44,154 results match your criteria demonstrated clinically


Comparison of local and regional anesthesia modalities in breast surgery: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

J Clin Anesth 2021 Apr 16;72:110274. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Anaesthesia, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Study Objective: Moderate to severe postoperative pain occurs in up to 60% of women following breast operations. Our aim was to perform a network meta-analysis and systematic review to compare the efficacy and side effects of different analgesic strategies in breast surgery.

Design: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Read More

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Transurethral resection of prostatic abscess.

Can J Urol 2021 Apr;28(2):10638-10642

Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Prostate abscess (PA) is an uncommon prostatic infection, with risk factors including indwelling catheters, acute or chronic prostatitis, bladder outlet obstruction, voiding dysfunction, recent urologic instrumentation (especially transrectal prostate biopsy), chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), intravenous drug use (IVDU), and hepatitis C. Treatment of PA consists of antibiotics and abscess drainage via transurethral resection (TUR) or image-guided transrectal or transperineal drainage. Numerous studies have demonstrated that TUR of PA has a higher success rate and shorter hospital length of stay when compared to image-guided drainage. Read More

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Glyconanofluorides as Immunotracers with a Tunable Core Composition for Sensitive Hotspot Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Inflammatory Activity.

ACS Nano 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.

Nature-inspired nanosized formulations based on an imageable, small-sized inorganic core scaffold, on which biomolecules are assembled to form nanobiomimetics, hold great promise for both early diagnostics and developed therapeutics. Nevertheless, the fabrication of nanobiomimetics that allow noninvasive background-free mapping of pathological events with improved sensitivity, enhanced specificity, and multiplexed capabilities remains a major challenge. Here, we introduce paramagnetic glyconanofluorides as small-sized (<10 nm) glycomimetics for immunotargeting and sensitive noninvasive F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mapping of inflammation. Read More

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Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp: Clinicopathological Correlation Leading to a Definition of Diagnostic Criteria.

Wounds 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Dermatology, Dermatosurgery and Allergology, Asklepios Medical Center, Weißenfels, Germany.

Introduction: Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp (EPDS) is frequently misdiagnosed as epithelial tumor or trauma. To the authors' knowledge, no international guidelines or consistent recommendations for treatment of EPDS exist, and histological findings often are labeled as nonspecific.

Objective: This study aimed to identify clinical and histological characteristics unique to EPDS to aid diagnosis. Read More

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Ascorbic Acid and Iron Supplement Treatment Improves Stem Cell-Mediated Cartilage Regeneration in a Minipig Model.

Am J Sports Med 2021 Apr 19:3635465211005754. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

Background: The transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into cartilage defects has led to variable cartilage repair outcomes. Previous in vitro studies have shown that ascorbic acid and reduced iron independently can improve the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. However, the combined effect of ascorbic acid and iron supplementation on MSC differentiation has not been investigated. Read More

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Pregnancy Associated Granulomatous Mastitis: Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcome.

Breastfeed Med 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Breast, Chengdu Women's and Children's Central Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

We have already known that idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare benign chronic inflammatory disorder that can clinically mimic breast carcinoma, especially affects parous women of childbearing age, but there is little literature to report about pregnancy associated granulomatous mastitis (PAGM). The aim of our study is to report and describe the clinical signs, managements, clinical course, and clinical outcomes after treatment of PAGM in our hospital. We retrospectively analyzed 15 pregnant patients who were diagnosed as PAGM in our hospital collected from December 2018 to December 2020 by reviewing medical records and questionnaire survey, including the patients' characteristics, clinical presentations, microbiological workups, tissue pathology, treatment modalities, outcomes, and follow-up data. Read More

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Combining biomarkers by maximizing the true positive rate for a fixed false positive rate.

Biom J 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Biomarkers abound in many areas of clinical research, and often investigators are interested in combining them for diagnosis, prognosis, or screening. In many applications, the true positive rate (TPR) for a biomarker combination at a prespecified, clinically acceptable false positive rate (FPR) is the most relevant measure of predictive capacity. We propose a distribution-free method for constructing biomarker combinations by maximizing the TPR while constraining the FPR. Read More

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Entrectinib: A Review in NTRK+ Solid Tumours and ROS1+ NSCLC.

Authors:
James E Frampton

Drugs 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Springer Nature, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.

Entrectinib (Rozlytrek) is an orally active, CNS-penetrant, small-molecule, selective inhibitor of the tropomyosin receptor tyrosine kinases TRKA/B/C [encoded by the neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK) genes NTRK1/2/3, respectively], the proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS1 (ROS1) and the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK). It is approved for the treatment of adults and paediatric patients aged ≥ 12 years with NTRK fusion-positive (NTRK+) solid tumours and adults with ROS1 fusion-positive (ROS1+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In trials in adults, entrectinib induced clinically meaningful and durable systemic responses in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-naïve patients with locally-advanced or metastatic NTRK+ solid tumours or ROS1+ NSCLC, irrespective of the presence or absence of CNS metastases at baseline. Read More

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Training and Deployment of Medical Students as Respiratory Therapist Extenders during COVID-19.

ATS Sch 2020 May 29;1(2):145-151. Epub 2020 May 29.

School of Medicine.

Early experience during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and predictive modeling indicate that the need for respiratory therapists (RTs) will exceed the current supply. We present an implemented model to train and deploy medical students in the novel role of "respiratory therapist extender" (RTE) to address respiratory therapist shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic. The RTE role was formulated through discussions with respiratory therapists. Read More

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High-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance measurement of citrate in serum and plasma in the clinical laboratory.

Pract Lab Med 2021 May 18;25:e00213. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings (Labcorp), Morrisville, NC, USA.

Objectives: Despite reports highlighting citrate association with different diseases, serum citrate is scarcely used for diagnosis. Existing methods to quantify citrate are limited by their complexity and practicality of implementation. A simple and rapid NMR-based method to measure circulating citrate is described here, and its analytical performance evaluated. Read More

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Twice Negative PCR in a Patient With Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Encephalitis.

Neurohospitalist 2021 Jan 22;11(1):66-70. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Division of Neurology, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Untreated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis is associated with high mortality. Missed cases can have devastating consequences. Detection of HSV-1 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is reported to have high sensitivity and specificity and is considered the diagnostic gold standard for HSV-1 encephalitis. Read More

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January 2021

Cytocompatibility Properties of an Herbal Compound Solution Support Wound Healing.

Front Physiol 2021 26;12:653661. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Translational Periodontal Research Laboratory, Department of Periodontics, UT Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytocompatibility of an herbal extract compound oral rinse [StellaLife VEGA (SLife)] against relevant human cellular models of oral surgical wound healing. SL was compared to the gold standard for peri-/post-operative oral surgical use, i.e. Read More

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The synthetic Varespladib molecule is a multi-functional inhibitor for PLA and PLA-like ophidic toxins.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 Apr 15:129913. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Departamento de Biofísica e Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: The treatment for snakebites is early administration of antivenom, which can be highly effective in inhibiting the systemic effects of snake venoms, but is less effective in the treatment of extra-circulatory and local effects. To complement standard-of-care treatments such as antibody-based antivenoms, natural and synthetic small molecules have been proposed for the inhibition of key venom components such as phospholipase A (PLA) and PLA-like toxins. Varespladib (compound LY315920) is a synthetic molecule developed and clinically tested aiming to block inflammatory cascades of several diseases associated with high PLAs. Read More

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Comparing respiratory polygraphy with pulse transit time analysis versus overnight polysomnography in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

Sleep Med 2021 Mar 1;81:457-462. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

FHKAM(Otolaryngology), Department of Otolaryngology, Tuen Mun Hospital, Hong Kong.

Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children is associated with significant morbidity. Polysomnography is the main diagnostic tool but is time consuming and requires skilled manpower to supervise the patient overnight and hence long referral to diagnosis time. However, there are limitations and underestimation of the apnoea hyponea index (AHI) with alternative home sleep apnoea testing (HSAT), such as type 3 respiratory polygraphy (RP). Read More

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Clinical experience and psychometric properties of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI).

Br J Dermatol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff, UK.

The Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) is a questionnaire designed to measure the quality of life (QoL) of teenagers and young adults with acne. It has been used clinically and within therapeutic research globally. This review aims to appraise all published data regarding the clinical and research experience of CADI, its psychometric properties and validation, from its publication in 1992 until September 2020, into a single reference source. Read More

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Multi-objective data-driven optimization for improving deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, 12 Executive Park Drive North East, Atlanta, Georgia, 30329, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) but its success depends on a time-consuming process of trial-and-error to identify the optimal stimulation settings for each individual patient. Data-driven optimization algorithms have been proposed to efficiently find the stimulation setting that maximizes a quantitative biomarker of symptom relief. However, these algorithms cannot efficiently take into account stimulation settings that may control symptoms but also cause side-effects. Read More

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COVID-19-related myocarditis post-heart transplantation.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Cardiology, Thorax Center, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Erasmus MC Transplant Institute, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

We describe the first heart transplantation recipient with acute biventricular heart failure symptoms caused by a post-myocarditis state late after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. No other viral pathogens could be detected, computed tomography angiography did not show cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and myocardial biopsy demonstrated no clinically relevant rejection. Subsequent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive epicardial delayed enhancement without myocardial edema. Read More

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The mechanisms of action of WeiChang'An Pill (WCAP) treat diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) using network pharmacology approach and in vivo studies.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 13:114119. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China; School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: WeiChang'An Pill (WCAP) is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) to clinically treat diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D); however, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are unclear to date.

Aim Of The Study: To explore the mechanism underlying the therapeutic action of WCAP in IBS-D using a network pharmacology approach and in vivo experiments.

Materials And Methods: The active compounds of WCAP were selected from the TCM Systems Pharmacology Database and TCM Integrated Database, and the potential targets were identified using the Swiss Target Prediction and Similarity Ensemble Approach (SEA) databases. Read More

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Prediction of tumor response via a pretreatment MRI radiomics-based nomogram in HCC treated with TACE.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui Hospital of Zhejiang University/the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lishui, 323000, China.

Objectives: To develop and validate a pre-transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) MRI-based radiomics model for predicting tumor response in intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

Materials: Ninety-nine intermediate-advanced HCC patients (69 for training, 30 for validation) treated with TACE were enrolled. MRI examinations were performed before TACE, and the efficacy was evaluated according to the mRECIST criterion 3 months after TACE. Read More

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Sustained Release GLP-1 Agonist PT320 Delays Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 16;4(2):858-869. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan.

GLP-1 agonists have become increasingly interesting as a new Parkinson's disease (PD) clinical treatment strategy. Additional preclinical studies are important to validate this approach and define the disease stage when they are most effective. We hence characterized the efficacy of PT320, a sustained release formulation of the long acting GLP-1 agonist, exenatide, in a progressive PD (MitoPark) mouse model. Read More

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Selective Endocannabinoid Reuptake Inhibitor WOBE437 Reduces Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 26;4(2):765-779. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) TransCure, University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.

The modulation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has shown positive results in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and immune and inflammatory disorders. However, chronic administration of CB1 receptor agonists and degrading enzyme inhibitors can lead to CB1 receptor desensitization and sedation. WOBE437 is the prototype of a new class of ECS modulators named selective endocannabinoid reuptake inhibitors (SERIs), which mildly and selectively increase central endocannabinoid levels with a self-limiting mode of action. Read More

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Psilocybin-Assisted Group Therapy and Attachment: Observed Reduction in Attachment Anxiety and Influences of Attachment Insecurity on the Psilocybin Experience.

ACS Pharmacol Transl Sci 2021 Apr 9;4(2):526-532. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143, United States.

Attachment insecurity is determined early in life, is a risk factor for psychopathology, and can be measured on two separate continuous dimensions: attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance. Therapeutic changes toward more secure attachment correlate with reduction in psychiatric symptoms. Psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy has demonstrated promise in the treatment of psychopathology, such as treatment-resistant depression and substance use disorders. Read More

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Traditional Chinese Medicine Shenmayizhi Decoction Ameliorates Memory and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Multiple Cerebral Infarctions.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 30;2021:6648455. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100091, China.

This study aimed to illustrate the mechanism by which Shenmayizhi decoction (SMYZD) improves the learning memory of rats with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). Fifty male and female Wistar rats of specific pathogen-free grade (SPF grade) were used to establish the model by the administration of a microsphere embolization. This was accomplished by injecting sterile, standardized, mass-produced microspheres of uniform particle size (100-200 m in diameter) in a sodium alginate microsphere vascular embolic agent suspension to induce VCI. Read More

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Splenic Nerve Neuromodulation Reduces Inflammation and Promotes Resolution in Chronically Implanted Pigs.

Front Immunol 2021 29;12:649786. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Clinical Science & Services, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, United Kingdom.

Neuromodulation of the immune system has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. We recently demonstrated that stimulation of near-organ autonomic nerves to the spleen can be harnessed to modulate the inflammatory response in an anesthetized pig model. The development of neuromodulation therapy for the clinic requires chronic efficacy and safety testing in a large animal model. Read More

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Reliability of Serological Prestin Levels in Humans and its Relation to Otoacoustic Emissions, a Functional Measure of Outer Hair Cells.

Ear Hear 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT Connecticut Institute for Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT.

Objectives: Serological biomarkers, common to many areas of medicine, have the potential to inform on the health of the human body and to give early warning of risk of compromised function or illness before symptoms are experienced. Serological measurement of prestin, a motor protein uniquely produced and expressed in outer hair cells, has recently been identified as a potential biomarker to inform on the health of the cochlea. Before any test can be introduced into the clinical toolkit, the reproducibility of the measurement when repeated in the same subject must be considered. Read More

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Colorectal cancer screening using a stool DNA-based SDC2 methylation test: a multicenter, prospective trial.

BMC Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 15;21(1):173. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Surgery, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, 892 Dongnam-ro, Seoul, Gangdong-gu, 05278, Korea.

Background: Prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is a global priority, with many countries conducting population-based CRC screening programs. Although colonoscopy is the most accurate diagnostic method for early CRC detection, adherence remains low because of its invasiveness and the need for extensive bowel preparation. Non-invasive fecal occult blood tests or fecal immunochemical tests are available; however, their sensitivity is relatively low. Read More

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Establishing the base rate of performance invalidity in a clinical electrical injury sample: Implications for neuropsychological test performance.

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 2021 Apr 16:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

: The base rate of neuropsychological performance invalidity in electrical injury, a clinically-distinct and frequently compensation-seeking population, is not well established. This study determined the base rate of performance invalidity in a large electrical injury sample, and examined patient characteristics, injury parameters, and neuropsychological test performance based on validity status.: This cross-sectional study included data from 101 patients with electrical injury consecutively referred for post-acute neuropsychological evaluation. Read More

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Adjuvant pembrolizumab versus placebo in resected stage III melanoma (EORTC 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054): health-related quality-of-life results from a double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Princess Máxima Center, Utrecht, Netherlands; University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054 trial in patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma demonstrated improved recurrence-free survival with adjuvant pembrolizumab compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74]; p<0·0001). This study reports the results from the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) exploratory endpoint.

Methods: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Read More

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Thermal Stability and in Vitro Elution Kinetics of Alternative Antibiotics in Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Bone Cement.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Orthopaedic Trauma Service (A.E.L. and D.S.W.), Musculoskeletal Integrity Program (K.T., X.Y, A.V.C., and M.P.B.), Infectious Diseases (A.O.M.), and Adult Reconstruction (A.V.C. and M.P.B.), Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Amikacin, meropenem, minocycline, and fosfomycin have potential clinical utility for orthopaedic infections; however, their suitability for use in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was (1) to quantify the thermal stability of these antibiotics at clinically relevant temperatures and (2) to determine the elution pharmacodynamics of these alternative antibiotics in vitro from PMMA beads of different sizes.

Methods: Polymerization temperatures of 10-mm PMMA beads were measured over time to generate a simulated heating curve. Read More

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Performance of Prognostication Scores for Mortality in Injured Patients in Rwanda.

West J Emerg Med 2021 Jan 22;22(2):435-444. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Brown University Warren Alpert Medical School, Department of Emergency Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island.

Introduction: While trauma prognostication and triage scores have been designed for use in lower-resourced healthcare settings specifically, the comparative clinical performance between trauma-specific and general triage scores for risk-stratifying injured patients in such settings is not well understood. This study evaluated the Kampala Trauma Score (KTS), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), and Triage Early Warning Score (TEWS) for accuracy in predicting mortality among injured patients seeking emergency department (ED) care at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Kigali (CHUK) in Rwanda.

Methods: A retrospective, randomly sampled cohort of ED patients presenting with injury was accrued from August 2015-July 2016. Read More

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January 2021