University were employed to evaluate clinical value of . Bioinformatics analysis was adopted to explore its potential mechanisms. Read More

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Identification and Validation of a Four-Long Non-coding RNA Signature Associated With Immune Infiltration and Prognosis in Colon Cancer.

Front Genet 2021 5;12:671128. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

The emerging evidence has demonstrated the critical roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as regulators in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). However, the tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs and their clinical significance in colon cancer have not yet been thoroughly investigated. This study performed an integrative analysis of lncRNA expression profiles and immune cell infiltration profiles and identified 258 immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs. Read More

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Integrative Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals the Immune Mechanism for a CyHV-3-Resistant Common Carp Strain.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:687151. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Heilongjiang River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Harbin, China.

Anti-disease breeding is becoming the most promising solution to cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) infection, the major threat to common carp aquaculture. Virus challenging studies suggested that a breeding strain of common carp developed resistance to CyHV-3 infection. This study illustrates the immune mechanisms involved in both sensitivity and anti-virus ability for CyHV3 infection in fish. Read More

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Total Glucosides of Paeony Ameliorate Pristane-Induced Lupus Nephritis by Inducing PD-1 ligands Macrophages Activating IL-4/STAT6/PD-L2 Signaling.

Front Immunol 2021 5;12:683249. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Section of Immunology & Joint Immunology Program, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Macrophages, a major subset of innate immune cells, are main infiltrating cells in the kidney in lupus nephritis. Macrophages with different phenotypes exert diverse or even opposite effects on the development of lupus nephritis. Substantial evidence has shown that macrophage M2 polarization is beneficial to individuals with chronic kidney disease. Read More

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Negative Impact of Citral on Susceptibility of to Antibiotics.

Front Microbiol 2021 5;12:709838. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

UMR CNRS 6249 Chrono-Environnement, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

Essential oils (EOs) or their components are widely used by inhalation or nebulization to fight mild respiratory bacterial infections. However, their interaction with antibiotics is poorly known. In this study we evaluated the effects of citral, the main component of lemongrass oil, on susceptibility of to antibiotics. Read More

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Prediction of Srebp-1 as a Key Target of Qing Gan San Against MAFLD in Rats via RNA-Sequencing Profile Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 5;12:680081. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

School of Life Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China.

Metabolism-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease worldwide, and the use of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) to treat this disease has attracted increasing attention. The Qing Gan San (QGS) formula comprises the peel of the leaves of and The present study aimed to uncover the anti-hyperlipidaemic effects, hepatic fat accumulation-lowering effects and mechanisms of QGS in high-fat diet-induced MAFLD rats. QGS significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in both serum and liver tissue and partially protected hepatic function. Read More

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Oxytocin administration in neonates shapes hippocampal circuitry and restores social behavior in a mouse model of autism.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) UMR 1249, Institut de Neurobiologie de la Méditerranée (INMED), Institut Marseille Maladies Rares (MarMaRa), Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Oxytocin is an important regulator of the social brain. In some animal models of autism, notably in Magel2-deficient mice, peripheral administration of oxytocin in infancy improves social behaviors until adulthood. However, neither the mechanisms responsible for social deficits nor the mechanisms by which such oxytocin administration has long-term effects are known. Read More

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Targeted delivery of cytotoxic proteins to prostate cancer via conjugation to small molecule urea-based PSMA inhibitors.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14925. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

The Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Viragh Building, 201 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Prostate cancer cells are characterized by a remarkably low proliferative rate and the production of high levels of prostate-specific proteases. Protein-based toxins are attractive candidates for prostate cancer therapy because they kill cells via proliferation-independent mechanisms. However, the non-specific cytotoxicity of these potent cytotoxins must be redirected to avoid toxicity to normal tissues. Read More

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Variable rather than extreme slow reaction times distinguish brain states during sustained attention.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 21;11(1):14883. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

A common behavioral marker of optimal attention focus is faster responses or reduced response variability. Our previous study found two dominant brain states during sustained attention, and these states differed in their behavioral accuracy and reaction time (RT) variability. However, RT distributions are often positively skewed with a long tail (i. Read More

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Role of Tim4 in the regulation of ABCA1 adipose tissue macrophages and post-prandial cholesterol levels.

Nat Commun 2021 07 21;12(1):4434. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Dyslipidemia is a main driver of cardiovascular diseases. The ability of macrophages to scavenge excess lipids implicate them as mediators in this process and understanding the mechanisms underlying macrophage lipid metabolism is key to the development of new treatments. Here, we investigated how adipose tissue macrophages regulate post-prandial cholesterol transport. Read More

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Lipoproteins from Drive Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in a TLR2/1- and PAD-Dependent Manner.

J Immunol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX;

Neutrophils, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), play a critical role in the innate immune response to , a pathogen that continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is involved in ensnaring and killing of , but this host-pathogen interaction also leads to host tissue damage. Importantly, NET components including neutrophil proteases are under consideration as therapeutic targets in a variety of disease processes. Read More

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Monoamine oxidase-B inhibition facilitates α-synuclein secretion and delays its aggregation in rAAV-based rat models of Parkinson's disease.

J Neurosci 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Neurology, Hematology, Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine. 2-2-2 Iida-nishi, Yamagata 990-9585, Japan.

Cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology is considered to underlie the spread of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that α-syn is secreted under physiological conditions in neuronal cell lines and primary neurons. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate extracellular α-syn secretion remain unclear. Read More

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