20,808 results match your criteria delineation

Indicator of redox in soil (IRIS) films as a water management tool for rice farmers.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:112920. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 531 S. College Avenue, Townsend Hall Rm 152, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA. Electronic address:

Rice is a crucial part of the world's food supply but is also susceptible to uptake of contaminants including arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) depending on the soil redox potential. Careful control of soil redox state by implementing alternate wetting and drying (AWD) water management can decrease mobility of soil As and Cd, but can be difficult to manage. Indicators of reduction in soil (IRIS) tubes and films have been studied by pedologists for wetland delineation; here, we explore the use of the IRIS film technology as passive samplers of soil redox potential in rice paddies. Read More

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Learning about quantitative genetics from Marla Sokolowski.

J Neurogenet 2021 Jun 15:1-2. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Marla Sokolowski is a true pioneer in behavioral genetics, having made the first molecular delineation of a naturally occurring behavioral polymorphism in her work on the foraging locus in . The gene was subsequently found to be responsible for behavioral variants and types in many other species, both invertebrate and mammal (human). The path to get there is a paradigmatic example of how to use the power of genetic analysis, including some rather esoteric techniques, to zero in on a gene and delineate its molecular identity and its pleiotropic roles. Read More

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Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children exposed to newer antiseizure medications: A systematic review.

Epilepsia 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Evolution and Genomic Science, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

As prenatal exposure to certain older antiseizure medications (ASMs) has been linked with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, the use of newer ASMs throughout pregnancy has increased. The current review aimed to delineate the impact of in utero exposure to these newer ASMs on child neurodevelopment. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature Plus, and PsycINFO was conducted, limiting results to articles available in English and published after the year 2000. Read More

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A pH ratiometrically responsive surface enhanced resonance Raman scattering probe for tumor acidic margin delineation and image-guided surgery.

Chem Sci 2020 Apr 7;11(17):4397-4402. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University Shanghai 201203 China

Surgery remains the mainstay for most solid tumor treatments. However, surgeons face challenges in intra-operatively identifying invasive tumor margins due to their infiltrative nature. Incomplete excision usually leads to early recurrence, while aggressive resection may injure adjacent functional tissues. Read More

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Breast reconstruction and radiation therapy: An Italian expert Delphi consensus statements and critical review.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 May 27;99:102236. Epub 2021 May 27.

Group for Reconstructive and Therapeutic Advancements (G.RE.T.A.), Milan, Naples, Catania, Italy.

Breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiation therapy (RT) or mastectomy have shown comparable oncological outcomes in early-stage breast cancer and are considered standard of care treatments. Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) targeted to both the chest wall and regional lymph nodes is recommended in high-risk patients. Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery (OBCS) represents a significant recent improvement in breast surgery. Read More

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Volumetric tumor delineation and assessment of its early response to radiotherapy with optical coherence tomography.

Biomed Opt Express 2021 May 27;12(5):2952-2967. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

University of Toronto, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biophysics, 101 College St., Toronto, M5G 1L7, Canada.

Texture analyses of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images have shown initial promise for differentiation of normal and tumor tissues. This work develops a fully automatic volumetric tumor delineation technique employing quantitative OCT image speckle analysis based on Gamma distribution fits. We test its performance using immunodeficient mice with dorsal skin window chambers and subcutaneously grown tumor models. Read More

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The sporothriolides. A new biosynthetic family of fungal secondary metabolites.

Chem Sci 2020 Oct 21;11(46):12477-12484. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Centre of Biomolecular Drug Research (BMWZ), Institute for Organic Chemistry, Leibniz University Hannover Schneiderberg 38 30167 Hannover Germany

The biosynthetic gene cluster of the antifungal metabolite sporothriolide was identified from three producing ascomycetes: MUCL 54604, CLL 205 and DAOMC 242471. A transformation protocol was established, and genes encoding a fatty acid synthase subunit and a citrate synthase were simultaneously knocked out which led to loss of sporothriolide and sporochartine production. reactions showed that the sporochartines are derived from non-enzymatic Diels-Alder cycloaddition of and trienylfuranol A during the fermentation and extraction process. Read More

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October 2020

To evaluate volume changes on computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging-based delineation during radiotherapy treatment planning in prostate cancer.

J Cancer Res Ther 2021 Apr-Jun;17(2):379-382

Department of Radiation Oncology, Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on radiotherapy target volume changes in prostate cancer.

Materials And Methods: Ten patients with localized prostate cancer receiving radical radiotherapy were included in the study. Computerized tomography (CT) simulation was done with adequate immobilization, and pelvic MRI was also done at the same time. Read More

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Edge-enhancing gradient echo with multi-image co-registration and averaging (EDGE-MICRA) for targeting thalamic centromedian and parafascicular nuclei.

Neuroradiol J 2021 Jun 13:19714009211021781. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Florida, USA.

Background And Purpose: Deep brain stimulation of the thalamus is an effective treatment for multiple neurological disorders. The centromedian and parafascicular nuclei are recently emerging targets for multiple conditions, such as epilepsy and Tourette syndrome; however, their limited visibility on conventional magnetic resonance imaging sequences has been a major obstacle. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-resolution and high-contrast targeting sequence for centromedian-parafascicular deep brain stimulation using a recently described magnetic resonance imaging sequence, three-dimensional edge-enhancing gradient echo. Read More

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Co-mutation modules capture the evolution and transmission patterns of SARS-CoV-2.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Center for Systems Medicine, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005; Suzhou Institute of Systems Medicine, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China.

The rapid spread and huge impact of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the emerging SARS-CoV-2 have driven large efforts for sequencing and analyzing the viral genomes. Mutation analyses have revealed that the virus keeps mutating and shows a certain degree of genetic diversity, which could result in the alteration of its infectivity and pathogenicity. Therefore, appropriate delineation of SARS-CoV-2 genetic variants enables us to understand its evolution and transmission patterns. Read More

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Recommendations for planning and delivery of radical radiotherapy for localized urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiotherapy, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: Curative radio-chemotherapy is recognized as a standard treatment option for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Nevertheless, the technical aspects for MIBC radiotherapy are heterogeneous with a lack of practical recommendations.

Methods And Materials: In 2018, a workshop identified the need for two cooperative groups to develop consistent, evidence-based guidelines for irradiation technique in the delivery of curative radiotherapy. Read More

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Silica and secondary metabolites as chemophenetic markers for characterization of bamboo species in relation to genetic and morphometric analysis.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Environmental Biotechnology and Genomics Division, CSIR-National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nehru Marg, Nagpur, 440020, India.

Bamboo is a non-timber forest product and one of the most important grass plants of industrial and domestic use. It is widely distributed in tropical countries including India, China and Southeast Asian countries with wide genetic diversity. The diversity in the available genotypes becomes an important resource for the selection and improvement of the plants for ecological and commercial use. Read More

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Orthodontic treatment planning: can we plan for stability?

Br Dent J 2021 Jun 11;230(11):717-721. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Orthodontics, Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AD, UK.

Careful orthodontic treatment planning should involve the delineation of clear treatment objectives within each dental arch. Treatment planning decisions are underpinned by aesthetic goals, dental health considerations and the prospect of stability, with these factors often competing. There is also a near-universal acceptance of the requirement for some form of retention. Read More

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Delineation of an insula-BNST circuit engaged by struggling behavior that regulates avoidance in mice.

Nat Commun 2021 06 11;12(1):3561. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Vanderbilt Center for Addiction Research, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

Active responses to stressors involve motor planning, execution, and feedback. Here we identify an insular cortex to BNST (insula) circuit recruited during restraint stress-induced active struggling that modulates affective behavior. We demonstrate that activity in this circuit tightly follows struggling behavioral events and that the size of the fluorescent sensor transient reports the duration of the struggle event, an effect that fades with repeated exposure to the homotypic stressor. Read More

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Imaging Assessment of the Postoperative Spine: An Updated Pictorial Review of Selected Complications.

Biomed Res Int 2021 18;2021:9940001. Epub 2021 May 18.

Directorate of Research, Hospital General de Mexico "Dr. Eduardo Liceaga", Mexico City, Mexico.

Imaging of the postoperative spine requires the identification of several critical points by the radiologist to be written in the medical report: condition of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone, intervertebral disc, and musculoskeletal tissues; location and integrity of surgical implants; evaluation of the success of decompression procedures; delineation of fusion status; and identification of complications. This article presents a pictorial narrative review of the most common findings observed in and postoperative spines. Complications in the spine were grouped in (hematomas, pseudomeningocele, and postoperative spine infection) and findings (arachnoiditis, radiculitis, recurrent disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and textiloma). Read More

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Delineation of cellular stages and identification of key proteins for reduction and biotransformation of Se(IV) by Stenotrophomonas bentonitica BII-R7.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 24;418:126150. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Microbiology, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada, Spain.

The widespread use of selenium (Se) in technological applications (e.g., solar cells and electronic devices) has led to an accumulation of this metalloid in the environment to toxic levels. Read More

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Further Delineation of the Clinical and Pathologic Features of HIKESHI-Related Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy.

Pediatr Neurol 2021 May 14;121:11-19. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: A recurrent homozygous missense variant, c.160G>C;p.(Val54Leu) in HIKESHI, was found to cause a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with high frequency in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Read More

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Molecular Identification and Genetic Characterization of Early-Stage Multiple Primary Lung Cancer by Large-Panel Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:653988. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beijing Haidian Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: The incidence of early stage multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC) has been increasing in recent years, while the ideal strategy for its diagnosis and treatment remains controversial. The present study conducted genomic analysis to identify a new molecular classification method for accurately predicting the diagnosis and therapy for patients with early stage MPLC.

Methods: A total of 240 tissue samples from 203 patients with multiple-non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) (n = 30), early stage single-NSCLC (Group A, n = 94), and advanced-stage NSCLC (Group B, n = 79) were subjected to targeted multigene panel sequencing. Read More

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Large-scale open-source three-dimensional growth curves for clinical facial assessment and objective description of facial dysmorphism.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12175. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Human Genetics, KU Leuven, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.

Craniofacial dysmorphism is associated with thousands of genetic and environmental disorders. Delineation of salient facial characteristics can guide clinicians towards a correct clinical diagnosis and understanding the pathogenesis of the disorder. Abnormal facial shape might require craniofacial surgical intervention, with the restoration of normal shape an important surgical outcome. Read More

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Interobserver variability in target volume delineation in definitive radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal cancer: a multi-center study from China.

Radiat Oncol 2021 Jun 9;16(1):102. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: To investigate the interobserver variability (IOV) in target volume delineation of definitive radiotherapy for thoracic esophageal cancer (TEC) among cancer centers in China, and ultimately improve contouring consistency as much as possible to lay the foundation for multi-center prospective studies.

Methods: Sixteen cancer centers throughout China participated in this study. In Phase 1, three suitable cases with upper, middle, and lower TEC were chosen, and participants were asked to contour a group of gross tumor volume (GTV-T), nodal gross tumor volume (GTV-N) and clinical target volume (CTV) for each case based on their routine experience. Read More

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Toward PET/MRI as one-stop shop for radiotherapy planning in cervical cancer patients.

Acta Oncol 2021 Jun 9:1-9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Radiotherapy (RT) planning for cervical cancer patients entails the acquisition of both Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Further, molecular imaging by Positron Emission Tomography (PET) could contribute to target volume delineation as well as treatment response monitoring. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a PET/MRI-only RT planning workflow of patients with cervical cancer. Read More

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Clinical Features of de novo Pure 16q21q24.1 Chromosome Duplication.

Cytogenet Genome Res 2021 Jun 9:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

SARAH Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Brasilia, Brazil.

Pure partial duplications of the long arm of chromosome 16 are rare and few cases are described with delineation by chromosomal microarray. Data about clinical abnormalities of pure partial 16q duplications are incomplete because many individuals die during the perinatal period. We describe the clinical features of a 47-month-old Brazilian girl with 16q21q24. Read More

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Delineation of a novel environmental phylogroup of the genus Acinetobacter encompassing Acinetobacter terrae sp. nov., Acinetobacter terrestris sp. nov. and three other tentative species.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2021 May 24;44(4):126217. Epub 2021 May 24.

Institute for Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, University of Cologne, Goldenfelstrasse 19-21 50935 Cologne, and German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Bonn-Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

This study aimed to define the taxonomic position and structure of a novel, taxonomically unique group of 26 Acinetobacter strains, provisionally designated Taxon 24 (T24). The strains were recovered from soil and freshwater ecosystems (n = 21) or animals (n = 5) in Czechia, Scotland, Germany, the Netherlands and Turkey between 1993 and 2015. They were non-glucose-acidifying, nonhemolytic, nonproteolytic, growing at 32 °C and on acetate and ethanol as single carbon sources, but not on 4-hydroxybenzoate and mostly not at 37 °C. Read More

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Automated Quantification of Choriocapillaris Lesion Area in Patients with Posterior Uveitis.

Am J Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 6. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To validate a custom algorithm for automated identification and quantification of clinically relevant inflammatory choriocapillaris (CC) lesions from en face swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCTA) images.

Design: observational case series METHODS: : Twenty eyes of 14 patients with posterior uveitis were imaged using the PLEX® Elite 9000. The machine-generated en face OCTA CC slabs were exported to MATLAB where a custom algorithm performed unsupervised lesion boundary delineation and area quantification. Read More

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Computerized delineation of the teeth and comparison with a smiling photograph: identification of a body skeletonized by cadaverous ichthyofauna action.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Public Health and Forensic Sciences, and Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Amazonian's forensic experts usually experience considerable difficulties in the identification of drowned bodies rescued from the rivers of the Amazon basin, since they are frequently found skeletonized by the action of the cadaverous ichthyofauna. In these circumstances, especially when the soft tissues are completely absent, bones and teeth may represent the unique source of information for the identification of the body. This work reports a case of positive identification of a body skeletonized by scavenger ichthyofauna. Read More

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Electroclinical markers to differentiate between focal and generalized epilepsies.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Paediatric Neurology Division, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, Neurosciences Institute, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Generalized-onset seizures originate at a point within the brain and rapidly engage bilaterally distributed networks, whilst focal-onset seizures originate within networks limited to one hemisphere which may be discretely localized or more widely distributed. Challenges in data capturing have resulted in a lack of consistency across incidence and prevalence studies for estimates of generalized versus focal epilepsies in population groups, with a preponderance of unclassified cases. Infants and young children can further challenge delineation due to variable expression at different stages of brain maturation and impaired ability to express sensory seizure semiology. Read More

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Morphology Matters: A Critical Reappraisal of the Clinical Relevance of Morphologic Criteria From the 2019 WHO Classification in a Large Colorectal Cancer Cohort Comprising 1004 Cases.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 Jul;45(7):969-978

Institute of Pathology.

The 2019 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) profoundly reclassified CRC subtypes and introduces tumor budding as a second major grading criterion, while condensing conventional grade into a 2-tiered system. So far it remains largely unexplored how these parameters interact with each other and whether they truly have an independent impact on patient prognosis. We reclassified a large single-center cohort of 1004 CRCs spanning 2 decades for adjusted WHO grade (low vs. Read More

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Early assessment of lung function in coronavirus patients using invariant markers from chest X-rays images.

Sci Rep 2021 06 8;11(1):12095. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

BioImaging Laboratory, Department of Bioengineering, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

The primary goal of this manuscript is to develop a computer assisted diagnostic (CAD) system to assess pulmonary function and risk of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The CAD system processes chest X-ray data and provides accurate, objective imaging markers to assist in the determination of patients with a higher risk of death and thus are more likely to require mechanical ventilation and/or more intensive clinical care.To obtain an accurate stochastic model that has the ability to detect the severity of lung infection, we develop a second-order Markov-Gibbs random field (MGRF) invariant under rigid transformation (translation or rotation of the image) as well as scale (i. Read More

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Data-driven flood hazard zonation of Italy.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 6;294:112986. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

CNR IRPI, Via Della Madonna Alta 126, I-06128, Perugia, Italy; Dipartimento Della Protezione Civile, Via Vitorchiano 2, I-00189, Roma, Italy.

We present Flood-SHE, a data-driven, statistically-based procedure for the delineation of areas expected to be inundated by river floods. We applied Flood-SHE in the 23 River Basin Authorities (RBAs) in Italy using information on the presence or absence of inundations obtained from existing flood zonings as the dependent variable, and six hydro-morphometric variables computed from a 10 m × 10 m DEM as covariates. We trained 96 models for each RBA using 32 combinations of the hydro-morphometric covariates for the three return periods, for a total of 2208 models, which we validated using 32 model sets for each of the covariate combinations and return periods, for a total of 3072 validation models. Read More

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Opening a next-generation black box: ecological trends for hundreds of species-like taxa uncovered within a single bacterial >99% 16S rRNA operational taxonomic unit.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Research Department for Limnology, University of Innsbruck, Mondseestrasse 9, A-5310, Mondsee, Austria.

Current knowledge on environmental distribution and taxon richness of free-living bacteria is mainly based on cultivation-independent investigations employing 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods. Yet, 16S rRNA genes are evolutionarily rather conserved, resulting in limited taxonomic and ecological resolutions provided by this marker. The faster evolving protein-encoding gene priB was used to reveal ecological patterns hidden within a single OTU defined by >99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity. Read More

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