291,580 results match your criteria degradation products

Fibrinolysis in Traumatic Brain Injury: Diagnosis, Management, and Clinical Considerations.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Posttraumatic coagulopathy involves disruption of both the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways secondary to tissue damage, hypotension, and inflammatory upregulation. This phenomenon contributes to delayed complications after traumatic brain injury (TBI), including intracranial hemorrhage progression and systemic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Development of an early hyperfibrinolytic state may result in uncontrolled bleeding and is associated with increased mortality in patients with TBI. Read More

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A strategy to determine the fate of active chemical compounds in soil; applied to antimicrobially active substances.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 7;279:130495. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen University & Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB, Wageningen, the Netherland.

Data on the fate of chemical substances in the environment after e.g. manure application is mandatory input for risk assessment in perspective of a more circular biobased economy. Read More

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Design and linkage optimization of ursane-thalidomide-based PROTACs and identification of their targeted-degradation properties to MDM2 protein.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Apr 8;111:104901. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forest, Nanjing 210042, Jiangsu, PR China. Electronic address:

Ursolic acid (UA) is an accessible triterpenoid, widely applied in the design and synthesis of antitumor compounds. However, the mechanism of its anti-tumor effect is still unclear. To verify the molecular mechanism of its biological activity, based on the bifunctional activity of ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of the target protein of the proteolysis-targeting chimeras (PROTACs) strategy, here we report the design, synthesis and cellular activity of six UA PROTAC hydrochloride compounds 1A-1F, in which UA acts as the binding ligand of the PROTAC and is linked to thalidomide (E3 ligand) through a series of synthetic linkers. Read More

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Curculigoside attenuates oxidative stress and osteoclastogenesis via modulating Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Apr 17:114129. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, 310053, China; School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Curculigo orchioides Gaertn is used for the treatment of impotence, atrophic debility of bones (osteoporosis), limb limpness, and arthritis of the lumbar and knee joints in traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medical system. Curculigoside (Cur) from Curculigo orchioides Gaertn has been shown to have regulatory effects on bone metabolism via anti-oxidative activities in rats and osteoblasts. However, little is known about the molecular pharmacological activity of Cur in osteoclastic bone resorption. Read More

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Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of high-fat emulsion-induced hyperlipidemia mice intervened by a polysaccharide from Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 17:112230. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Key Lab for Agro-product Processing and Quality Control of Nanchang City, College of Food Science and Engineering, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China. Electronic address:

Genome-wide DNA methylation was used to study the lipid-lowering effect of Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal) Iljinskaja polysaccharide (CPP). The objective of this study was to investigate the hypolipidemic effects and the potential underlying mechanisms of action of CPP-2 in high-fat emulsion (HFE)-induced mice. The results showed that CPP-2 reduced the level of genome-wide DNA methylation in the liver of HFE-induced mice, which had a lipid-lowering effect by regulating the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling-, fatty acid metabolism-, fatty acid biosynthesis- and adipocytokine signaling pathways. Read More

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PLGA Microspheres Containing Hydrophobically Modified Magnesium Hydroxide Particles for Acid Neutralization-Mediated Anti-Inflammation.

Tissue Eng Regen Med 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedical-Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon, Gyeonggi, 14662, Republic of Korea.

Background: Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres have been actively used in various pharmaceutical formulations because they can sustain active pharmaceutical ingredient release and are easy to administer into the body using a syringe. However, the acidic byproducts produced by the decomposition of PLGA cause inflammatory reactions in surrounding tissues, limiting biocompatibility. Magnesium hydroxide (MH), an alkaline ceramic, has attracted attention as a potential additive because it has an acid-neutralizing effect. Read More

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The vesicular trafficking system component MIN7 is required for minimizing Fusarium graminearum infection.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biointeractions and Crop Protection, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, United Kingdom.

Plants have developed intricate defense mechanisms, referred to as innate immunity, to defend themselves against a wide range of pathogens. Plants often respond rapidly to pathogen attack by the synthesis and delivery of various antimicrobial compounds, proteins and small RNA in membrane vesicles to the primary infection sites. Much of the evidence regarding the importance of vesicular trafficking in plant-pathogen interactions comes from the studies involving model plants whereas this process is relatively understudied in crop plants. Read More

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1,8-cineole ameliorates ischaemic brain damage via TRPC6/CREB pathways in rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Anesthesiology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Shiyan, Hubei, China.

Objectives: A previous in vitro study reported that the monoterpene oxide 1,8-cineole (cineole) attenuates neuronal caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation in culture. However, to date, there is no in vivo evidence showing neuroprotective effects of cineole against stroke. This study aimed to investigate whether cineole attenuates cerebral ischaemic damage in rats. Read More

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Perinatal exposure to silver nanoparticles reprograms immunometabolism and promotes pancreatic beta-cell death and kidney damage in mice.

Nanotoxicology 2021 Apr 20:1-25. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Developmental Toxicology Laboratory, Systems Toxicology & Health Risk Assessment Group, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Vishvigyan Bhawan, Lucknow, India.

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are extensively utilized in food, cosmetics, and healthcare products. Though the effects of AgNPs exposure on adults are well documented, the long-term effects of gestational/perinatal exposure upon the health of offspring have not been addressed. Herein, we show that only perinatal exposure to AgNPs through the mother could lead to chronic inflammation in offspring which persists till adulthood. Read More

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3-Hydroxypropionic acid contributes to the antibacterial activity of glycerol metabolism by the food microbe Limosilactobacillus reuteri.

Food Microbiol 2021 Sep 16;98:103720. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Microbiology, Nutrition and Dietetics, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamycka 129, Prague 6, 165 00 Prague, Czechia; Biological and Chemical Engineering, Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:

Strains of Limosilactobacillus reuteri are used as starter and bioprotective cultures and contribute to the preservation of food through the production of fermentation metabolites lactic and acetic acid, and of the antimicrobial reuterin. Reuterin consists of acrolein and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA), which can be further metabolized to 1,3-propanediol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). While reuterin has been the focus of many investigations, the contribution of 3-HP to the antimicrobial activity of food related reuterin-producers is unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Metatranscriptomics reveals the gene functions and metabolic properties of the major microbial community during Chinese Sichuan Paocai fermentation.

Food Microbiol 2021 Sep 3;98:103573. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science & Technology, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330047, PR China; School of Food Science & Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang, Jiangxi, 330047, PR China. Electronic address:

Chinese Sichuan Paocai (CSP) is one of the world's best-known fermented vegetables with a large presence in the Chinese market. The dynamic microbial community is the main contributor to Paocai fermentation. However, little is known about the ecological distribution and functional importance of these community members. Read More

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September 2021

Synthesis of Vanadium Doped Lanthanum Bismuthate Nanorods for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Oct;21(10):5329-5336

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of Technology, Ma'anshan, Anhui 243002, P. R. China.

Vanadium doped lanthanum bismuthate nanorods with vanadium ratio of 1%, 3%, 5% and 10 wt.% were fabricated through the hydrothermal method using sodium orthovanadate as vanadium source. Vanadium doped lanthanum bismuthate nanorod products were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and diffuse reflection spectrum. Read More

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October 2021

Transcriptome Analysis of the Molecular Mechanism of Bacteriocin Synthesis in KLDS1.0391 Under Nanoparticle NaCl Stress.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;17(3):369-381

is an important industrial lactic acid bacteria, which can be used as a starter culture for fermented milk and meat products. Many strains can produce bacteriocins with broad-spectrum antibacterial properties, heat stability, and easy to be hydrolyzed by protease in the process of food fermentation and metabolism, and their potential as biopreservative starter culture in the preservation of fermented food has been recognized. However, the high salt environment in the food matrix can affect bacteriocin production. Read More

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Physical characterisation and stability study of formulated Chromolaena odorata gel.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, 42300 Puncak Alam, Selangor. Malaysia.

Aim: Formulating topical products for skin delivery has always been a challenge for pharmaceutical scientists to fulfil good formulation criteria. Despite the challenges, gel-based drug delivery offers some advantages such that it is non-invasive, painless, avoidance of the first-pass metabolism and has satisfactory patient compliance.

Objectives: In this study, Chromolaena odorata gel and quercetin gel (bioactive flavonoid compound) were successfully formulated and compared with placebo and conventional wound aid gel. Read More

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Gene expression under temperature stress.

New Phytol 1993 Sep;125(1):1-26

Plant Science Division, AFRC Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth SY23 3EB, UK.

In this review, changes in plant gene expression in response to environmental stresses are discussed using the examples of high and low temperature treatments. While some changes may contribute to acclimatory processes which improve plant survival or performance under stress, others may be 'shock' responses indicative of sensitivity. The heat-shock response, which is almost ubiquitous among eukaryotic organisms, is characterized by repression of normal cellular protein synthesis mediated at both the transcriptional and the translational level, and induction of heat-shock protein (HSP) synthesis. Read More

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September 1993

The location of sucrose synthase in root nodules of white clover.

New Phytol 1995 Aug;130(4):523-530

Cell Biology Department, Institute of Grassland & Environmental Research, Plas Gogerddan, Aberystwyth, Dyfed SY23 3EB, UK.

Immunogold labelling was used to identify the location of the sucrose hydrolytic enzyme sucrose synthase in the N -fixing root nodules of white clover. This is the major enzyme of sucrose cleavage in clover nodules and might be involved in the modulation of N fixation by controlling the rate of utilization of photosynthetic products. Knowledge of the precise cellular location of this enzyme in relation to the point of delivery (the vascular bundles) and the site of utilization of the catabolic product (malate in the bacteroids) might aid our understanding of the metabolic communication between different cell types of the nodule. Read More

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Philipe Matile

New Phytol 1987 Jan;105(1):1-26

Institute of Plant Biology, University of Zürich, Zollikerstr. 107, CH-8008 Zürich, Switzerland.

Recent advances in the understanding of the functional relevance of sap of mature plant cells are reviewed. The emphasis is placed on roles of vacuoles played in the temporary storage of saccharides and organic acids, in the accumulation of water soluble products of secondary metabolism and in the intracellular digestion of protein. Contents Summary 1 I. Read More

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January 1987


New Phytol 1987 Oct;107(2):255-302

Department of Biochemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.

Some 10 tonnes of chlorophyll are destroyed each year on land and in the oceans. The fate of these chlorophylls is, however, largely unknown. This review describes the developmental stages at which chlorophyll breakdown occurs in aquatic and terrestrial biological systems, and the destruction arising from herbivory, disease, pollution and other physical hazards. Read More

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October 1987

Occurrence of N-acetylhexosaminidase-encoding genes in ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes.

New Phytol 2004 Oct;164(1):193-199

Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, SLU, Box 7026, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.

•  The genetic potential of ectomycorrhizal fungi to produce N-acetylhexosaminidases was investigated here. N-acetylhexosaminidases are enzymes that cleave monosaccharides from oligomers of N-acetylhexosamines and play an important role in the degradation of chitin. •  Degenerate PCR-primers were designed against genes coding for N-acetylhexosaminidases in basidiomycetes. Read More

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October 2004

Xylem-transported glucose as an additional carbon source for leaf isoprene formation in Quercus robur.

New Phytol 2002 Nov;156(2):171-178

Institut für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Bereich Atmosphärische Umweltforschung (IMK-IFU); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19, D-82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.

•  In order to test whether xylem-transported carbohydrates are a potential source for isoprene biosynthesis, [U- C]-labelled α- d -glucose was fed via cut ends of stems into the xylem of Quercus robur seedlings and the incorporation of C into isoprene emitted was studied. Emission of C-labelled isoprene was monitored in real time by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). •  A rapid incorporation of C from xylem-fed glucose into single (mass 70) and double (mass 71) C-labelled isoprene molecules was observed after a lag phase of approx. Read More

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November 2002

Selenium and anthocyanins share the same transcription factors R2R3MYB and bHLH in wheat.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 27;356:129699. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China; Triticeae Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang 611130, Sichuan, China. Electronic address:

Anthocyanins and selenium have vital biological functions for human and plants, they were investigated thoroughly and separately in plants. Previous studies indicated pigmented fruits and vegetables had higher selenium concentration, but whether there is a relationship between anthocyanins and selenium is unclear. In this study, a combined phenotypic and genotypic methodological approach was undertaken to explore the potential relationship between anthocyanins and selenium accumulation by using phenotypic investigation and RNA-seq analysis. Read More

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Electrochemical degradation of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances using boron-doped diamond electrodes.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 16;290:112573. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.

Electrochemical degradation using boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes has been proven to be a promising technique for the treatment of water contaminated with per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Various studies have demonstrated that the extent of PFAS degradation is influenced by the composition of samples and electrochemical conditions. This study evaluated the significance of several factors, such as the current density, initial concentration of PFAS, concentration of electrolyte, treatment time, and their interactions on the degradation of PFAS. Read More

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Mild depolymerization of the sinocalamus oldhami alkali lignin to phenolic monomer with base and activated carbon supported nickel-tungsten carbide catalyst composite system.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 6;333:125136. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Rural Waste Recycling Technology, College of Environment and Resources, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, Fujian, China; Fujian Provincial Technology Exploitation Base of Biomass Resources, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350116, China. Electronic address:

In this study, the sinocalamus oldhami alkali lignin was depolymerized into phenolic products in a combined system by using the composite alkali and Ni-WC/activated carbon (AC) as catalysts. FT-IR, GPC, TG, 2D-HSQC and GC-MS were used to analyze the composition, structure and distribution of degradation products, and the synergistic effect of metal and alkali catalysts on the depolymerization of lignin was also studied. The results showed that Ni-WC/AC and composite alkali could effectively improve the catalytic degradation efficiency of lignin under mild conditions, 94. Read More

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The behavior of surface acidity on photo-Fenton degradation of ciprofloxacin over sludge derived carbon: Performance and mechanism.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 8;597:84-93. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, PR China; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816, PR China. Electronic address:

Sludge derived carbon (SC) has been widely used in advanced oxidation processes as an effective and economic catalyst. In this study, we applied surface modified SC for the first time to catalyze the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process with ciprofloxacin, a highly concerned emerging contaminant, as a model substance. HSO was used to acidify the SCs under varying acid dosages, temperatures, and reaction time lengths. Read More

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Electrospun graphene oxide/MIL-101(Fe)/poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) nanofiber: A high-efficient and reusable integrated photocatalytic adsorbents for removal of dye pollutant from water samples.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 8;597:196-205. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Guangxi Key Laboratory of Electrochemical and Magnetochemical Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004, China; College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha 410022, China. Electronic address:

The electrospun graphene oxide/MIL-101(Fe)/poly(acrylonitrile-co-maleic acid) nanofibers (E-spun GO/MIL-101(Fe)/PANCMA NFs) were fabricated by a facile electrospinning method and used as integrated photocatalytic adsorbents (IPAs) to remove dye pollutant from water samples. Compared with E-spun GO/PANCMA and E-spun MIL-101(Fe)/PANCMA NFs, the fabricated E-spun GO/MIL-101(Fe)/PANCMA NFs exhibited higher adsorption ability and excellent photocatalytic activity towards a model pollutant Rhodamine B (RhB). Under the optimized conditions, the as-prepared IPAs achieved almost complete adsorption of RhB within 15 min with the maximum adsorption capacity of 10. Read More

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Towards personalised medicine in autoimmune hepatitis: Measurement of thiopurine metabolites results in higher biochemical response rates compared to standard weight-based dosing of thiopurine therapy.

J Hepatol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Liver Studies, King's College Hospital, London, SE5 9RS, UK; School of Transplantation, Immunology and Mucosal Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, London, UK; European Reference Network - Hepatological Diseases (ERN RARE-LIVER).

Background: Patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) usually receive maintenance therapy with thiopurines, such as azathioprine (AZA) or mercaptopurine (MP). Genetic polymorphisms in AZA metabolism can lead to variations in thioguanine nucleotide (TGN) and 6-methylmercaptopurine (MMP), both of which can cause adverse drug reactions (ADR). In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a therapeutic TGN range (225-450 pmol/8x10 erythrocytes) has been identified to optimise effectiveness. Read More

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A versatile cis-prenyltransferase from Methanosarcina mazei catalyzes both C- and O-prenylations.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 16:100679. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. Electronic address:

Polyprenyl groups, products of isoprenoid metabolism, are utilized in peptidoglycan biosynthesis, protein N-glycosylation, and other processes. These groups are formed by cis-prenyltransferases, which use allylic prenyl pyrophosphates as prenyl-donors to catalyze the C-prenylation of the general acceptor substrate, isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Repetition of this reaction forms (Z,E-mixed)-polyprenyl pyrophosphates, which are converted later into glycosyl carrier lipids, such as undecaprenyl phosphate and dolichyl phosphate. Read More

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Bio-based Poly(hydroxy urethane)s:Synthesis and Pre/Post-Functionalization.

Chem Asian J 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of Malaya Library: Universiti Malaya, Department of Chemistry, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 50603, Malaysia, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.

New and emerging demand for polyurethane (PU) continues to rise over the years. The harmful isocyanate binding agents and their integrated PU products are at the height of environmental concerns, in particular PU (macro and micro) pollution and their degradation problems. Non-isocyanate poly(hydroxy urethane)s (NIPUs) are sustainable and green alternatives to conventional PUs. Read More

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Air monitoring for illegal drugs including new psychoactive substances: A review of trends, techniques and thermal degradation products.

Drug Test Anal 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Bournemouth University, Dorset, BH12 5BB, UK.

The detection of illicit psychotropic substances in both indoor and outdoor air is a challenging analytical discipline and the data from such investigation may provide intelligence in a variety of fields. Applications of drug monitoring in air include providing data on national and international drug consumption trends, as monitored by organisations such as the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Air monitoring enables mapping of illicit drug manufacturing, dealing or consumption in cities and the identification of emergent compounds including the recent proliferation of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Read More

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Impact of short-term heat treatment on the structure and functional properties of commercial furcellaran compared to commercial carrageenans.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 8;7(4):e06640. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology (TTU), Akadeemia tee 15, 12618, Tallinn, Estonia.

In the production of biopolymers, the processing operations (e.g. extraction and drying) involve some degradation of the polysaccharide-causing structural and functional changes in final products. Read More

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