1,307 results match your criteria degradative process

VE-cadherin N-glycosylation modified by GnT-V regulates VE-cadherin/β-catenin interaction and monocyte adhesion.

Exp Physiol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

College of Pharmacy, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, P.R. China.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Inflammation-induced monocyte adhesion is the initiator of most vascular diseases. The underlying mechanisms mediating monocyte adhesion remain to be fully clarified. What is the main finding and its importance? GnT-V medicated N-glycosylation on VE-cadherin regulates the dissociation of VE-cadherin/β-catenin complex to modulate the monocyte adhesion, but GnT-V overexpression can not rescue monocyte adhesion induced by IL-1β. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chemical and physical interactions of regenerated cellulose yarns and isocyanate-based matrix systems.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11647. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Material Sciences and Process Engineering, Institute of Wood Technology and Renewable Materials, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430, Vienna, Tulln, Austria.

In the development of structural composites based on regenerated cellulose filaments, the physical and chemical interactions at the fibre-matrix interphase need to be fully understood. In the present study, continuous yarns and filaments of viscose (rayon) were treated with either polymeric diphenylmethane diisocyanate (pMDI) or a pMDI-based hardener for polyurethane resins. The effect of isocyanate treatment on mechanical yarn properties was evaluated in tensile tests. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Milk Foodomics Investigation into the Effect of Growth under Cold Chain Conditions.

Foods 2021 May 24;10(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Department for Sustainable Food Process (DiSTAS), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122 Piacenza, Italy.

is a psychrotrophic species associated with milk spoilage because of its lipolytic and proteolytic activities. Consequently, monitoring or its antecedent activity in milk is critical to preventing quality defects of the product and minimizing food waste. Therefore, in this study, untargeted metabolomics and peptidomics were used to identify the changes in milk related to activity by simulating the low-temperature conditions usually found in milk during the cold chain. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The autophagy protein Becn1 improves insulin sensitivity by promoting adiponectin secretion via exocyst binding.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(8):109184

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Electronic address:

Autophagy dysregulation is implicated in metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism by which the autophagy machinery regulates metabolism is largely unknown. Autophagy is generally considered a degradation process via lysosomes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent advances in measuring and understanding the regulation of exercise-mediated protein degradation in skeletal muscle.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2021 05 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Skeletal muscle protein turnover plays a crucial role in controlling muscle mass and protein quality control, including sarcomeric (structural and contractile) proteins. Protein turnover is a dynamic and continual process of protein synthesis and degradation. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is a key degradative system for protein degradation and protein quality control in skeletal muscle. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Interplay of HIV and Autophagy in Early Infection.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:661446. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Laboratorio de Inmunología Celular y Viral, Unidad de Farmacología, Sección de Medicina, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, e IUETSPC de la Universidad de La Laguna, Campus de Ofra s/n, Tenerife, Spain.

HIV/AIDS is still a global threat despite the notable efforts made by the scientific and health communities to understand viral infection, to design new drugs or to improve existing ones, as well as to develop advanced therapies and vaccine designs for functional cure and viral eradication. The identification and analysis of HIV-1 positive individuals that naturally control viral replication in the absence of antiretroviral treatment has provided clues about cellular processes that could interact with viral proteins and RNA and define subsequent viral replication and clinical progression. This is the case of autophagy, a degradative process that not only maintains cell homeostasis by recycling misfolded/old cellular elements to obtain nutrients, but is also relevant in the innate and adaptive immunity against viruses, such as HIV-1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chloroplast dismantling in leaf senescence.

J Exp Bot 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis, Universidad de Sevilla and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Avda, Américo Vespucio 49, 41092-Sevilla, Spain.

In photosynthetic plant cells, chloroplasts act as factories of metabolic intermediates that support plant growth. Chloroplast performance is highly influenced by environmental cues; thus, these organelles have the additional function of sensing ever changing environmental conditions, thereby playing a key role in harmonizing the growth and development of the different organs of the plant and its acclimation to the environment. Moreover, these organelles constitute an excellent source of metabolic intermediates that are remobilized to sink tissues during senescence so that chloroplast dismantling is a tightly regulated process that plays a key role in plant development. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Manifestations of Age on Autophagy, Mitophagy and Lysosomes in Skeletal Muscle.

Cells 2021 Apr 29;10(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Muscle Health Research Centre, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.

Sarcopenia is the loss of both muscle mass and function with age. Although the molecular underpinnings of sarcopenia are not fully understood, numerous pathways are implicated, including autophagy, in which defective cargo is selectively identified and degraded at the lysosome. The specific tagging and degradation of mitochondria is termed mitophagy, a process important for the maintenance of an organelle pool that functions efficiently in energy production and with relatively low reactive oxygen species production. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces spatio-temporal secretion of IL-1β, TNFα, proMMP-9, and reduction of epithelial E-cadherin in human alveolar epithelial type II (A549) cells.

Acta Biochim Pol 2021 May;68(2):207-215

Department of Inmunobioquímica, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología "Isidro Espinoza de los Reyes" (INPerIER), Ciudad de México, México.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is an opportunistic bacterium with a high prevalence in diverse pulmonary infections. Although several genes are involved in the system of resistance and evasion of the immunological response of the host, little is known about the inflammatory, degradative, and cell-binding response induced by P. aeruginosa in human lung alveolar epithelial cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Autophagy in Plant Abiotic Stress Management.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 15;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

Plants can be considered an open system. Throughout their life cycle, plants need to exchange material, energy and information with the outside world. To improve their survival and complete their life cycle, plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to maintain cellular homeostasis during development and in response to environmental changes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

: Dichotomous Autophagic Interplay for Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:642771. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, United States.

Autophagy is a vital conserved degradative process that maintains cellular homeostasis by recycling or eliminating dysfunctional cellular organelles and proteins. More recently, autophagy has become a well-recognized host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens through a process known as xenophagy. On the host-microbe battlefield many intracellular bacterial pathogens have developed the ability to subvert xenophagy to establish infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Post-Golgi carriers, not lysosomes, confer lysosomal properties to pre-degradative organelles in normal and dystrophic axons.

Cell Rep 2021 Apr;35(4):109034

Center for Dementia Research, Nathan S. Kline Institute, Orangeburg, NY 10962, USA; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA; Department of Cell Biology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA; NYU Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Lysosomal trafficking and maturation in neurons remain poorly understood and are unstudied in vivo despite high disease relevance. We generated neuron-specific transgenic mice to track vesicular CTSD acquisition, acidification, and traffic within the autophagic-lysosomal pathway in vivo, revealing that mature lysosomes are restricted from axons. Moreover, TGN-derived transport carriers (TCs), not lysosomes, supply lysosomal components to axonal organelles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metalloelastase-12 is involved in the temporomandibular joint inflammatory response as well as cartilage degradation by aggrecanases in STR/Ort mice.

Biomed Rep 2021 Jun 1;14(6):51. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-8640, Japan.

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) is characterised by clinical symptoms involving both the masticatory muscles and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Disc internal derangement and osteoarthritis (OA) are the most common forms of TMJD. Currently, the molecular process associated with degenerative changes in the TMJ is unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Lysosome (Dys)function in Atherosclerosis-A Big Weight on the Shoulders of a Small Organelle.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 29;9:658995. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

iNOVA4Health, Chronic Diseases Research Center (CEDOC), NOVA Medical School (NMS), Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Atherosclerosis is a progressive insidious chronic disease that underlies most of the cardiovascular pathologies, including myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. The malfunctioning of the lysosomal compartment has a central role in the etiology and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lysosomes are the degradative organelles of mammalian cells and process endogenous and exogenous substrates in a very efficient manner. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Novel Insight into the Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Pathogenesis of Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

Hang Zhu Hao Zhou

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 26;2021:5529810. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Institute of Geriatric Cardiovascular Disease, Medical School of Chinese People's Liberation Army, China.

Impaired function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is followed by evolutionarily conserved cell stress responses, which are employed by cells, including cardiomyocytes, to maintain and/or restore ER homeostasis. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to degrade and remove abnormal proteins from the ER lumen. Although the UPR is an intracellular defense mechanism to sustain cardiomyocyte viability and heart function, excessive activation initiates ER-dependent cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Plasmodium falciparum Atg18 localizes to the food vacuole via interaction with the multi-drug resistance protein 1 and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate.

Biochem J 2021 May;478(9):1705-1732

CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500007, TS, India.

Autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradative process, does not appear to be a major degradative process in malaria parasites and has a limited repertoire of genes. To better understand the autophagy process, we investigated Plasmodium falciparum Atg18 (PfAtg18), a PROPPIN family protein, whose members like S. cerevisiae Atg18 (ScAtg18) and human WIPI2 bind PI3P and play an essential role in autophagosome formation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Protective or Harmful: The Dual Roles of Autophagy in Diabetic Retinopathy.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 25;8:644121. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Ocular Fundus Diseases, Department of Ophthalmology, National Clinical Research Center for Eye Diseases, Shanghai Engineering Center for Visual Science and Photomedicine, Shanghai Engineering Center for Precise Diagnosis and Treatment of Eye Diseases, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Autophagy is a self-degradative pathway involving intracellular substance degradation and recycling. Recently, this process has attracted a great deal of attention for its fundamental effect on physiological processes in cells, tissues, and the maintenance of organismal homeostasis. Dysregulation of autophagy occurs in some diseases, including immune disease, cancer, and neurodegenerative conditions. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Regulatory Mechanisms of Autophagy-Targeted Antimicrobial Therapeutics Against Mycobacterial Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 22;11:633360. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Microbiology, Chungnam National University School of Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea.

(Mtb) is an intracellular pathogen causing human tuberculosis, an infectious disease that still remains as a global health problem. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative process, has emerged as a critical pathway to restrict intracellular Mtb growth through enhancement of phagosomal maturation. Indeed, several autophagy-modulating agents show promise as host-directed therapeutics for Mtb infection. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Autophagy in normal pituitary and pituitary tumor cells and its potential role in the actions of somatostatin receptor ligands in acromegaly.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2021 Jun 5;22(2):147-160. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Institute of Endocrine and Metabolic Sciences, Division of Endocrinology IRCCS, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved process for the self-degradation and recycling of cellular components in the cytoplasm. It is involved in both physiological and pathological conditions. In detail, the term "autophagy" refers to intracellular degradative pathways that lead to packaging and deliver of cellular components to lysosomes or to plant and yeast vacuoles. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

From Metabolic Syndrome to Neurological Diseases: Role of Autophagy.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:651021. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

IRC-FSH Department of Health Sciences, University "Magna Graecia" of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy.

Metabolic syndrome is not a single pathology, but a constellation of cardiovascular disease risk factors including: central and abdominal obesity, systemic hypertension, insulin resistance (or type 2 diabetes mellitus), and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The global incidence of Metabolic syndrome is estimated to be about one quarter of the world population; for this reason, it would be desirable to better understand the underlying mechanisms involved in order to develop treatments that can reduce or eliminate the damage caused. The effects of Metabolic syndrome are multiple and wide ranging; some of which have an impact on the central nervous system and cause neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association between autophagy-related protein 5 gene polymorphisms and epilepsy in Chinese patients.

Neurosci Lett 2021 05 1;753:135870. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a highly conserved degradative process that has been associated with a number of neurological diseases. Autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) is one of the key genes for the regulation of the autophagy pathway. In this study, we investigated the potential relationship between ATG5 gene polymorphisms and epilepsy in Han Chinese population. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sunscreens Containing Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Enhanced Efficiency: A Strategy for Skin Cancer Prevention.

Molecules 2021 Mar 18;26(6). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Life Sciences, Pharmacy and Chemistry, SEC Faculty, Kingston University, Kingston-upon-Thames KT1 2EE, UK.

Unprotected exposure of skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may damage the DNA of skin cells and can lead to skin cancer. Sunscreens are topical formulations used to protect skin against UVR. The active ingredients of sunscreens are UV filters that absorb, scatter, and/or reflect UVR. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Recent Advances in Understanding the Role of Autophagy in Paediatric Brain Tumours.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Pediatric Hemato-Oncology and Cell and Gene Therapy, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Autophagy is a degradative process occurring in eukaryotic cells to maintain homeostasis and cell survival. After stressful conditions including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia or drugs administration, autophagy is induced to counteract pathways that could lead to cell death. In cancer, autophagy plays a paradoxical role, acting both as tumour suppressor-by cleaning cells from damaged organelles and inhibiting inflammation or, alternatively, by promoting genomic stability and tumour adaptive response-or as a pro-survival mechanism to protect cells from stresses such as chemotherapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Roles of TRIMs in Antiviral Innate Immune Signaling.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 15;11:628275. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Immune Mechanism and Intervention on Serious Disease in Hebei Province, Department of Immunology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

The Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family, which contains over 80 members in human sapiens, is the largest subfamily of the RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase family. It is implicated in regulating various cellular functions, including cell cycle process, autophagy, and immune response. The dysfunction of TRIMs may lead to numerous diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Autophagy in Viral Development and Progression of Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 8;11:603224. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Departamento de Fisiología y Biología Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Autophagy is a complex degradative process by which eukaryotic cells capture cytoplasmic components for subsequent degradation through lysosomal hydrolases. Although this catabolic process can be triggered by a great variety of stimuli, action in cells varies according to cellular context. Autophagy has been previously linked to disease development modulation, including cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

POSTN promotes diabetic vascular calcification by interfering with autophagic flux.

Cell Signal 2021 Jul 17;83:109983. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao, Nanjing 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative process that is closely related to the pathogenesis of vascular calcification. Recent evidence suggests that periostin (POSTN) is a unique extracellular matrix protein that is associated with diabetic vascular complications. The aim of current study is to investigate the role of POSTN in diabetic vascular calcification and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PKA compartmentalization links cAMP signaling and autophagy.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Foundation for Advanced Biomedical Research, Veneto Institute of Molecular Medicine, Padua, Italy.

Autophagy is a highly regulated degradative process crucial for maintaining cell homeostasis. This important catabolic mechanism can be nonspecific, but usually occurs with fine spatial selectivity (compartmentalization), engaging only specific subcellular sites. While the molecular machines driving autophagy are well understood, the involvement of localized signaling events in this process is not well defined. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Autophagy in inflammation, infection, and immunometabolism.

Vojo Deretic

Immunity 2021 Mar;54(3):437-453

Autophagy Inflammation and Metabolism (AIM) Center of Biomedical Research Excellence, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a quality-control, metabolic, and innate immunity process. Normative autophagy affects many cell types, including hematopoietic as well as non-hematopoietic, and promotes health in model organisms and humans. When autophagy is perturbed, this has repercussions on diseases with inflammatory components, including infections, autoimmunity and cancer, metabolic disorders, neurodegeneration, and cardiovascular and liver diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Co-Zeolitic Imidazolate [email protected] Aerogels from Sugarcane Bagasse for Activating Peroxymonosulfate to Degrade P-Nitrophenol.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Guangxi Institute Fullerene Technology (GIFT), Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Resources, Environment and Materials, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

An efficient, green and reusable catalyst for organic pollutant wastewater treatment has been a subject of intense research in recent decades due to the limitation of current technologies. Cellulose based aerogel composites are considered to be an especially promising candidate for next-generation catalytic material. This project was conducted in order to evaluate the behavior and ability of green and reusable sugarcane bagasse aerogels to remove P-Nitrophesnol from waste-water aqueous. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Dynamics of Zeeman and dipolar states in the spin locking in a liquid entrapped in nano-cavities: Application to study of biological systems.

J Magn Reson 2021 Apr 11;325:106933. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Physics Department, Oakland University, Rochester, MI, USA.

We analyze the application of the spin locking method to study the spin dynamics and spin-lattice relaxation of nuclear spins-1/2 in liquids or gases enclosed in a nano-cavity. Two cases are considered: when the amplitude of the radio-frequency field is much greater than the local field acting the nucleus and when the amplitude of the radio-frequency field is comparable or even less than the local field. In these cases, temperatures of two spin reservoirs, the Zeeman and dipole ones, change in different ways: in the first case, temperatures of the Zeeman and dipolar reservoirs reach the common value relatively quickly, and then turn to the lattice temperature; in the second case, at the beginning of the process, these temperatures are equal, and then turn to the lattice temperature with different relaxation times. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF